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Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia.[1] The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene
Eocene
period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Characteristics 3 Behavior

3.1 Feeding

4 Taxonomy 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Etymology That word "squirrel", first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French
Old French
escurel, the reflex of a Latin word sciurus. This Latin word was borrowed from the Ancient Greek word σκίουρος, skiouros, which means shadow-tailed, referring to the bushy appendage possessed by many of its members.[2][3] The native Old English word for the squirrel, ācweorna, survived only into Middle English (as aquerne) before being replaced.[4] The Old English word is of Common Germanic
Common Germanic
origin, cognates of which are still used in other Germanic languages, including the German Eichhörnchen (diminutive of Eichhorn, which is not as frequently used), the Norwegian ikorn/ekorn, the Dutch eekhoorn, the Swedish ekorre and the Danish egern. Characteristics

Reaching out for food on a garden bird feeder, this squirrel can rotate its hind feet, allowing it to descend a tree head-first.

Skull of an Oriental giant squirrel
Oriental giant squirrel
(genus Ratufa)—note the classic sciuromorphous shape of the anterior zygomatic region.

Squirrels are generally small animals, ranging in size from the African pygmy squirrel
African pygmy squirrel
at 7–10 cm (2.8–3.9 in) in length and just 10 g (0.35 oz) in weight, to the Laotian giant flying squirrel at 1.08 m (3 ft 7 in) in length and the Alpine marmot, which weighs from 5 to 8 kg (11 to 18 lb). Squirrels typically have slender bodies with bushy tails and large eyes. In general, their fur is soft and silky, although much thicker in some species than others. The color of squirrels is highly variable between—and often even within—species.[5] In general, the hind limbs are longer than the fore limbs, and they have four or five toes on each paw. Their paws include an often poorly developed thumb, and have soft pads on the undersides.[6] Unlike most mammals, Tree squirrels can descend a tree head-first. They do so by rotating their ankles 180 degrees so the hind paws are backward-pointing and can grip the tree bark.[7] Squirrels live in almost every habitat from tropical rainforest to semiarid desert, avoiding only the high polar regions and the driest of deserts. They are predominantly herbivorous, subsisting on seeds and nuts, but many will eat insects and even small vertebrates.[8] As their large eyes indicate, in general squirrels have an excellent sense of vision, which is especially important for tree-dwelling species. They also have very versatile and sturdy claws for grasping and climbing.[9] Many also have a good sense of touch, with vibrissae on their heads and limbs.[6] The teeth of sciurids follow the typical rodent pattern, with large gnawing incisors that grow throughout life, and grinding cheek teeth set back behind a wide gap, or diastema. The typical dental formula for sciurids is 1.0.1.31.0.1.3.[10] Many juvenile squirrels die in the first year of life. Adult squirrels can have a lifespan of 5 to 10 years in the wild. Some can survive 10 to 20 years in captivity.[11] Some causes of premature death include nests which have fallen out of trees, of which the mother will leave the young if the body temperature is not correct. Many squirrels have been rescued by people prompting fostering of baby squirrels or wildlife rehabilitators before turning them back into the wild.[12] Behavior Squirrels breed once or twice a year and give birth to a varying number of young after three to six weeks, depending on species. The young are born naked, toothless, and blind. In most species of squirrel, only the female looks after the young, which are weaned at around six to ten weeks of age and become sexually mature at the end of their first year. In general, ground-dwelling species are social animals, often living in well-developed colonies, but the tree-dwelling species are more solitary.[6] Ground and tree squirrels are typically diurnal or crepuscular,[13] while flying squirrels tend to be nocturnal—except for lactating flying squirrels and their offspring, which have a period of diurnality during the summer.[14] Feeding

Squirrel
Squirrel
eating a fruit in Manyara National Park, Tanzania

Squirrel
Squirrel
eating a peanut.

Squirrel
Squirrel
from the jungle of Alwar, Rajasthan

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Squirrel
Squirrel
eating grains

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A domestic squirrel.

Squirrels cannot digest cellulose, so they must rely on foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, and fats. In temperate regions, early spring is the hardest time of year for squirrels, because buried nuts begin to sprout and are no longer available for the squirrel to eat, and new food sources have not become available yet. During these times, squirrels rely heavily on the buds of trees. Squirrels' diets consist primarily of a wide variety of plants, including nuts, seeds, conifer cones, fruits, fungi, and green vegetation. However, some squirrels also consume meat, especially when faced with hunger.[8] Squirrels have been known to eat insects, eggs, small birds, young snakes, and smaller rodents. Indeed, some tropical species have shifted almost entirely to a diet of insects.[15] Predatory behavior has been noted by various species of ground squirrels, in particular the thirteen-lined ground squirrel.[16] For example, Bailey, a scientist in the 1920s, observed a thirteen-lined ground squirrel preying upon a young chicken.[17] Wistrand reported seeing this same species eating a freshly killed snake.[18] Whitaker examined the stomachs of 139 thirteen-lined ground squirrels and found bird flesh in four of the specimens and the remains of a short-tailed shrew in one;[19] Bradley, examining white-tailed antelope squirrels' stomachs, found at least 10% of his 609 specimens' stomachs contained some type of vertebrate, mostly lizards and rodents.[20] Morgart observed a white-tailed antelope squirrel capturing and eating a silky pocket mouse.[21] Taxonomy

Grizzled giant squirrel
Grizzled giant squirrel
(Ratufa macroura) of the Ratufinae

Southern flying squirrel
Southern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys volans) of the Pteromyini

Prevost's squirrel
Prevost's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
prevosti) of the Callosciurini

Unstriped ground squirrel
Unstriped ground squirrel
(Xerus rutilus) of the Xerini

Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(Marmota marmota) of the Marmotini

The Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
is the most common type of squirrel in India.

Eastern gray squirrel
Eastern gray squirrel
in a tree

A squirrel in NYC

The living squirrels are divided into five subfamilies, with about 58 genera and some 285 species.[22] The oldest squirrel fossil, Hesperopetes, dates back to the Chadronian (late Eocene, about 40–35 million years ago) and is similar to modern flying squirrels.[23] A variety of fossil squirrels, from the latest Eocene
Eocene
to the Miocene, could not be assigned with certainty to any living lineage. At least some of these probably were variants of the oldest basal "protosquirrels" (in the sense that they lacked the full range of living squirrels' autapomorphies). The distribution and diversity of such ancient and ancestral forms suggest the squirrels as a group may have originated in North America.[24] Apart from these sometimes little-known fossil forms, the phylogeny of the living squirrels is fairly straightforward. The three main lineages are the Ratufinae
Ratufinae
(Oriental giant squirrels), Sciurillinae and all other subfamilies. The Ratufinae
Ratufinae
contain a mere handful of living species in tropical Asia. The neotropical pygmy squirrel of tropical South America
South America
is the sole living member of the Sciurillinae. The third lineage, by far the largest, has a near-cosmopolitan distribution. This further supports the hypothesis that the common ancestor of all squirrels, living and fossil, lived in North America, as these three most ancient lineages seem to have radiated from there; if squirrels had originated in Eurasia, for example, one would expect quite ancient lineages in Africa, but African squirrels seem to be of more recent origin.[24] The main group of squirrels also can be split into three subgroups, which yield the remaining subfamilies. The Sciurinae
Sciurinae
contains the flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and the Sciurini, which among others contains the American tree squirrels; the former have often been considered a separate subfamily, but are now seen as a tribe of the Sciurinae. The pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus), on the other hand, are usually included with the main tree squirrel lineage, but appear to be about as distinct as the flying squirrels; hence, they are sometimes considered a distinct tribe, Tamiasciurini.[25] Two of the three subfamilies are of about equal size, containing between nearly 70 and 80 species each; the third is about twice as large. The Sciurinae
Sciurinae
contains arboreal (tree-living) squirrels, mainly of the Americas and to a lesser extent Eurasia. The Callosciurinae
Callosciurinae
is most diverse in tropical Asia
Asia
and contains squirrels that are also arboreal, but have a markedly different habitus and appear more "elegant", an effect enhanced by their often very colorful fur. The Xerinae—the largest subfamily—are made up from the mainly terrestrial (ground-living) forms and include the large marmots and the popular prairie dogs, among others, as well as the tree squirrels of Africa; they tend to be more gregarious than other squirrels, which do not usually live together in close-knit groups.[24]

Basal and incertae sedis Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(all fossil)

Hesperopetes Kherem Lagrivea Oligosciurus Plesiosciurus Prospermophilus Sciurion Similisciurus Sinotamias Vulcanisciurus

Subfamily Cedromurinae (fossil) Subfamily Ratufinae
Ratufinae
– Oriental giant squirrels (1 genus, 4 species) Subfamily Sciurillinae
Sciurillinae
– neotropical pygmy squirrel (monotypic) Subfamily Sciurinae

Tribe Sciurini
Sciurini
– tree squirrels (5 genera, about 38 species) Tribe Pteromyini
Pteromyini
– true flying squirrels (15 genera, about 45 species)

Subfamily Callosciurinae
Callosciurinae
– Asian ornate squirrels

Tribe Callosciurini (13 genera, nearly 60 species) Tribe Funambulini
Funambulini
palm squirrels (1 genus, 5 species)

Subfamily Xerinae
Xerinae
– terrestrial squirrels

Tribe Xerini
Xerini
– spiny squirrels (3 genera, 6 species) Tribe Protoxerini
Protoxerini
(6 genera, about 50 species) Tribe Marmotini
Marmotini
– ground squirrels, marmots, chipmunks, prairie dogs, etc. (6 genera, about 90 species)

See also

Mammals portal

American red squirrel Animal
Animal
track Fox squirrel Purple squirrel Red squirrel Squirrel
Squirrel
relationship with humans Western gray squirrel

Notes

^ Seebeck, J. H. "Sciuridae" (PDF). Fauna of Australia. Retrieved 2013-11-24.  ^ "squirrel, n.". The Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary
(2nd. ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. Retrieved 8 November 2010.  ^ Whitaker & Elman (1980): 370 ^ "Squirrel". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 February 2008.  ^ Tree Squirrels, Wildlife Online, 23 November 2010. ^ a b c Milton (1984) ^ Thorington, Richard W.; Koprowski, John L.; Steele, Michael A.; Whatton, James F. (2012). Squirrels of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 8. ISBN 1421404699.  ^ a b Squirrel
Squirrel
Place Archived 27 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. squirrels.org. Retrieved 14 December 2010. ^ "Rodents". 22 April 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ The Beginning of the Age of Mammals Kenneth D. Rose (2006) ISBN 978-0-801-88472-6 p. 326 ^ Thorington, Richard W.; Koprowski, John L.; Steele, Michael A.; Whatton, James F. (2012). Squirrels of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 12. ISBN 1421404699.  ^ " Squirrel
Squirrel
Rehab". Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ "Red & Gray Squirrels in Massachusetts". MassWildlife. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ Törmälä, Timo; Vuorinen, Hannu; Hokkanen, Heikki (1980). "Timing of circadian activity in the flying squirrel in central Finland". Acta Theriologica. 25 (32–42): 461–474. doi:10.4098/at.arch.80-42. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2007.  ^ Richard W. Thorington, Katie Ferrell - Squirrels: the animal answer guide, JHU Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8018-8402-0, ISBN 978-0-8018-8402-3, p. 75. ^ Friggens, M. (2002). "Carnivory on Desert
Desert
Cottontails by Texas Antelope Ground Squirrels". The Southwestern Naturalist. 47 (1): 132–133. doi:10.2307/3672818. JSTOR 3672818.  ^ Bailey, B. (1923). "Meat-eating propensities of some rodents of Minnesota". Journal of Mammalogy. 4: 129. doi:10.1093/jmammal/4.2.129.  ^ Wistrand, E.H. (1972). "Predation on a Snake
Snake
by Spermophilus tridecemlineatus". American Midland Naturalist. 88 (2): 511–512. doi:10.2307/2424389. JSTOR 2424389.  ^ Whitaker, J.O. (1972). "Food and external parasites of Spermophilus tridecemlineatus in Vigo County, Indiana". Journal of Mammalogy. 53 (3): 644–648. doi:10.2307/1379067. JSTOR 1379067.  ^ Bradley, W. G. (1968). "Food habits of the antelope ground squirrel in southern Nevada". Journal of Mammalogy. 49 (1): 14–21. doi:10.2307/1377723. JSTOR 1377723.  ^ Morgart, J. R. (May 1985). "Carnivorous behavior by a white-tailed antelope ground squirrel Ammospermophilus leucurus". The Southwestern Naturalist. 30 (2): 304–305. doi:10.2307/3670745. JSTOR 3670745.  ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (2011). "Class Mammalia
Mammalia
Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal
Animal
biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3148: 56–60.  ^ Emry, R. J.; Korth, W. W. (2007). "A new genus of squirrel (Rodentia, Sciuridae) from the mid-Cenozoic of North America". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (3): 693–698. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[693:ANGOSR]2.0.CO;2.  ^ a b c Steppan & Hamm (2006) ^ Steppan et al. (2004), Steppan & Hamm (2006)

References

Milton, Katherine (1984): [Family Sciuridae]. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.): The Encyclopedia of Mammals: 612–623. Facts on File, New York. ISBN 0-87196-871-1 Steppan, Scott J. & Hamm, Shawn M. (2006): Tree of Life Web Project – Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(Squirrels). Version of 13 May 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2007. Steppan, S. J.; Storz, B. L.; Hoffmann, R. S. (2004). "Nuclear DNA phylogeny of the squirrels (Mammalia: Rodentia) and the evolution of arboreality from c-myc and RAG1". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30 (3): 703–719. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00204-5. PMID 15012949.  Thorington, R.W. & Hoffmann, R.S. (2005): Family Sciuridae. In: Mammal
Mammal
Species
Species
of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference: 754–818. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Whitaker, John O. Jr. & Elman, Robert (1980): The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals (2nd ed.). Alfred Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-394-50762-2

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sciuridae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Sciuridae

Look up squirrel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Tree of Life: Sciuridae Squirrel
Squirrel
Tracks: How to identify squirrel tracks in the wild National Geographic link on Squirrels List of names of squirrel taxa

v t e

Extant families in order Rodentia

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha ("Squirrel-like")

Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) Gliridae (Dormice) Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha ("Beaver-like")

Castoroidea Castoridae
Castoridae
(Beavers)

Geomyoidea Geomyidae (Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha ("Mouse-like")

Dipodoidea Dipodidae
Dipodidae
(Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice)

Muroidea Platacanthomyidae
Platacanthomyidae
(Oriental dormice) Spalacidae
Spalacidae
(Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae
Nesomyidae
(Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae
Cricetidae
(Hamsters and relatives) Muridae
Muridae
(House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

Anomaluridae (Anomalures) Pedetidae
Pedetidae
(Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) Diatomyidae
Diatomyidae
(Laotian rock rat) Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae (Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae (Cane rats)

Caviomorpha
Caviomorpha
(New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae
Caviidae
(Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae
Dasyproctidae
(Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae
(Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats and coypus) Octodontidae
Octodontidae
(Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae
Chinchillidae
(Chinchillas and viscachas)

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamilies Ratufinae
Ratufinae
and Sciurillinae)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Ratufinae (Oriental giant squirrels)

Ratufa

Cream-coloured giant squirrel
Cream-coloured giant squirrel
(Ratufa affinis) Black giant squirrel
Black giant squirrel
(Ratufa bicolor) Indian giant squirrel
Indian giant squirrel
(Ratufa indica) Grizzled giant squirrel
Grizzled giant squirrel
(Ratufa macroura)

Sciurillinae

Sciurillus

Neotropical pygmy squirrel
Neotropical pygmy squirrel
(Sciurillus pusillus)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Callosciurinae)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Callosciurus

Ear-spot squirrel
Ear-spot squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
adamsi) Kloss's squirrel
Kloss's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
albescens) Kinabalu squirrel
Kinabalu squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
baluensis) Grey-bellied squirrel
Grey-bellied squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
caniceps) Pallas's squirrel
Pallas's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
erythraeus) Finlayson's squirrel
Finlayson's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
finlaysonii) Inornate squirrel
Inornate squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
inornatus) Mentawai squirrel ( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
melanogaster) Black-striped squirrel
Black-striped squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
nigrovittatus) Plantain squirrel
Plantain squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
notatus) Borneo black-banded squirrel
Borneo black-banded squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
orestes) Phayre's squirrel
Phayre's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
phayrei) Prevost's squirrel
Prevost's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
prevostii) Irrawaddy squirrel ( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
pygerythrus) Anderson's squirrel
Anderson's squirrel
( Callosciurus
Callosciurus
quinquestriatus)

Dremomys (Red-cheeked squirrels)

Bornean mountain ground squirrel
Bornean mountain ground squirrel
(Dremomys everetti) Red-throated squirrel
Red-throated squirrel
(Dremomys gularis) Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel
Orange-bellied Himalayan squirrel
(Dremomys lokriah) Perny's long-nosed squirrel
Perny's long-nosed squirrel
(Dremomys pernyi) Red-hipped squirrel
Red-hipped squirrel
(Dremomys pyrrhomerus) Asian red-cheeked squirrel
Asian red-cheeked squirrel
(Dremomys rufigenis)

Exilisciurus

Philippine pygmy squirrel
Philippine pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
concinnus) Least pygmy squirrel
Least pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
exilis) Tufted pygmy squirrel
Tufted pygmy squirrel
( Exilisciurus
Exilisciurus
whiteheadi)

Glyphotes

Sculptor squirrel
Sculptor squirrel
(Glyphotes simus)

Hyosciurus

Montane long-nosed squirrel
Montane long-nosed squirrel
( Hyosciurus heinrichi) Lowland long-nosed squirrel
Lowland long-nosed squirrel
( Hyosciurus ileile)

Lariscus (striped ground squirrels)

Four-striped ground squirrel
Four-striped ground squirrel
( Lariscus hosei) Three-striped ground squirrel
Three-striped ground squirrel
( Lariscus insignis) Niobe ground squirrel
Niobe ground squirrel
( Lariscus niobe) Mentawai three-striped squirrel
Mentawai three-striped squirrel
( Lariscus obscurus)

Menetes

Berdmore's ground squirrel
Berdmore's ground squirrel
(Menetes berdmorei)

Nannosciurus

Black-eared squirrel
Black-eared squirrel
(Nannosciurus melanotis)

Prosciurillus

Secretive dwarf squirrel
Secretive dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
abstrusus) Whitish dwarf squirrel
Whitish dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
leucomus) Celebes dwarf squirrel
Celebes dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
murinus) Sanghir squirrel
Sanghir squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
rosenbergii) Weber's dwarf squirrel
Weber's dwarf squirrel
( Prosciurillus
Prosciurillus
weberi)

Rhinosciurus

Shrew-faced squirrel
Shrew-faced squirrel
(Rhinosciurus laticaudatus)

Rubrisciurus

Red-bellied squirrel
Red-bellied squirrel
(Rubrisciurus rubriventer)

Sundasciurus

Subgenus Aletesciurus: Davao squirrel
Davao squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
davensis) Horse-tailed squirrel
Horse-tailed squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
hippurus) Northern Palawan tree squirrel
Northern Palawan tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
juvencus) Mindanao squirrel
Mindanao squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
mindanensis) Culion tree squirrel
Culion tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
moellendorffi) Philippine tree squirrel
Philippine tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
philippinensis) Palawan montane squirrel
Palawan montane squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
rabori) Samar squirrel
Samar squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
samarensis) Southern Palawan tree squirrel
Southern Palawan tree squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
steerii)

Subgenus Sundasciurus: Brooke's squirrel
Brooke's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
brookei) Fraternal squirrel
Fraternal squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
fraterculus) Jentink's squirrel
Jentink's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
jentinki) Low's squirrel
Low's squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
lowii) Slender squirrel
Slender squirrel
( Sundasciurus
Sundasciurus
tenuis)

Tamiops (Asiatic striped squirrels)

Himalayan striped squirrel
Himalayan striped squirrel
(Tamiops mcclellandii) Maritime striped squirrel
Maritime striped squirrel
(Tamiops maritimus) Cambodian striped squirrel
Cambodian striped squirrel
(Tamiops rodolphii) Swinhoe's striped squirrel
Swinhoe's striped squirrel
(Tamiops swinhoei)

Funambulus

Subgenus Funambulus: Layard's palm squirrel
Layard's palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
layardi) Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
palmarum) Nilgiri palm squirrel
Nilgiri palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
sublineatus) Dusky palm squirrel ( Funambulus
Funambulus
obscurus) Jungle palm squirrel
Jungle palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
tristriatus)

Subgenus Prasadsciurus: Northern palm squirrel
Northern palm squirrel
( Funambulus
Funambulus
pennantii)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Sciurinae, Sciurini tribe)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Microsciurus (Dwarf squirrels)

Central American Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus
Microsciurus
alfari) Western Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus
Microsciurus
mimulus) Amazon Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus
Microsciurus
flaviventer) Santander Dwarf Squirrel
Squirrel
( Microsciurus
Microsciurus
santanderensis)

Rheithrosciurus

Tufted Ground Squirrel
Squirrel
(Rheithrosciurus macrotis)

Sciurus

Subgenus Tenes Caucasian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
anomalus)

Subgenus Sciurus Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
vulgaris) Calabrian black squirrel
Calabrian black squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
meridionalis) Japanese Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
lis) Eastern Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
carolinensis) Mexican Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
aureogaster) Collie's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
colliaei) Yucatan Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
yucatanensis) Variegated Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
variegatoides) Deppe's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
deppei) Fox Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
niger) Peters's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
oculatus) Allen's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
alleni) Mexican Fox Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
nayaritensis) Arizona Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
arizonensis)

Subgenus Hesperosciurus Western Gray Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
griseus)

Subgenus Otosciurus Abert's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
aberti)

Subgenus Guerlinguetus Red-tailed Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
granatensis) Richmond's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
richmondi) Brazilian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
aestuans) Yellow-throated Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
gilvigularis) Bolivian Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
ignitus) Atlantic Forest Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
ingrami) Andean Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
pucheranii) Guayaquil Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
stramineus) Sanborn's Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
sanborni) South Yungas Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
argentinius)

Subgenus Hadrosciurus Fiery Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
flammifer) Junín Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
pyrrhinus)

Subgenus Urosciurus Northern Amazon Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
igniventris) Southern Amazon Red Squirrel
Squirrel
( Sciurus
Sciurus
spadiceus)

Syntheosciurus

Bangs's Mountain Squirrel
Squirrel
(Syntheosciurus brochus)

Tamiasciurus (Pine squirrels)

Douglas Squirrel
Squirrel
(Tamiasciurus douglasii) American Red Squirrel
Squirrel
(Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) Mearns's squirrel
Mearns's squirrel
(Tamiasciurus mearnsi)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Sciurinae, Pteromyini (Flying squirrels) tribe)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Eoglaucomys

Kashmir flying squirrel
Kashmir flying squirrel
(Eoglaucomys fimbriatus)

Glaucomys (New World flying squirrels)

Southern flying squirrel
Southern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys volans) Northern flying squirrel
Northern flying squirrel
(Glaucomys sabrinus) Humboldt's flying squirrel
Humboldt's flying squirrel
(Glaucomys oregonensis)

Hylopetes

Particolored flying squirrel
Particolored flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
alboniger) Afghan flying squirrel
Afghan flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
baberi) Bartel's flying squirrel
Bartel's flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
bartelsi) Gray-cheeked flying squirrel
Gray-cheeked flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
lepidus) Palawan flying squirrel
Palawan flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
nigripes) Indochinese flying squirrel
Indochinese flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
phayrei) Jentink's flying squirrel
Jentink's flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
platyurus) Sipora flying squirrel
Sipora flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
sipora) Red-cheeked flying squirrel
Red-cheeked flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
spadiceus) Sumatran flying squirrel
Sumatran flying squirrel
( Hylopetes
Hylopetes
winstoni)

Iomys

Javanese flying squirrel
Javanese flying squirrel
( Iomys
Iomys
horsfieldi) Mentawi flying squirrel
Mentawi flying squirrel
( Iomys
Iomys
sipora)

Petaurillus (Pygmy flying squirrels)

Lesser pygmy flying squirrel
Lesser pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus emiliae) Hose's pygmy flying squirrel
Hose's pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus hosei) Selangor pygmy flying squirrel
Selangor pygmy flying squirrel
(Petaurillus kinlochii)

Petinomys

Basilan flying squirrel
Basilan flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
crinitus) Whiskered flying squirrel
Whiskered flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
genibarbis) Hagen's flying squirrel
Hagen's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
hageni) Siberut flying squirrel
Siberut flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
lugens) Arrow flying squirrel
Arrow flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
sagitta) Temminck's flying squirrel
Temminck's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
setosus) Vordermann's flying squirrel
Vordermann's flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
vordermanni) Travancore flying squirrel
Travancore flying squirrel
( Petinomys
Petinomys
fuscocapillus)

Aeretes

Groove-toothed flying squirrel
Groove-toothed flying squirrel
(Aeretes melanopterus)

Aeromys (Large black flying squirrels)

Black flying squirrel
Black flying squirrel
(Aeromys tephromelas) Thomas's flying squirrel
Thomas's flying squirrel
(Aeromys thomasi)

Belomys

Hairy-footed flying squirrel
Hairy-footed flying squirrel
(Belomys pearsonii)

Biswamoyopterus

Namdapha flying squirrel
Namdapha flying squirrel
(Biswamoyopterus biswasi) Laotian giant flying squirrel
Laotian giant flying squirrel
(Biswamoyopterus laoensis)

Eupetaurus

Woolly flying squirrel
Woolly flying squirrel
(Eupetaurus cinereus)

Petaurista

Red and white giant flying squirrel
Red and white giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
alborufus) Spotted giant flying squirrel
Spotted giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
elegans) Hodgson's giant flying squirrel
Hodgson's giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
magnificus) Bhutan giant flying squirrel
Bhutan giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
nobilis) Indian giant flying squirrel
Indian giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
philippensis) Chinese giant flying squirrel
Chinese giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
xanthotis) Japanese giant flying squirrel
Japanese giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
leucogenys) Red giant flying squirrel
Red giant flying squirrel
( Petaurista
Petaurista
petaurista)

Pteromys (Old World flying squirrels)

Siberian flying squirrel
Siberian flying squirrel
(Pteromys volans) Japanese dwarf flying squirrel
Japanese dwarf flying squirrel
(Pteromys momonga)

Pteromyscus

Smoky flying squirrel
Smoky flying squirrel
(Pteromyscus pulverulentus)

Trogopterus

Complex-toothed flying squirrel
Complex-toothed flying squirrel
(Trogopterus xanthipes)

Category

v t e

Extant species of family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
(subfamily Xerinae)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Sciuromorpha

Xerini

Atlantoxerus

Barbary ground squirrel
Barbary ground squirrel
(Atlantoxerus getulus)

Xerus (African ground squirrels)

Subgenus Euxerus: Striped ground squirrel (Xerus erythropus)

Subgenus Geosciurus: Cape ground squirrel
Cape ground squirrel
(Xerus inauris) Mountain ground squirrel
Mountain ground squirrel
(Xerus princeps)

Subgenus Xerus: Unstriped ground squirrel
Unstriped ground squirrel
(Xerus rutilus)

Spermophilopsis

Long-clawed ground squirrel
Long-clawed ground squirrel
(Spermophilopsis leptodactylus)

Protoxerini

Epixerus

Ebian's palm squirrel
Ebian's palm squirrel
( Epixerus
Epixerus
ebii) Baifran palm squirrel ( Epixerus
Epixerus
wilsoni)

Funisciurus (African striped squirrels)

Thomas's rope squirrel
Thomas's rope squirrel
(Funisciurus anerythrus) Lunda rope squirrel
Lunda rope squirrel
(Funisciurus bayonii) Carruther's mountain squirrel
Carruther's mountain squirrel
(Funisciurus carruthersi) Funisciurus congicus Lady Burton's rope squirrel
Lady Burton's rope squirrel
(Funisciurus isabella) Ribboned rope squirrel
Ribboned rope squirrel
(Funisciurus lemniscatus) Red-cheeked rope squirrel
Red-cheeked rope squirrel
(Funisciurus leucogenys) Funisciurus pyrrhopus Kintampo rope squirrel
Kintampo rope squirrel
(Funisciurus substriatus)

Heliosciurus (sun squirrels)

Gambian sun squirrel
Gambian sun squirrel
(Heliosciurus gambianus) Mutable sun squirrel
Mutable sun squirrel
(Heliosciurus mutabilis) Red-legged sun squirrel
Red-legged sun squirrel
(Heliosciurus rufobrachium) Ruwenzori sun squirrel
Ruwenzori sun squirrel
(Heliosciurus ruwenzorii) Zanj sun squirrel
Zanj sun squirrel
(Heliosciurus undulatus)

Myosciurus

African pygmy squirrel
African pygmy squirrel
(Myosciurus pumilio)

Paraxerus (African bush squirrels)

Smith's bush squirrel
Smith's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus cepapi) African red bush squirrel (Paraxerus luciferus) Alexander's bush squirrel
Alexander's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus alexandri) Boehm's bush squirrel
Boehm's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus boehmi) Cooper's mountain squirrel
Cooper's mountain squirrel
(Paraxerus cooperi) Fernando Po squirrel (Paraxerus poensis) Huet's bush squirrel
Huet's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus ochraceus) Red bush squirrel
Red bush squirrel
(Paraxerus palliatus) Striped bush squirrel
Striped bush squirrel
(Paraxerus flavovittis) Swynnerton's bush squirrel
Swynnerton's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus vexillarius) Vincent's bush squirrel
Vincent's bush squirrel
(Paraxerus vincenti)

Protoxerus (African giant squirrels)

Slender-tailed squirrel
Slender-tailed squirrel
(Protoxerus aubinnii) Forest giant squirrel
Forest giant squirrel
(Protoxerus stangeri)

Marmotini (ground squirrels)

Large tribe listed separately

Category

v t e

Living species of tribe Marmotini
Marmotini
(ground squirrels)

Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Order: Rodentia  Suborder: Sciuromorpha  Family: Sciuridae  Subfamily: Xerinae

Ammospermophilus (antelope squirrels)

Harris's antelope squirrel
Harris's antelope squirrel
(A. harrisii)  Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel (A. insularis)  Texas antelope squirrel
Texas antelope squirrel
(A. interpres)  White-tailed antelope squirrel
White-tailed antelope squirrel
(A. leucurus)  San Joaquin antelope squirrel
San Joaquin antelope squirrel
(A. nelsoni)

Callospermophilus (golden-mantled ground squirrels)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel
Golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. lateralis)  Sierra Madre ground squirrel
Sierra Madre ground squirrel
(C. madrensis)  Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
Cascade golden-mantled ground squirrel
(C. saturatus)

Cynomys (prairie dogs)

Gunnison's prairie dog
Gunnison's prairie dog
(C. gunnisoni)  White-tailed prairie dog
White-tailed prairie dog
(C. leucurus)  Black-tailed prairie dog
Black-tailed prairie dog
(C. ludovicianus)  Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
(C. mexicanus)  Utah prairie dog
Utah prairie dog
(C. parvidens)

Eutamias

Siberian chipmunk
Siberian chipmunk
(E. sibiricus)

Ictidomys (little ground squirrels)

Mexican ground squirrel
Mexican ground squirrel
(I. mexicanus)  I. parvidens  Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
Thirteen-lined ground squirrel
(I. tridecemlineatus)

Marmota (marmots)

Subgenus Marmota: Gray marmot
Gray marmot
(M. baibacina) 

Bobak marmot
Bobak marmot
(M. bobak)  Alaska marmot
Alaska marmot
(M. broweri)  Black-capped marmot
Black-capped marmot
(M. camtschatica)  Long-tailed marmot
Long-tailed marmot
(M. caudata)  Himalayan marmot
Himalayan marmot
(M. himalayana)  Alpine marmot
Alpine marmot
(M. marmota)  Menzbier's marmot
Menzbier's marmot
(M. menzbieri)  Groundhog
Groundhog
or woodchuck (M. monax)  Tarbagan marmot
Tarbagan marmot
(M. sibirica) Subgenus Petromarmota: Hoary marmot
Hoary marmot
(M. caligata)  Yellow-bellied marmot
Yellow-bellied marmot
(M. flaviventris)  Olympic marmot
Olympic marmot
(M. olympus)  Vancouver Island marmot
Vancouver Island marmot
(M. vancouverensis)

Neotamias (western chipmunks)

Alpine chipmunk
Alpine chipmunk
(N. alpinus)  Yellow-pine chipmunk
Yellow-pine chipmunk
(N. amoenus)  Buller's chipmunk
Buller's chipmunk
(N. bulleri)  Gray-footed chipmunk
Gray-footed chipmunk
(N. canipes)  Gray-collared chipmunk
Gray-collared chipmunk
(N. cinereicollis)  Cliff chipmunk
Cliff chipmunk
(N. dorsalis)  Durango chipmunk
Durango chipmunk
(N. durangae)  Merriam's chipmunk
Merriam's chipmunk
(N. merriami)  Least chipmunk
Least chipmunk
(N. minimus)  California chipmunk
California chipmunk
(N. obscurus)  Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
Yellow-cheeked chipmunk
(N. ochrogenys)  Palmer's chipmunk
Palmer's chipmunk
(N. palmeri)  Panamint chipmunk
Panamint chipmunk
(N. panamintinus)  Long-eared chipmunk
Long-eared chipmunk
(N. quadrimaculatus)  Colorado chipmunk
Colorado chipmunk
(N. quadrivittatus)  Red-tailed chipmunk
Red-tailed chipmunk
(N. ruficaudus)  Hopi chipmunk
Hopi chipmunk
(N. rufus)  Allen's chipmunk
Allen's chipmunk
(N. senex)  Siskiyou chipmunk
Siskiyou chipmunk
(N. siskiyou)  Sonoma chipmunk
Sonoma chipmunk
(N. sonomae)  Lodgepole chipmunk
Lodgepole chipmunk
(N. speciosus)  Townsend's chipmunk
Townsend's chipmunk
(N. townsendii)  Uinta chipmunk
Uinta chipmunk
(N. umbrinus)

Notocitellus

Tropical ground squirrel
Tropical ground squirrel
(N. adocetus)  Ring-tailed ground squirrel
Ring-tailed ground squirrel
(N. annulatus)

Otospermophilus (rock squirrels)

Baja California rock squirrel
Baja California rock squirrel
(O. atricapillus)  California ground squirrel
California ground squirrel
(O. beecheyi)  Rock squirrel
Rock squirrel
(O. variegatus)

Poliocitellus

Franklin's ground squirrel
Franklin's ground squirrel
(P. franklinii)

Sciurotamias (Asian rock squirrels)

Père David's rock squirrel
Père David's rock squirrel
(S. davidianus)  Forrest's rock squirrel
Forrest's rock squirrel
(S. forresti)

Spermophilus
Spermophilus
sensu stricto (Old World ground squirrels)

Alashan ground squirrel
Alashan ground squirrel
(S. alashanicus)  S. brevicauda  European ground squirrel
European ground squirrel
(S. citellus)  Daurian ground squirrel
Daurian ground squirrel
(S. dauricus)  Red-cheeked ground squirrel
Red-cheeked ground squirrel
(S. erythrogenys)  Yellow ground squirrel
Yellow ground squirrel
(S. fulvus)  Russet ground squirrel
Russet ground squirrel
(S. major)  S. pallicauda  Little ground squirrel
Little ground squirrel
(S. pygmaeus)  S. ralli  S. relictus  Speckled ground squirrel
Speckled ground squirrel
( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
suslicus)  Taurus ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
taurensis)  Asia
Asia
Minor ground squirrel ( Spermophilus
Spermophilus
xanthoprymnus)

Tamias

Eastern chipmunk
Eastern chipmunk
(T. striatus)

Urocitellus (Holarctic ground squirrels)

Uinta ground squirrel
Uinta ground squirrel
(U. armatus)  Belding's ground squirrel
Belding's ground squirrel
(U. beldingi)  Northern Idaho ground squirrel
Northern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. brunneus)  Southern Idaho ground squirrel
Southern Idaho ground squirrel
(U. endemicus)  Merriam's ground squirrel
Merriam's ground squirrel
(U. canus)  Columbian ground squirrel
Columbian ground squirrel
(U. columbianus)  Wyoming ground squirrel
Wyoming ground squirrel
(U. elegans)  Piute ground squirrel
Piute ground squirrel
(U. mollis)  Arctic ground squirrel
Arctic ground squirrel
(U. parryii)  Richardson's ground squirrel
Richardson's ground squirrel
(U. richardsonii)  Townsend's ground squirrel
Townsend's ground squirrel
(U. townsendii)  Washington ground squirrel
Washington ground squirrel
(U. washingtoni)  Long-tailed ground squirrel
Long-tailed ground squirrel
(U. undulatus)

Xerospermophilus (pygmy ground squirrels)

Mohave ground squirrel
Mohave ground squirrel
(X. mohavensis)  Perote ground squirrel
Perote ground squirrel
(X. perotensis)  Spotted ground squirrel
Spotted ground squirrel
(X. spilosoma)  Round-tailed ground squirrel
Round-tailed ground squirrel
(X. tereticaudus)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q9482 ADW: Sciuridae EoL: 8703 EPPO: 1SCIUF Fauna Europaea: 12650 Fossilworks: 41486 GBIF: 9456 ITIS: 180135 MSW: 12400001 NCBI: 55153

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