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SQUIRRELS are members of the family SCIURIDAE, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents . The squirrel family includes tree squirrels , ground squirrels , chipmunks , marmots (including woodchucks ), flying squirrels , and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene
Eocene
period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Characteristics

* 3 Behavior

* 3.1 Feeding

* 4 Taxonomy * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY

That word "squirrel", first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French
Old French
escurel, the reflex of a Latin word sciurus. This Latin word was borrowed from the Ancient Greek word σκίουρος, skiouros, which means shadow-tailed, referring to the bushy appendage possessed by many of its members.

The native Old English word for the squirrel, ācweorna, survived only into Middle English (as aquerne) before being replaced. The Old English word is of Common Germanic
Common Germanic
origin, cognates of which are still used in other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, including the German Eichhörnchen (diminutive of Eichhorn, which is not as frequently used), the Norwegian ikorn/ekorn, the Dutch eekhoorn, the Swedish ekorre and the Danish egern.

CHARACTERISTICS

Reaching out for food on a garden bird feeder, this squirrel can rotate its hind feet, allowing it to descend a tree head-first. Skull of an Oriental giant squirrel (genus Ratufa)—note the classic sciuromorphous shape of the anterior zygomatic region.

Squirrels are generally small animals, ranging in size from the African pygmy squirrel at 7–10 cm (2.8–3.9 in) in length and just 10 g (0.35 oz) in weight, to the Laotian giant flying squirrel at 1.08 m (3 ft 7 in) in length and the Alpine marmot , which weighs from 5 to 8 kg (11 to 18 lb). Squirrels typically have slender bodies with bushy tails and large eyes. In general, their fur is soft and silky, although much thicker in some species than others. The color of squirrels is highly variable between—and often even within—species.

In general, the hind limbs are longer than the fore limbs, and they have four or five toes on each paw. Their paws include an often poorly developed thumb , and have soft pads on the undersides. Unlike most mammals, Tree squirrels can descend a tree head-first. They do so by rotating their ankles 180 degrees so the hind paws are backward-pointing and can grip the tree bark.

Squirrels live in almost every habitat from tropical rainforest to semiarid desert , avoiding only the high polar regions and the driest of deserts. They are predominantly herbivorous , subsisting on seeds and nuts, but many will eat insects and even small vertebrates.

As their large eyes indicate, in general squirrels have an excellent sense of vision , which is especially important for tree-dwelling species. They also have very versatile and sturdy claws for grasping and climbing . Many also have a good sense of touch , with vibrissae on their heads and limbs.

The teeth of sciurids follow the typical rodent pattern, with large gnawing incisors that grow throughout life, and grinding cheek teeth set back behind a wide gap, or diastema . The typical dental formula for sciurids is 1.0.1.31.0.1.3.

Many juvenile squirrels die in the first year of life. Adult squirrels can have a lifespan of 5 to 10 years in the wild. Some can survive 10 to 20 years in captivity.

BEHAVIOR

Squirrels breed once or twice a year and give birth to a varying number of young after three to six weeks, depending on species. The young are born naked, toothless, and blind. In most species of squirrel, only the female looks after the young, which are weaned at around six to ten weeks of age and become sexually mature at the end of their first year. In general, ground-dwelling species are social animals, often living in well-developed colonies, but the tree-dwelling species are more solitary.

Ground and tree squirrels are typically diurnal or crepuscular , while flying squirrels tend to be nocturnal —except for lactating flying squirrels and their offspring, which have a period of diurnality during the summer.

FEEDING

Squirrel
Squirrel
eating a fruit in Manyara National Park, Tanzania Squirrel
Squirrel
eating a peanut. Squirrel
Squirrel
from the jungle of Alwar, Rajasthan Play media Squirrel
Squirrel
eating grains Play media A domestic squirrel.

Squirrels cannot digest cellulose , so they must rely on foods rich in protein , carbohydrates , and fats . In temperate regions, early spring is the hardest time of year for squirrels, because buried nuts begin to sprout and are no longer available for the squirrel to eat, and new food sources have not become available yet. During these times, squirrels rely heavily on the buds of trees. Squirrels' diets consist primarily of a wide variety of plants, including nuts , seeds , conifer cones , fruits , fungi , and green vegetation . However, some squirrels also consume meat, especially when faced with hunger. Squirrels have been known to eat insects , eggs, small birds , young snakes , and smaller rodents. Indeed, some tropical species have shifted almost entirely to a diet of insects.

Predatory behavior has been noted by various species of ground squirrels, in particular the thirteen-lined ground squirrel . For example, Bailey, a scientist in the 1920s, observed a thirteen-lined ground squirrel preying upon a young chicken. Wistrand reported seeing this same species eating a freshly killed snake. Whitaker examined the stomachs of 139 thirteen-lined ground squirrels and found bird flesh in four of the specimens and the remains of a short-tailed shrew in one; Bradley, examining white-tailed antelope squirrels ' stomachs, found at least 10% of his 609 specimens' stomachs contained some type of vertebrate, mostly lizards and rodents. Morgart observed a white-tailed antelope squirrel capturing and eating a silky pocket mouse .

TAXONOMY

*

Grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura) of the Ratufinae *

Southern flying squirrel
Southern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys volans) of the Pteromyini *

Prevost\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus prevosti) of the Callosciurini *

Unstriped ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus) of the Xerini *

Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) of the Marmotini *

The Indian palm squirrel is the most common type of squirrel in India. *

Eastern gray squirrel
Eastern gray squirrel
in a tree *

A squirrel in NYC

The living squirrels are divided into five subfamilies , with about 58 genera and some 285 species . The oldest squirrel fossil, Hesperopetes, dates back to the Chadronian (late Eocene
Eocene
, about 40–35 million years ago ) and is similar to modern flying squirrels.

A variety of fossil squirrels, from the latest Eocene
Eocene
to the Miocene , could not be assigned with certainty to any living lineage. At least some of these probably were variants of the oldest basal "protosquirrels" (in the sense that they lacked the full range of living squirrels' autapomorphies ). The distribution and diversity of such ancient and ancestral forms suggest the squirrels as a group may have originated in North America.

Apart from these sometimes little-known fossil forms, the phylogeny of the living squirrels is fairly straightforward. The three main lineages are the Ratufinae (Oriental giant squirrels), Sciurillinae and all other subfamilies. The Ratufinae contain a mere handful of living species in tropical Asia
Asia
. The neotropical pygmy squirrel of tropical South America
South America
is the sole living member of the Sciurillinae. The third lineage, by far the largest, has a near-cosmopolitan distribution. This further supports the hypothesis that the common ancestor of all squirrels, living and fossil, lived in North America, as these three most ancient lineages seem to have radiated from there; if squirrels had originated in Eurasia, for example, one would expect quite ancient lineages in Africa
Africa
, but African squirrels seem to be of more recent origin.

The main group of squirrels also can be split into three subgroups, which yield the remaining subfamilies. The Sciurinae contains the flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and the Sciurini , which among others contains the American tree squirrels; the former have often been considered a separate subfamily, but are now seen as a tribe of the Sciurinae. The pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus), on the other hand, are usually included with the main tree squirrel lineage, but appear to be about as distinct as the flying squirrels; hence, they are sometimes considered a distinct tribe, Tamiasciurini.

Two of the three subfamilies are of about equal size, containing between nearly 70 and 80 species each; the third is about twice as large. The Sciurinae contains arboreal (tree-living) squirrels, mainly of the Americas and to a lesser extent Eurasia. The Callosciurinae is most diverse in tropical Asia
Asia
and contains squirrels that are also arboreal, but have a markedly different habitus and appear more "elegant", an effect enhanced by their often very colorful fur. The Xerinae —the largest subfamily—are made up from the mainly terrestrial (ground-living) forms and include the large marmots and the popular prairie dogs , among others, as well as the tree squirrels of Africa; they tend to be more gregarious than other squirrels, which do not usually live together in close-knit groups.

* Basal and incertae sedis Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(all fossil )

* Hesperopetes * Kherem * Lagrivea * Oligosciurus * Plesiosciurus * Prospermophilus * Sciurion * Similisciurus * Sinotamias * Vulcanisciurus

* Subfamily Cedromurinae (fossil) * Subfamily Ratufinae – Oriental giant squirrels (1 genus, 4 species) * Subfamily Sciurillinae – neotropical pygmy squirrel (monotypic )

* Subfamily Sciurinae

* Tribe Sciurini – tree squirrels (5 genera, about 38 species) * Tribe Pteromyini – true flying squirrels (15 genera, about 45 species)

* Subfamily Callosciurinae – Asian ornate squirrels

* Tribe Callosciurini (13 genera, nearly 60 species) * Tribe Funambulini palm squirrels (1 genus, 5 species)

* Subfamily Xerinae – terrestrial squirrels

* Tribe Xerini – spiny squirrels (3 genera, 6 species) * Tribe Protoxerini (6 genera, about 50 species) * Tribe Marmotini – ground squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, prairie dogs, etc. (6 genera, about 90 species)

SEE ALSO

* Mammals portal

* American red squirrel
American red squirrel
* Animal
Animal
track * Fox squirrel * Purple squirrel * Red squirrel
Red squirrel
* Squirrel
Squirrel
relationship with humans * Western gray squirrel

NOTES

* ^ Seebeck, J. H. "Sciuridae" (PDF). Fauna of Australia. Retrieved 2013-11-24. * ^ "squirrel, n.". The Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary
(2nd. ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. Retrieved 8 November 2010. * ^ Whitaker & Elman (1980): 370 * ^ "Squirrel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 February 2008. * ^ Tree Squirrels, Wildlife Online, 23 November 2010. * ^ A B C Milton (1984) * ^ Thorington, Richard W.; Koprowski, John L.; Steele, Michael A.; Whatton, James F. (2012). Squirrels of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 8. ISBN 1421404699 . * ^ A B Squirrel
Squirrel
Place. squirrels.org. Retrieved 14 December 2010. * ^ "Rodents". 22 April 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2016. * ^ The Beginning of the Age of Mammals Kenneth D. Rose (2006) ISBN 978-0-801-88472-6 p. 326 * ^ Thorington, Richard W.; Koprowski, John L.; Steele, Michael A.; Whatton, James F. (2012). Squirrels of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 12. ISBN 1421404699 . * ^ "Red & Gray Squirrels in Massachusetts". MassWildlife. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Retrieved 3 April 2012. * ^ Törmälä, Timo; Vuorinen, Hannu; Hokkanen, Heikki (1980). "Timing of circadian activity in the flying squirrel in central Finland". Acta Theriologica. 25 (32–42): 461–474. doi :10.4098/at.arch.80-42 . Retrieved 11 July 2007. * ^ Richard W. Thorington, Katie Ferrell - Squirrels: the animal answer guide, JHU Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8018-8402-0 , ISBN 978-0-8018-8402-3 , p. 75. * ^ Friggens, M. (2002). "Carnivory on Desert
Desert
Cottontails by Texas Antelope Ground Squirrels". The Southwestern Naturalist. 47 (1): 132–133. JSTOR
JSTOR
3672818 . doi :10.2307/3672818 . * ^ Bailey, B. (1923). "Meat-eating propensities of some rodents of Minnesota". Journal of Mammalogy. 4: 129. doi :10.1093/jmammal/4.2.129 . * ^ Wistrand, E.H. (1972). "Predation on a Snake
Snake
by Spermophilus tridecemlineatus". American Midland Naturalist. 88 (2): 511–512. JSTOR
JSTOR
2424389 . doi :10.2307/2424389 . * ^ Whitaker, J.O. (1972). "Food and external parasites of Spermophilus tridecemlineatus in Vigo County, Indiana". Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (3): 644–648. JSTOR
JSTOR
1379067 . doi :10.2307/1379067 . * ^ Bradley, W. G. (1968). "Food habits of the antelope ground squirrel in southern Nevada". Journal of Mammalogy. 49 (1): 14–21. JSTOR
JSTOR
1377723 . doi :10.2307/1377723 . * ^ Morgart, J. R. (May 1985). "Carnivorous behavior by a white-tailed antelope ground squirrel Ammospermophilus leucurus". The Southwestern Naturalist. 30 (2): 304–305. JSTOR
JSTOR
3670745 . doi :10.2307/3670745 . * ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (2011). "Class Mammalia
Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal
Animal
biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 56–60. * ^ Emry, R. J.; Korth, W. W. (2007). "A new genus of squirrel (Rodentia, Sciuridae) from the mid-Cenozoic of North America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (3): 693–698. doi :10.1671/0272-4634(2007)272.0.CO;2 . * ^ A B C Steppan & Hamm (2006) * ^ Steppan et al. (2004), Steppan & Hamm (2006)

REFERENCES

* Milton, Katherine (1984): . In: Macdonald, D. (ed.): The Encyclopedia of Mammals: 612–623. Facts on File, New York. ISBN 0-87196-871-1 * Steppan, Scott J. Storz, B. L.; Hoffmann, R. S. (2004). "Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 703–719. PMID 15012949 . doi :10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00204-5 . * Thorington, R.W. & Hoffmann, R.S. (2005): Family Sciuridae. In: Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference: 754–818. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. * Whitaker, John O. Jr. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Extant families in order Rodentia

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Infraclass: Eutheria
Eutheria
* Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
("Squirrel-like")

* Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) * Gliridae (Dormice) * Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha
Castorimorpha
("Beaver-like") Castoroidea Castoridae (Beavers) Geomyoidea
Geomyoidea
Geomyidae (Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha
Myomorpha
("Mouse-like") Dipodoidea Dipodidae
Dipodidae
(Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice) Muroidea
Muroidea
Platacanthomyidae
Platacanthomyidae
(Oriental dormice) Spalacidae (Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae
Nesomyidae
(Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae
Cricetidae
(Hamsters and relatives) Muridae (House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

* Anomaluridae (Anomalures) * Pedetidae (Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

* Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) * Diatomyidae (Laotian rock rat) * Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha
Phiomorpha
Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae (Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae (Cane rats) Caviomorpha (New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae (Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae
Dasyproctidae
(Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae (Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats) Myocastoridae (Coypu, or nutria) Octodontidae (Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae (Chinchillas and viscachas)

* v * t * e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamilies Ratufinae and Sciurillinae )

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha

Ratufinae (Oriental giant squirrels)

RATUFA

* Cream-coloured giant squirrel (Ratufa affinis) * Black giant squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) * Indian giant squirrel
Indian giant squirrel
(Ratufa indica) * Grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura)

SCIURILLINAE

SCIURILLUS

* Neotropical pygmy squirrel (Sciurillus pusillus)

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Callosciurinae )

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha

CALLOSCIURUS

* Ear-spot squirrel ( Callosciurus adamsi) * Kloss\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus albescens) * Kinabalu squirrel ( Callosciurus baluensis) * Grey-bellied squirrel ( Callosciurus caniceps) * Pallas\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus erythraeus) * Finlayson\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus finlaysonii) * Inornate squirrel ( Callosciurus inornatus) * Mentawai squirrel ( Callosciurus melanogaster) * Black-striped squirrel ( Callosciurus nigrovittatus) * Plantain squirrel ( Callosciurus notatus) * Borneo black-banded squirrel ( Callosciurus orestes) * Phayre\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus phayrei) * Prevost\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus prevostii) * Irrawaddy squirrel ( Callosciurus pygerythrus) * Anderson\'s squirrel ( Callosciurus quinquestriatus)

Dremomys (Red-cheeked squirrels)

* Bornean mountain ground squirrel (Dremomys everetti) * Red-throated squirrel (Dremomys gularis) * Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel (Dremomys lokriah) * Perny\'s long-nosed squirrel (Dremomys pernyi) * Red-hipped squirrel (Dremomys pyrrhomerus) * Asian red-cheeked squirrel (Dremomys rufigenis)

EXILISCIURUS

* Philippine pygmy squirrel ( Exilisciurus concinnus) * Least pygmy squirrel ( Exilisciurus exilis) * Tufted pygmy squirrel ( Exilisciurus whiteheadi)

GLYPHOTES

* Sculptor squirrel (Glyphotes simus)

HYOSCIURUS

* Montane long-nosed squirrel ( Hyosciurus heinrichi) * Lowland long-nosed squirrel ( Hyosciurus ileile)

Lariscus (striped ground squirrels)

* Four-striped ground squirrel ( Lariscus hosei) * Three-striped ground squirrel ( Lariscus insignis) * Niobe ground squirrel ( Lariscus niobe) * Mentawai three-striped squirrel ( Lariscus obscurus)

MENETES

* Berdmore\'s ground squirrel (Menetes berdmorei)

NANNOSCIURUS

* Black-eared squirrel (Nannosciurus melanotis)

PROSCIURILLUS

* Secretive dwarf squirrel ( Prosciurillus abstrusus) * Whitish dwarf squirrel ( Prosciurillus leucomus) * Celebes dwarf squirrel ( Prosciurillus murinus) * Sanghir squirrel ( Prosciurillus rosenbergii) * Weber\'s dwarf squirrel ( Prosciurillus weberi)

RHINOSCIURUS

* Shrew-faced squirrel (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus)

RUBRISCIURUS

* Red-bellied squirrel (Rubrisciurus rubriventer)

SUNDASCIURUS

* Subgenus Aletesciurus: Davao squirrel ( Sundasciurus davensis) * Horse-tailed squirrel ( Sundasciurus hippurus) * Northern Palawan tree squirrel ( Sundasciurus juvencus) * Mindanao squirrel ( Sundasciurus mindanensis) * Culion tree squirrel ( Sundasciurus moellendorffi) * Philippine tree squirrel ( Sundasciurus philippinensis) * Palawan montane squirrel ( Sundasciurus rabori) * Samar squirrel ( Sundasciurus samarensis) * Southern Palawan tree squirrel ( Sundasciurus steerii)

* Subgenus Sundasciurus: Brooke\'s squirrel ( Sundasciurus brookei) * Fraternal squirrel ( Sundasciurus fraterculus) * Jentink\'s squirrel ( Sundasciurus jentinki) * Low\'s squirrel ( Sundasciurus lowii) * Slender squirrel ( Sundasciurus tenuis)

Tamiops (Asiatic striped squirrels)

* Himalayan striped squirrel (Tamiops mcclellandii) * Maritime striped squirrel (Tamiops maritimus) * Cambodian striped squirrel (Tamiops rodolphii) * Swinhoe\'s striped squirrel (Tamiops swinhoei)

FUNAMBULUS

* Subgenus Funambulus: Layard\'s palm squirrel ( Funambulus layardi) * Indian palm squirrel ( Funambulus palmarum) * Dusky palm squirrel ( Funambulus sublineatus) * Jungle palm squirrel ( Funambulus tristriatus)

* Subgenus Prasadsciurus: Northern palm squirrel (Funambulus pennantii)

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Sciurinae , Sciurini tribe)

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha

Microsciurus (Dwarf squirrels)

* Central American Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus alfari) * Western Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus mimulus) * Amazon Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus flaviventer) * Santander Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus santanderensis)

RHEITHROSCIURUS

* Tufted Ground Squirrel
Squirrel
(Rheithrosciurus macrotis)

SCIURUS Subgenus Tenes Caucasian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
anomalus) Subgenus Sciurus
Sciurus
Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
vulgaris) Calabrian black squirrel ( Sciurus
Sciurus
meridionalis) Japanese Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
lis) Eastern Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
carolinensis) Mexican Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
(Sciurus aureogaster) Collie\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
colliaei) Yucatan Squirrel ( Sciurus
Sciurus
yucatanensis) Variegated Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
variegatoides) Deppe\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
deppei) Fox Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
niger) Peters\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
oculatus) Allen\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
(Sciurus alleni) Mexican Fox Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
nayaritensis) Arizona Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
arizonensis) Subgenus Hesperosciurus Western Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
griseus) Subgenus Otosciurus Abert\'s Squirrel ( Sciurus
Sciurus
aberti) Subgenus Guerlinguetus Red-tailed Squirrel ( Sciurus
Sciurus
granatensis) Richmond\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
richmondi) Brazilian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
aestuans) Yellow-throated Squirrel ( Sciurus
Sciurus
gilvigularis) Bolivian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
ignitus) Atlantic Forest Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
ingrami) Andean Squirrel
Squirrel
(Sciurus pucheranii) Guayaquil Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
stramineus) Sanborn\'s Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
sanborni) South Yungas Red Squirrel
Squirrel
(Sciurus argentinius) Subgenus Hadrosciurus Fiery Squirrel
Squirrel
(Sciurus flammifer) Junín Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
pyrrhinus) Subgenus Urosciurus Northern Amazon Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
igniventris) Southern Amazon Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
spadiceus)

SYNTHEOSCIURUS

* Bangs\'s Mountain Squirrel
Squirrel
(Syntheosciurus brochus)

Tamiasciurus (Pine squirrels)

* Douglas Squirrel
Squirrel
(Tamiasciurus douglasii) * American Red Squirrel
Squirrel
(Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Sciurinae , Pteromyini (Flying squirrels) tribe)

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha

EOGLAUCOMYS

* Kashmir flying squirrel (Eoglaucomys fimbriatus)

Glaucomys (New World flying squirrels)

* Southern flying squirrel
Southern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys volans) * Northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) * Humboldt\'s flying squirrel (Glaucomys oregonensis)

HYLOPETES

* Particolored flying squirrel ( Hylopetes alboniger) * Afghan flying squirrel ( Hylopetes baberi) * Bartel\'s flying squirrel ( Hylopetes bartelsi) * Gray-cheeked flying squirrel ( Hylopetes lepidus) * Palawan flying squirrel ( Hylopetes nigripes) * Indochinese flying squirrel ( Hylopetes phayrei) * Jentink\'s flying squirrel ( Hylopetes platyurus) * Sipora flying squirrel ( Hylopetes sipora) * Red-cheeked flying squirrel ( Hylopetes spadiceus) * Sumatran flying squirrel ( Hylopetes winstoni)

IOMYS

* Javanese flying squirrel ( Iomys horsfieldi) * Mentawi flying squirrel ( Iomys sipora)

Petaurillus (Pygmy flying squirrels)

* Lesser pygmy flying squirrel (Petaurillus emiliae) * Hose\'s pygmy flying squirrel (Petaurillus hosei) * Selangor pygmy flying squirrel (Petaurillus kinlochii)

PETINOMYS

* Basilan flying squirrel ( Petinomys crinitus) * Whiskered flying squirrel ( Petinomys genibarbis) * Hagen\'s flying squirrel ( Petinomys hageni) * Siberut flying squirrel ( Petinomys lugens) * Arrow flying squirrel ( Petinomys sagitta) * Temminck\'s flying squirrel ( Petinomys setosus) * Vordermann\'s flying squirrel ( Petinomys vordermanni) * Travancore flying squirrel ( Petinomys fuscocapillus)

AERETES

* Groove-toothed flying squirrel (Aeretes melanopterus)

Aeromys (Large black flying squirrels)

* Black flying squirrel (Aeromys tephromelas) * Thomas\'s flying squirrel (Aeromys thomasi)

BELOMYS

* Hairy-footed flying squirrel (Belomys pearsonii)

BISWAMOYOPTERUS

* Namdapha flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi) * Laotian giant flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus laoensis)

EUPETAURUS

* Woolly flying squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus)

PETAURISTA

* Red and white giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista alborufus) * Spotted giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista elegans) * Hodgson\'s giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista magnificus) * Bhutan giant flying squirrel
Bhutan giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista nobilis) * Indian giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista philippensis) * Chinese giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista xanthotis) * Japanese giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista leucogenys) * Red giant flying squirrel ( Petaurista petaurista)

Pteromys (Old World flying squirrels)

* Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) * Japanese dwarf flying squirrel (Pteromys momonga)

PTEROMYSCUS

* Smoky flying squirrel (Pteromyscus pulverulentus)

TROGOPTERUS

* Complex-toothed flying squirrel (Trogopterus xanthipes)

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Xerinae )

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha

XERINI

ATLANTOXERUS

* Barbary ground squirrel (Atlantoxerus getulus)

Xerus (African ground squirrels)

* Subgenus Euxerus: Striped ground squirrel (Xerus erythropus)

* Subgenus Geosciurus: Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris) * Mountain ground squirrel (Xerus princeps)

* Subgenus Xerus: Unstriped ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus)

SPERMOPHILOPSIS

* Long-clawed ground squirrel (Spermophilopsis leptodactylus)

PROTOXERINI

EPIXERUS

* Ebian\'s palm squirrel ( Epixerus ebii) * Baifran palm squirrel ( Epixerus wilsoni)

Funisciurus (African striped squirrels)

* Thomas\'s rope squirrel (Funisciurus anerythrus) * Lunda rope squirrel (Funisciurus bayonii) * Carruther\'s mountain squirrel (Funisciurus carruthersi) * Funisciurus congicus * Lady Burton\'s rope squirrel (Funisciurus isabella) * Ribboned rope squirrel (Funisciurus lemniscatus) * Red-cheeked rope squirrel (Funisciurus leucogenys) * Funisciurus pyrrhopus * Kintampo rope squirrel (Funisciurus substriatus)

Heliosciurus (sun squirrels)

* Gambian sun squirrel (Heliosciurus gambianus) * Mutable sun squirrel (Heliosciurus mutabilis) * Red-legged sun squirrel (Heliosciurus rufobrachium) * Ruwenzori sun squirrel (Heliosciurus ruwenzorii) * Zanj sun squirrel (Heliosciurus undulatus)

MYOSCIURUS

* African pygmy squirrel (Myosciurus pumilio)

Paraxerus (African bush squirrels)

* Smith\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus cepapi) * African red bush squirrel (Paraxerus luciferus) * Alexander\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus alexandri) * Boehm\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus boehmi) * Cooper\'s mountain squirrel (Paraxerus cooperi) * Fernando Po squirrel (Paraxerus poensis) * Huet\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus ochraceus) * Red bush squirrel (Paraxerus palliatus) * Striped bush squirrel (Paraxerus flavovittis) * Swynnerton\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus vexillarius) * Vincent\'s bush squirrel (Paraxerus vincenti)

Protoxerus (African giant squirrels)

* Slender-tailed squirrel (Protoxerus aubinnii) * Forest giant squirrel (Protoxerus stangeri)

Marmotini (ground squirrels)

* Large tribe listed separately

CATEGORY

* v * t * e

Living species of tribe Marmotini (ground squirrels)

* Kingdom: Animalia * Phylum: Chordata
Chordata
* Class: Mammalia
Mammalia
* Order: Rodentia * Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Sciuromorpha
* Family: Sciuridae
Sciuridae
* Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

* Harris\'s antelope squirrel (A. harrisii) * Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis) * Texas antelope squirrel (A. interpres) * White-tailed antelope squirrel (A. leucurus) * San Joaquin antelope squirrel (A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

* Golden-mantled ground squirrel (C. lateralis) * Sierra Madre ground squirrel (C. madrensis) * Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel (C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

* Gunnison\'s prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) * White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus) * Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus) * Mexican prairie dog (C. mexicanus) * Utah prairie dog (C. parvidens)

EUTAMIAS

* Siberian chipmunk (E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

* Mexican ground squirrel (I. mexicanus) * I. parvidens * Thirteen-lined ground squirrel (I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots) Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot (M. baibacina)

* Bobak marmot (M. bobak) * Alaska marmot (M. broweri) * Black-capped marmot (M. camtschatica) * Long-tailed marmot (M. caudata) * Himalayan marmot (M. himalayana) * Alpine marmot (M. marmota) * Menzbier\'s marmot (M. menzbieri) * Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)

* Tarbagan marmot (M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata) * Yellow-bellied marmot (M. flaviventris) * Olympic marmot (M. olympus) * Vancouver Island marmot (M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

* Alpine chipmunk (N. alpinus) * Yellow-pine chipmunk (N. amoenus) * Buller\'s chipmunk (N. bulleri) * Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes) * Gray-collared chipmunk (N. cinereicollis) * Cliff chipmunk (N. dorsalis) * Durango chipmunk (N. durangae) * Merriam\'s chipmunk (N. merriami) * Least chipmunk (N. minimus) * California chipmunk (N. obscurus) * Yellow-cheeked chipmunk (N. ochrogenys) * Palmer\'s chipmunk (N. palmeri) * Panamint chipmunk (N. panamintinus) * Long-eared chipmunk (N. quadrimaculatus) * Colorado chipmunk (N. quadrivittatus) * Red-tailed chipmunk (N. ruficaudus) * Hopi chipmunk (N. rufus) * Allen\'s chipmunk (N. senex) * Siskiyou chipmunk (N. siskiyou) * Sonoma chipmunk (N. sonomae) * Lodgepole chipmunk (N. speciosus) * Townsend\'s chipmunk (N. townsendii) * Uinta chipmunk (N. umbrinus)

NOTOCITELLUS

* Tropical ground squirrel (N. adocetus) * Ring-tailed ground squirrel (N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

* Baja California rock squirrel (O. atricapillus) * California ground squirrel
California ground squirrel
(O. beecheyi) * Rock squirrel (O. variegatus)

POLIOCITELLUS

* Franklin\'s ground squirrel (P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

* Père David\'s rock squirrel (S. davidianus) * Forrest\'s rock squirrel (S. forresti)

Spermophilus sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

* Alashan ground squirrel (S. alashanicus) * S. brevicauda * European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus) * Daurian ground squirrel (S. dauricus) * Red-cheeked ground squirrel (S. erythrogenys) * Yellow ground squirrel (S. fulvus) * Russet ground squirrel (S. major) * S. pallicauda * Little ground squirrel (S. pygmaeus) * S. ralli * S. relictus * Speckled ground squirrel ( Spermophilus suslicus) * Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus taurensis) * Asia
Asia
Minor ground squirrel ( Spermophilus xanthoprymnus)

TAMIAS

* Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

* Uinta ground squirrel (U. armatus) * Belding\'s ground squirrel (U. beldingi) * Idaho ground squirrel (U. brunneus) * Merriam\'s ground squirrel (U. canus) * Columbian ground squirrel (U. columbianus) * Wyoming ground squirrel (U. elegans) * Piute ground squirrel (U. mollis) * Arctic ground squirrel (U. parryii) * Richardson\'s ground squirrel (U. richardsonii) * Townsend\'s ground squirrel (U. townsendii) * Washington ground squirrel (U. washingtoni) * Long-tailed ground squirrel (U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

* Mohave ground squirrel (X. mohavensis) * Perote ground squirrel (X. perotensis) *