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Taxonomy is the practice and science of
categorization Categorization is the ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by a ...

categorization
or
classification Classification is a process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. Classification is the grouping of related facts into classes. It may also refer to: Business, organizat ...
. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classification, especially a
hierarchical classification Hierarchical classification is a system of grouping things according to a hierarchy. In the field of machine learning, hierarchical classification is sometimes referred to as instance space decomposition, which splits a complete multi-class clas ...
, in which things are organized into groups or types. Among other things, a taxonomy can be used to organize and index knowledge (stored as documents, articles, videos, etc.), such as in the form of a library classification system, or a search engine taxonomy, so that users can more easily find the information they are searching for. Many taxonomies are
hierarchies
hierarchies
(and thus, have an intrinsic
tree structure A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchy, hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic #Representing trees, representation resembles a tree ...

tree structure
), but not all are. Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy organizes taxonomic units known as "taxa" (singular "taxon")." Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which deals with the categorisation of parts of a whole.


Etymology

The word was coined in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. P. de Candolle and is irregularly compounded from the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe: *Greeks, an ethnic group. *Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family. **Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
, ''taxis'' 'order' and , ''nomos'' 'law', connected by the French form ; the regular form would be ''taxinomy'', as used in the Greek
reborrowing Reborrowing is the process where a word travels from one language to another and then back to the originating language in a different form or with a different meaning. This path is indicated by A → B → A, where A is the originating language, an ...
.


Applications

Wikipedia categories form a taxonomy, which can be extracted by automatic means. , it has been shown that a manually-constructed taxonomy, such as that of computational lexicons like
WordNet WordNet is a lexical database of semantic relations between words in more than 200 languages. WordNet links words into semantic relations including synonyms, hyponyms, and meronyms. The synonyms are grouped into ''synsets'' with short definitions ...
, can be used to improve and restructure the Wikipedia category taxonomy. In a broader sense, taxonomy also applies to relationship schemes other than parent-child hierarchies, such as network structures. Taxonomies may then include a single child with multi-parents, for example, "Car" might appear with both parents "Vehicle" and "Steel Mechanisms"; to some however, this merely means that 'car' is a part of several different taxonomies. A taxonomy might also simply be organization of kinds of things into groups, or an alphabetical list; here, however, the term vocabulary is more appropriate. In current usage within
knowledge management Knowledge management (KM) is the collection of methods relating to creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organization. It refers to a multidisciplinary approach to achieve organisational objectives by making ...

knowledge management
, taxonomies are considered narrower than ontologies since ontologies apply a larger variety of relation types. Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a
tree structure A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchy, hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form. It is named a "tree structure" because the classic #Representing trees, representation resembles a tree ...

tree structure
of classifications for a given set of objects. It is also named
containment hierarchy
containment hierarchy
. At the top of this structure is a single classification, the root node, that applies to all objects. Nodes below this root are more specific classifications that apply to subsets of the total set of classified objects. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the general to the more specific. By contrast, in the context of legal terminology, an open-ended contextual taxonomy is employed—a taxonomy holding only with respect to a specific context. In scenarios taken from the legal domain, a formal account of the open-texture of legal terms is modeled, which suggests varying notions of the "core" and "penumbra" of the meanings of a concept. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the specific to the more general.


History

Anthropologists An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present societies. Social anthropology, cultural anthropology and philosophical anthropology study the norms ...
have observed that taxonomies are generally embedded in local cultural and social systems, and serve various social functions. Perhaps the most well-known and influential study of folk taxonomies is
Émile Durkheim David Émile Durkheim ( or ; 15 April 1858 – 15 November 1917) was a French Sociology, sociologist. Durkheim formally established the academic discipline of sociology and is commonly cited as one of the principal architects of modern social s ...

Émile Durkheim
's ''The Elementary Forms of Religious Life''. A more recent treatment of folk taxonomies (including the results of several decades of empirical research) and the discussion of their relation to the scientific taxonomy can be found in
Scott Atran Scott Atran (born February 6, 1952) is an American-French cultural anthropologist who is Emeritus Director of Research in Anthropology at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique in Paris, Research Professor at the University of Michigan, ...
's ''Cognitive Foundations of Natural History.'' Folk taxonomies of organisms have been found in large part to agree with scientific classification, at least for the larger and more obvious species, which means that it is not the case that folk taxonomies are based purely on utilitarian characteristics. In the seventeenth century the German mathematician and philosopher
Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz . ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and diplomat. He is one of the most prominent figures in both the history of philosophy and the history of mathema ...
, following the work of the thirteenth-century Majorcan philosopher
Ramon Llull Ramon Llull (; c. 1232 – c. 1315/16) was a philosopher A philosopher is a person who practices or investigates philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about e ...

Ramon Llull
on his '' Ars generalis ultima'', a system for procedurally generating concepts by combining a fixed set of ideas, sought to develop an
alphabet of human thought The alphabet of human thought ( la, alphabetum cogitationum humanarum) is a concept originally proposed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz that provides a universal way to represent and analyze ideas and relationships by breaking down their component piec ...
. Leibniz intended his ''
characteristica universalis The Latin term ''characteristica universalis'', commonly interpreted as ''universal characteristic'', or ''universal character'' in English, is a universal language, universal and formal language imagined by Gottfried Leibniz able to express ma ...
'' to be an "algebra" capable of expressing all conceptual thought. The concept of creating such a "
universal language Universal language may refer to a hypothetical or historical language spoken and understood by all or most of the world's people. In some contexts, it refers to a means of communication said to be understood by all humans. It may be the idea of ...
" was frequently examined in the 17th century, also notably by the English philosopher
John Wilkins John Wilkins, (14 February 1614 – 19 November 1672) was an Anglican ministry, Anglican clergyman, Natural philosophy, natural philosopher, and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was Bishop of Chester from 1668 unt ...

John Wilkins
in his work '' An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language'' (1668), from which the classification scheme in
Roget
Roget
's
Thesaurus A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea: Synonym dictionar ...

Thesaurus
ultimately derives.


Taxonomy in various disciplines


Natural sciences

Taxonomy in biology encompasses the description, identification, nomenclature, and classification of organisms. Uses of taxonomy include: *
Alpha taxonomy In biology, taxonomy () is the science, scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxon, taxa (s ...
, the description and basic classification of new species, subspecies, and other taxa **
Linnaean taxonomy Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts: # The particular form of Taxonomy (biology), biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his ''Systema Naturae'' (1735) and subsequent works. In the ta ...
, the original classification scheme of Carl Linnaeus ** rank-based scientific classification as opposed to clade-based classification *
Evolutionary taxonomy Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of Phylogenetics, phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-de ...
, traditional post-Darwinian hierarchical biological classification *
Numerical taxonomy Numerical taxonomy is a Biological classification, classification system in biological systematics which deals with the grouping by numerical methods of taxon, taxonomic units based on their character states. It aims to create a Taxonomy (biology) ...
, various taxonomic methods employing numeric algorithms *
Phenetics In biology, phenetics ( el, phainein – to appear) , also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in Morphology (biology), morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phyloge ...
, system for ordering species based on overall similarity *
Phylogenetics In biology, phylogenetics (; from Greek language, Greek wikt:φυλή, φυλή/wikt:φῦλον, φῦλον [] "tribe, clan, race", and wikt:γενετικός, γενετικός [] "origin, source, birth") is the study of the evolutionary his ...

Phylogenetics
, biological taxonomy based on putative ancestral descent of organisms *
Plant taxonomy Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. It is one of the main branches of taxonomy (biology), taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things). Plant taxono ...
*
Virus classification Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a Alpha taxonomy, taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cell (biology), cellular organisms. Viruses are classified by phenotypic characteristics, ...
, taxonomic system for viruses *
Folk taxonomy A folk taxonomy is a vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language is in contrast with a "standard language". It refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular ...
, description and organization, by individuals or groups, of their own environments *
Nosology Nosology () is the branch of medical science that deals with the Medical classification, classification of diseases. Fully classifying a medical condition requires knowing its cause (and that there is only one cause), the effects it has on the b ...
, classification of diseases *
Soil classification Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization Categorization is the ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects ...
, systematic categorization of soils


Business and economics

Uses of taxonomy in business and economics include: *
Corporate taxonomy Corporate taxonomy is the hierarchical classification of entities of interest of an enterprise, organization or administration, used to classify documents, digital assets and other information. Taxonomies can cover virtually any type of physical o ...
, the hierarchical classification of entities of interest to an enterprise, organization or administration *
Economic taxonomy An economic taxonomy is a system of classification of economic activity, including products, companies and industries. Some economists believe that the study of economic policy demands the use of a taxonomic/classificatory approach. Industry taxon ...
, a system of classification for economic activity **
Global Industry Classification Standard The Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) is an industry taxonomy developed in 1999 by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P) for use by the global financial community. The GICS structure consists of 11 sectors, 24 industry groups, 69 industries ...
, an industry taxonomy developed by MSCI and Standard & Poor's (S&P) **
Industry Classification Benchmark The Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB) is an industry classification Industry classification or industry taxonomy is a type of economic taxonomy that classifies companies, organizations and traders into industrial groupings based on similar ...
, an industry classification taxonomy launched by Dow Jones and FTSE **
International Standard Industrial Classification The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) is a United Nations industry classification system. Wide use has been made of ISIC in classifying data according to kind of economic activity in the fields of emp ...
(ISIC), a United Nations system for classifying economic data **
North American Industry Classification System The North American Industry Classification System or NAICS () is a industry classification, classification of business establishments by type of economic activity (process of production). It is used by government and business in Canada, Mexico, an ...
(NAICS), used in Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America ** Pavitt's Taxonomy, classification of firms by their principal sources of innovation **
Standard Industrial Classification The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) was a system for industry classification, classifying industries by a four-digit code as a method of standardizing industry classification for statistical purposes across agencies. Established in the U ...
, a system for classifying industries by a four-digit code **
United Kingdom Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities United may refer to: Places * United, Pennsylvania United is located in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. It is a community located near Norvelt, Pennsylvania. History In 1881, the United Coal Company, United Coal & ...
, a Standard Industrial Classification by type of economic activity * Records management taxonomy, the representation of data, upon which the classification of unstructured content is based, within an organization. * XBRL Taxonomy, eXtensible Business Reporting Language * SRK taxonomy, in workplace user-interface design


Computing


Software engineering

Vegas et al. make a compelling case to advance the knowledge in the field of software engineering through the use of taxonomies. Similarly, Ore et al. provide a systematic methodology to approach taxonomy building in software engineering related topics. Several taxonomies have been proposed in software testing research to classify techniques, tools, concepts and artifacts. The following are some example taxonomies: # A taxonomy of model-based testing techniques # A taxonomy of static-code analysis tools Engström et al. suggest and evaluate the use of a taxonomy to bridge the communication between researchers and practitioners engaged in the area of software testing. They have also developed a web-based tool to facilitate and encourage the use of the taxonomy. The tool and its source code are available for public use.


Other uses of taxonomy in computing

*
Flynn's taxonomy Flynn's taxonomy is a classification of computer architectures, proposed by Michael J. Flynn in 1966 and extended in 1972. The classification system has stuck, and it has been used as a tool in design of modern processors and their functionalities. ...
, a classification for instruction-level parallelism methods *
Folksonomy Folksonomy is a classification system in which end users apply public Tag (metadata), tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based ...
, classification based on user's tags *
Taxonomy for search engines Taxonomy for search engines refers to classification methods that improve relevance in vertical search. Taxonomies of entities are tree structures whose nodes are labelled with entities likely to occur in a web search query. Searches use these trees ...
, considered as a tool to improve relevance of search within a vertical domain * ACM Computing Classification System, a subject classification system for computing devised by the Association for Computing Machinery


Education and academia

Uses of taxonomy in education include: * Bloom's taxonomy, a standardized categorization of learning objectives in an educational context *
Classification of Instructional Programs The Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) is a taxonomy Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification (general theory), classification. A taxonomy (or taxonomical classification) is a scheme of classificati ...
, a taxonomy of academic disciplines at institutions of higher education in the United States *
Mathematics Subject Classification The Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) is an alphanumerical classification scheme In information science and ontology (information science), ontology, a classification scheme is the product of arranging things into kinds of things (classes) ...
, an alphanumerical classification scheme based on the coverage of Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt MATH * SOLO taxonomy, Structure of Observed Learning Outcome, proposed by Biggs and Collis Tax


Safety

Uses of taxonomy in safety include: * Safety taxonomy, a standardized set of terminologies used within the fields of safety and health care ** Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, a system to identify the human causes of an accident ** Swiss cheese model, a model used in risk analysis and risk management propounded by Dante Orlandella and James T. Reason **A taxonomy of rail incidents in Confidential Incident Reporting & Analysis System (CIRAS)


Other taxonomies

* Military taxonomy, a set of terms that describe various types of military operations and equipment *
Moys Classification Scheme The Moys Classification Scheme is a system of library classification A library classification is a system of organization of knowledge by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications are a notational sy ...
, a subject classification for law devised by Elizabeth Moys


Research publishing

Citing inadequacies with current practices in listing authors of papers in medical research journals, Drummond Rennie and co-authors called in a 1997 article in ''JAMA'', the ''
Journal of the American Medical Association ''The Journal of the American Medical Association'' (''JAMA'') is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research, reviews, and editorials covering all aspects of biom ...
'' for
''a radical conceptual and systematic change, to reflect the realities of multiple authorship and to buttress accountability. We propose dropping the outmoded notion of author in favor of the more useful and realistic one of contributor.''
Since 2012, several major academic and scientific publishing bodies have mounted ''Project CRediT'' to develop a
controlled vocabulary Control may refer to: Basic meanings Economics and business * Control (management), an element of management * Control, an element of management accounting * Comptroller (or controller), a senior financial officer in an organization * Control ...
of contributor roles. Known as ''
CRediT Credit (from Latin verb ''credit'', meaning "one believes") is the Trust (social sciences), trust which allows one Party (law), party to provide money or resources to another party wherein the second party does not reimburse the first party im ...
(Contributor Roles Taxonomy)'', this is an example of a flat, non-hierarchical taxonomy; however, it does include an optional, broad classification of the degree of contribution: ''lead'', ''equal'' or ''supporting''. Amy Brand and co-authors summarise their intended outcome as:
Identifying specific contributions to published research will lead to appropriate credit, fewer author disputes, and fewer disincentives to collaboration and the sharing of data and code.
As of mid-2018, this taxonomy apparently restricts its scope to ''research outputs'', specifically journal articles; however, it does rather unusually "hope to … support identification of peer reviewers". (As such, it has not yet defined terms for such roles as editor or author of a chapter in a ''book'' of research results.) Version 1, established by the first Working Group in the (northern) autumn of 2014, identifies 14 specific contributor roles using the following defined terms: *Conceptualization *Methodology *Software *Validation *Formal Analysis *Investigation *Resources *Data curation *Writing – Original Draft *Writing – Review & Editing *Visualization *Supervision *Project Administration *Funding acquisition Reception has been mixed, with several major publishers and journals planning to have implemented CRediT by the end of 2018, whilst almost as many aren't persuaded of the need or value of using it. For example,
The
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, NGO, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the ...
has created a ''TACS (Transparency in Author Contributions in Science)'' webpage to list the journals that commit to setting authorship standards, defining responsibilities for corresponding authors, requiring ORCID iDs, and adopting the CRediT taxonomy.
The same webpage has a table listing 21 journals (or families of journals), of which: * 5 have, or by end 2018 will have, implemented CRediT, * 6 require an author contribution statement and suggest using CRediT, * 8 don't use CRediT, of which 3 give reasons for not doing so, and * 2 are uninformative. The taxonomy is an open standard conforming to the OpenStand principles, and is published under a
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization and international network devoted to educational access and expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has release ...
licence.


Taxonomy for the web

Websites with a well designed taxonomy or hierarchy are easily understood by users, due to the possibility of users developing a mental model of the site structure. Guidelines for writing taxonomy for the web include: * Mutually exclusive categories can be beneficial. If categories appear several places, it's called cross-listing or polyhierarchical. The hierarchy will lose its value if cross-listing appears too often. Cross-listing often appears when working with ambiguous categories that fits more than one place. * Having a balance between breadth and depth in the taxonomy is beneficial. Too many options (breadth), will overload the users by giving them too many choices. At the same time having a too narrow structure, with more than two or three levels to click-through, will make users frustrated and might give up.


Is-a and has-a relationships, and hyponymy

Two of the predominant types of relationships in knowledge-representation systems are predication and the universally quantified conditional. Predication relationships express the notion that an individual entity is an example of a certain type (for example, ''John is a bachelor''), while universally quantified conditionals express the notion that a type is a subtype of another type (for example, "''A dog is a mammal"'', which means the same as "''All dogs are mammals"''). Ronald J. Brachman
What IS-A is and isn't. An Analysis of Taxonomic Links in Semantic Networks
IEEE Computer, 16 (10); October 1983.
The "has-a" relationship is quite different: an elephant ''has'' a trunk; a trunk is a part, not a subtype of elephant. The study of part-whole relationships is
mereology In logic Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both Mathematical logic, formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of Validity (logic), deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science inv ...
. Taxonomies are often represented as ''is-a'' hierarchies where each level is more specific than the level above it (in mathematical language is "a subset of" the level above). For example, a basic biology taxonomy would have concepts such as ''mammal'', which is a subset of ''animal'', and ''dogs'' and ''cats'', which are subsets of ''mammal''. This kind of taxonomy is called an is-a model because the specific objects are considered as instances of a concept. For example, ''Fido'' is-an instance of the concept ''dog'' and ''Fluffy'' is-a ''cat''.
In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and structure. Linguis ...
, is-a relations are called
hyponymy In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and ...
. When one word describes a category, but another describe some subset of that category, the larger term is called a ''hypernym'' with respect to the smaller, and the smaller is called a "hyponym" with respect to the larger. Such a hyponym, in turn, may have further subcategories for which it is a hypernym. In the simple biology example, ''dog'' is a hypernym with respect to its subcategory ''collie'', which in turn is a hypernym with respect to ''Fido'' which is one of its hyponyms. Typically, however, ''hypernym'' is used to refer to subcategories rather than single individuals.


Research

Researchers reported that large populations consistently develop highly similar category systems. This may be relevant to lexical aspects of large communication networks and cultures such as folksonomies and
language Language is a structured system of communication. The structure of a language is its grammar and the free components are its vocabulary. Languages are the primary means by which humans communicate, and may be conveyed through a variety of met ...
or human communication, and sense-making in general. Available unde
CC BY 4.0


See also

* * * *
Categorization Categorization is the ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as Object (philosophy), objects, events, or ideas), organizing and classifying experience by a ...
, the process of dividing things into groups *
Classification (general theory) The term classification can apply to one or all of: * the process of classifying (distinguishing and distributing kinds of "things" into different groups) * a resulting set of classes (also called "a classification system") * the assignment of el ...
* Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Recognition, a fictional Chinese encyclopedia with an "impossible" taxonomic scheme * Conflation *
Faceted classification A faceted classification is a classification scheme used in organizing knowledge into a systematic order. A faceted classification uses semantic categories, either general or subject-specific, that are combined to create the full classification ent ...
*
Folksonomy Folksonomy is a classification system in which end users apply public Tag (metadata), tags to online items, typically to make those items easier for themselves or others to find later. Over time, this can give rise to a classification system based ...
* Gellish English dictionary, a taxonomy in which the concepts are arranged as a subtype–supertype hierarchy *
Hypernym In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because it entails a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise analysis of all aspects of language, particularly its nature and ...
*
Knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can use to solve complex tasks such as Computer-aided diag ...
*
Lexicon A lexicon is the vocabulary of a language or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word ''lexicon'' derives from Koine Greek language, Greek word (), neuter of () ...
*
Ontology (information science) In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations between the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all Domain o ...
, formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain *
Philosophical language A philosophical language is any constructed language that is constructed from first principles. It is considered a type of engineered language. Philosophical languages were popular in Early Modern times, partly motivated by the goal of revising nor ...
* Protégé (software) *
Semantic network A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base that represents Semantics, semantic relations between concepts in a network. This is often used as a form of Knowledge representation and reasoning, knowledge representation. It is a dir ...
* Semantic similarity network *
Structuralism In sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of Interpersonal ties, social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life. It uses various meth ...
*
Systematics Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the Correlation and dependence, relationships among living things through time. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (synonyms: c ...
*
Taxon In biology, a taxon (back-formation from ''Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy''; plural taxa) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known ...
, a population of organisms that a taxonomist adjudges to be a unit *
Taxonomy for search engines Taxonomy for search engines refers to classification methods that improve relevance in vertical search. Taxonomies of entities are tree structures whose nodes are labelled with entities likely to occur in a web search query. Searches use these trees ...
* Thesaurus (information retrieval) *
Typology (disambiguation) Typology is the study of types or the systematic classification of the types of something according to their common characteristics. Typology is the act of finding, counting and classification facts with the help of eyes, other senses and logic. Ty ...


Notes


References

* Atran, S. (1993) ''Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science.'' Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII of England, King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer. Cambr ...
. * Carbonell, J. G. and J. Siekmann, eds. (2005)
''Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems,'' Vol. 3487.
Berlin:
Springer-Verlag Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 in ...
. * Malone, Joseph L. (1988)
''The Science of Linguistics in the Art of Translation: Some Tools from Linguistics for the Analysis and Practice of Translation.''
Albany, New York:
State University of New York Press The State University of New York (SUNY, , ) is a system of public colleges and universities in the New York (state), State of New York. It is one of the List of largest universities and university networks by enrollment, largest comprehensive s ...
.
OCLC 15856738
* *Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", ''Folklore'', XCV(1984), no. 1, 100-104. * Chester D Rowe and Stephen M Davis, 'The Excellence Engine Tool Kit'; * *


External links

* * *
Taxonomy 101: The Basics and Getting Started with Taxonomies
' {{Authority control Scientific nomenclature Hierarchy Ontology