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Huttonininae (disputed) Phaeomyiinae (disputed) Salticellinae (disputed) Sciomyzinae

Synonyms

Huttoninidae (disputed) Phaeomyiidae (disputed) Tetanoceridae

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Pherbellia annulipes hunting on decaying wood (video, 1m 6s)

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Limnia unguicornis on a blade of grass (video, 34s)

The family Sciomyzidae belongs to the typical flies (Brachycera) of the order Diptera. They are commonly called marsh flies, and in some cases snail-killing flies due to the food of their larvae. Here, the Huttoninidae, Phaeomyiidae and Tetanoceridae are provisionally included in the Sciomyzidae. Particularly the latter seem to be an unequivocal part of this group and are ranked as tribe of subfamily Sciomyzinae by most modern authors, while the former two are very small lineages that may or may not stand outside the family and are provisionally ranked as subfamilies here. Whether the Salticellinae and the group around Sepedon warrant recognition as additional subfamilies or are better included in the Sciomyzinae proper is likewise not yet entirely clear. Altogether, the main point of contention is the relationship between the "Huttoninidae", "Phaeomyiidae", Sciomyzidae sensu stricto, and the Helosciomyzidae which were also once included in the Sciomyzidae. Sciomyzidae are found in all the Ecozones but are poorly represented in the Australasian and Oceanian Regions.

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 Identification 4 Selected genera 5 Species Lists 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. Sciomyzidae are small or medium-sized (2–14 mm), usually slender flies with predominantly dull grey, brown, reddish or yellow body, rarely black-lustrous. Wings hyaline, often with dark spots or dark reticulate pattern. The head is semispherical or round. The antennae are usually elongate and the arista is pubescent or has shorter or longer hairs. Ocelli and ocellar bristles are present (absent in Sepedon). The postvertical bristles are divergent or parallel. There are one or two pairs of frontal bristles which curve backward (the lower pair sometimes curving inward) Interfrontal bristles are absent but interfrontal setulae are sometimes present. Vibrissae are absent. The wing is clear or with conspicuous markings. The costa is continuous and the subcosta is complete. Crossvein BM-Cu is present and the anal cell (cell cup) is closed. Tibiae almost always have a dorsal preapical bristle. Biology[edit] Marsh flies are common along the edges of ponds and rivers, and in marshy areas. The adults drink dew and nectar. The larvae prey on or become parasites of gastropods (slugs and snails). The occasional sciomyzid attacks snail eggs or fingernail clams.[1] Very little is known about the complete life cycle of these flies but most of the known larvae are semi-aquatic and some are aquatic. Other species have terrestrial larvae. Larvae mainly prey on non-operculate snails. Some species which prey on bivalves have larvae adapted to breathing under water. In some terrestrial species the penultimate larval instar emerges from the snail or slug it developed in. The last instar is then predatory on several snails. The adults rest on vegetation head down. According to the larval habitat, they are found near water, in marshy vegetation,in woodland or occasionally dry open habitats. Identification[edit]

Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Sciomyzidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision . Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique

Selected genera[edit]

Subfamily Sciomyzinae (possibly polyphyletic)

Anticheta Haliday, 1838 Atrichomelina Cresson, 1920[2] Colobaea Zetterstedt, 1837 Coremacera Róndani, 1856 Dictya Meigen, 1803 Dictyacium Steyskal, 1956 Elgiva Meigen, 1838 Euthycera Latreille, 1829 Hedria Steyskal, 1954 Hoplodictya Cresson, 1920 Limnia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 Oidematops Cresson, 1920 Pherbecta Steyskal, 1956 Pherbellia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 Poecilographa Melander, 1913 Pteromicra Lioy, 1864 Renocera Hendel, 1900 Sciomyza Fallén, 1820 Sepedomerus Steyskal, 1973 Sepedon Latreille, 1804 Tetanocera Duméril, 1800 Trypetoptera Hendel, 1900

Subfamily Huttonininae (tentatively placed here)

Huttonina

Subfamily Phaeomyiinae (tentatively placed here)

Akebono Pelidnoptera

Subfamily Salticellinae (sometimes included in Sciomyzinae)

†Prosalticella (fossil) Salticella Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Species Lists[edit]

West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Nearctic Japan World list

References[edit]

^ Foote, B.A.; Knutson, L.V.; Keiper, J.B. (1999). "The snail-killing flies of Alaska (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)". Insecta Mundi. Center for Systematic Entomology, Gainesville, Florida. 13 (1-2): 45–71. Retrieved 31 December 2014.  ^ Cresson, E. T., Jr. (1920). "A Revision of the Nearctic Sciomyzidae (Diptera, Acalyptratae)". Transactions of the American Entomological Society. The American Entomological Society. 46: 27–89.  access-date= requires url= (help)

Further reading[edit]

Rozkošný, R., 1984 The Sciomyzidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica, 14 ISBN 90-04-07592-5 Hardback (224 pp., 639 figures, in English) Lloyd Vernon Knutson and Jean-Claude Vala, 2011Biology of Snail-Killing Sciomyzidae Flies Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521867856

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sciomyzidae.

Family Sciomyzidae at EOL Delta: Family description and images The Marsh Flies of California Marsh fly (Tetanocera sp) diagnostic photographs, male and female specimens, in copulo Images of Sciomyzidae from Diptera.info Images of Sciomyzidae from Bug Guide

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae (thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1778723 BugGuide: 7740 EoL: 9008 EPPO: 1SCIOF Fauna Europaea: 10955 Fossilworks: 139287 GBIF: 3524 iNaturalist: 127180 ITIS: 144653 NCBI: 169447 NZOR: 21f0f426-2a1b-4783-ae9d-d9a32473

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