The Info List - Schwäbisch Hall

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Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
(German pronunciation: [ˈʃvɛːbɪʃ ˈhal]), or Hall for short[2] is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. The town is located in the valley of the Kocher
river in the north-eastern part of Baden-Württemberg. Hall was a Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
for five centuries until it was annexed by Württemberg in 1802.


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle ages 2.3 17th century to early 20th century 2.4 Nazi Germany
and World War II 2.5 Post World War II

3 Demographics 4 Architecture 5 Culture 6 Education 7 Politics

7.1 Next scheduled elections for citizens of Schwäbisch Hall

8 Economy

8.1 Transport

8.1.1 Roads 8.1.2 Railways

9 Health 10 Sports 11 People from Schwäbisch Hall

11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit] "Schwäbisch" refers to the Swabian League
Swabian League
(German: Schwäbischer Bund). The origin of the second part of the name, "Hall", is unclear. It might be derived from a West Germanic word family that means "drying something by heating it", possibly referring to the open-pan salt making method[3] used there until the saltworks closed down in 1925.[4] History[edit] Early history[edit]

Imperial City of [Swabian] Hall

Reichsstadt [Schwäbisch] Hall

Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
of the Holy Roman Empire


Capital Schwäbisch Hall

Government Republic

Historical era Middle Ages

 •  Founded Uncertain

 •  Gained Reichsfreiheit 1280

 •  Erste Zwietracht 1340

 •  Zweite Zwietracht 1510–12

 •  End of Swedish occupation 1650

 •  Mediatised to Württemberg 1802 1802

Preceded by Succeeded by

House of Hohenstaufen

Duchy of Württemberg

St Michael's Church, Schwäbisch Hall

Houses in the centre of Schwäbisch Hall, next to the river Kocher.

Salt was produced from brine by the Celts
at the site of Schwäbisch Hall as early as the fifth century BCE.[5] The town was first mentioned in a document called Öhringer Stiftungsbrief dating from 1063.[5] The village probably belonged first to the Counts of Comburg-Rothenburg and went from them to the Imperial house of Hohenstaufen
(ca 1116). It was probably Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa who founded the imperial mint and started the coining of the so-called Heller. Hall flourished through the production of salt and coins. Since 1204 it has been called a town.[5] After the fall of the house of Hohenstaufen, Hall defended itself successfully against the claims of a noble family in the neighbourhood[5] (the Schenken von Limpurg). The conflict was finally settled in 1280 by Rudolph I of Habsburg; this allowed the undisturbed development into an Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
(Reichsstadt) of the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian granted a constitution that settled internal conflicts (Erste Zwietracht) in 1340. After this, the city was governed by the inner council (Innerer Rat) which was composed by twelve noblemen, six "middle burghers" and eight craftsmen. The head of the council was the Stättmeister (mayor). A second phase of internal conflicts 1510–12 (Zweite Zwietracht) brought the dominating role of the nobility to an end. The confrontation with the noble families was started by Stättmeister Hermann Büschler, whose daughter Anna Büschler is the subject of a popular book by Harvard professor Steven Ozment
Steven Ozment
("The Bürgermeister's Daughter: Scandal in a sixteenth-century German town"). The leading role was taken over by a group of families who turned into a new ruling class. Amongst them where the Bonhöffers, the ancestors of Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Middle ages[edit] From the 14th to the 16th centuries, Hall systematically acquired a large territory in the surrounding area, mostly from noble families and the Comburg
monastery. The wealth of this era can still be seen in some gothic buildings like St. Michael's Church (rebuilt 1427–1526) with its impressive stairway (1507). The town joined the Protestant Reformation very early. Johannes Brenz, a follower of Martin Luther, was made pastor of St. Michael's Church in 1522 and quickly began to reform the church and the school system along Lutheran lines. Hall suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, though it was never besieged or scene of a battle. However, it was forced to pay enormous sums to the armies of the various parties, especially to the imperial, Swedish and French troops, who also committed numerous atrocities and plundered the town and the surrounding area. Between 1634 and 1638 every fifth inhabitant died of hunger and diseases, especially from the bubonic plague. The war left the town an impoverished and economically ruined place. But with the help of reorganizations of salt production and trade and a growing wine trade, there was an astonishingly fast recovery. 17th century to early 20th century[edit] Fires were a constant threat to the mostly wooden houses of the town. The great fires of 1680 and especially of 1728 destroyed much of the city, which led to new buildings in the Baroque
style, such as the city hall.

The 1802 mediatization of Hall in contemporary imagery

The Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic wars
brought the history of Hall as a Free Imperial City to an end. Following the Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(1801), the duke of Württemberg was allowed by Napoleon
to occupy the town and several other minor states as a compensation for territories on the left side of the Rhine
that fell to France. This took place in 1802 — Hall lost its territory and its political independence and became a Oberamtsstadt (seat of an Oberamt, comparable to a county). Ownership of the salt works was handed over to the state. A long economic crisis during the 19th century forced many citizens to move to other places in Germany
or to emigrate overseas, mostly to the United States. While other towns like Heilbronn
grew steadily due to the Industrial Revolution, the population of Hall stagnated. The economic situation improved during the second half of the 19th century — a main factor was the railway line to Heilbronn
(1862) — but was not followed by a significant growth of the town. It was not until the 1920s and 1930s that new settlements were built on the heights surrounding the old town. Hall also grew through the incorporation of Steinbach (1930) and Hessental (1936). In 1827, a health spa was established on one of the islands in the Kocher
river. Especially after the building of the railway (1862) it became a considerable economical factor. The well-preserved old town also brought a rising number of tourists. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Hall has developed many festivities. Especially well known are the theatre productions which are performed every year in the centre of the city on the steps of St. Michael. Nazi Germany
and World War II[edit] In 1934, Hall was officially named Schwäbisch Hall. During the Third Reich a Luftwaffe
air base was built at Hessental.[5] During Kristallnacht
on 9 November 1938, local Nazis burned the synagogue in Steinbach and devastated shops and houses of Jewish citizens.[5] Approximately 40 Jewish citizens of Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
fell victim to the Holocaust
in extermination camps in Eastern Europe.[5] In 1944 a concentration camp was established next to the train station Hall-Hessental. The train station at Hall was targeted by an American air raid on February 23, 1945, but the devastation was mostly limited to the suburbs of St. Katharina and Unterlimpurg. The town was occupied by US Army
US Army
troops on April 17, 1945 without serious resistance; though several buildings were destroyed or damaged, the historical old town suffered comparatively little. Post World War II[edit] In 1960, Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
reached the status of a "Große Kreisstadt."[5] This means that the city took over some tasks of the district.[5] From the end of World War II until the end of the Cold War, Dolan Barracks and Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
Army Air Field was a kaserne which hosted a series of US Army
US Army
aviation units and artillery units until it was turned back over to German control in 1993.[6] Demographics[edit] As of December 31, 2009, Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
has a population of 36,799. The residents of Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
come from over 100 countries.[7] As of December 31, 2008, there are 18,838 Protestants, 7,375 Roman Catholics and 10,234 who are either in another religion or not religious.[8] Architecture[edit]

City hall by night.

Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
has a mix of historic buildings and modern buildings.[7] The older buildings are mostly medieval, and with Timber Frame, Gothic and Baroque
styles dominating the city center. The more modern buildings are on the outskirts and suburbs, as to preserve the history of the city. Culture[edit] There is an outdoor summer theater which performs on the open-air staircase at St. Michael's Church and at the Globe Theatre.[2] The Hällisch-Frankische Museum and the Hohenloher Freilandmuseum shows the history of the region starting from the Middle Ages.[2] The Kunsthalle Würth, a modern art gallery, can be explored to see paintings, graphic art, and sculptures dating from the 19th century onward.[2] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
and the surrounding area offer a plenty of leisure activities which includes sports flying, swimming, hiking and cycling.[2] Other parts of the city's culture includes the Salt Festival where the historical salt economy of the town is celebrated, the Summer Night Festival, the Baker's Oven Festival and the Christmas Market which includes traditional handicrafts.[9] Education[edit] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
has a long tradition as a university town.[10] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
offers education opportunities through Vocational schools and various technical schools. Programs are offered in schools such as Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
Evangelical School of Social Work, Social Service Department of Social Professions, Protestant vocational school for the elderly, School of Alternative Education Nursing, School of Nursing and the Ayurvedic teaching and training institute, the Institute of Ayurveda and Yoga.[10] Due to the location of a branch of the Goethe-Institut
at Schwäbisch Hall, the town attracts up to 2,000 students from countries around the world every year to study the German language.[11] The programs are especially popular during the summer, as college students attend the program over their break to earn credits and advance their German. There is The City Archives Hall which is a documentation centre which allows for historical research and memory management.[12] The duties of the City Archives Hall is the ordering, preparing, evaluating and deploying its archives and collections, care and support historical research, collaborating in exhibitions and publishing their own or other authors authored publications on the history of Schwäbisch Hall.[12] The archive keeps official records and files of the present city administration and its predecessor, and collection items of different type and origin, which refers to the city, such as photographs, posters, graphics, paintings, maps and plans, or a newspaper clipping collection.[12] There are also offer extensive library collections in the literature on the history of Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
and the region, as well as valuable historical prints.[12] Politics[edit] Hermann-Josef Pelgrim is the current Lord
Mayor.[7] The city administration was an early mover in the migration from Microsoft Windows to GNU/ Linux
and open source software in the early years of the 21st century.[13] Next scheduled elections for citizens of Schwäbisch Hall[edit]

Election Timeframe Length of term Source

Mayor Spring 2013 8 Years [14]

Federal Autumn 2013 4 years

Ortschaftsrat Summer 2014 5 years

Council Summer 2014 5 years

District Council Summer 2014 5 years

European Parliament Summer 2014 5 years

State Spring 2016 5 years

Economy[edit] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
is the most important regional economic hub between Frankfurt, Stuttgart
and Nuremberg.[15] Formerly, salt was important to Schwäbisch Hall,[7] but today the economy is shaped by a group of medium-sized companies,[5] focusing mainly on trade and services sectors.[2] A number of businesses dealing in property finance, solar energy and telecommunications sectors also have their headquarters in Schwäbisch Hall.[2] One notable company is Bausparkasse Schwäbisch Hall AG, a housing credit company, founded in 1944. Annually, there are up to 600 overnight stays in Schwäbisch Hall hotels by Goethe-Institut

overnight stays


Total 193,213 [16]

By foreigners 41,600

Tax rates Rate Source

Land tax A 400 v.H. [16]

Land tax B 400 v.H.

Trade tax 280 v.H.

Retail trade


Catchment area 160,000 people [16]

Town SHA 305.1 Mio. Euro

Per capita 8,320 Euro

Purchasing power of town 100.2

Employment stats


People employed and subjected to social insurance 20,563 [16]

producing trade 5,188

trade, restaurants and traffic 3,424

service sector 11,951

Incoming commuters 12,119

Outgoing commuters 4,809

Unemployment rate 4.5%

Transport[edit] Roads[edit] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
has an exit on the Autobahn 6 (Heilbronn–Nürnberg). Federal highways 14 (Stuttgart–Nürnberg) and 19 (Ulm–Aalen–Schwäbisch Hall–Würzburg) also run through the town. Railways[edit] Schwäbisch Hall-Hessental station
Schwäbisch Hall-Hessental station
is at the junction of the Waiblingen–Schwäbisch Hall railway
Waiblingen–Schwäbisch Hall railway
and the Crailsheim–Heilbronn railway and Schwäbisch Hall station
Schwäbisch Hall station
(the town station) is on the Crailsheim– Heilbronn
railway. Health[edit] Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
has a history with brine.[17] The first brine bath started in 1827.[17] Diakonie-Krankenhaus, with 574 beds, is the main hospital in Schwäbisch Hall.[17] There are 100 general practitioners, medical specialists and physiotherapists in Schwäbisch Hall.[17] There are health fairs such as Well-Vital Health Fair and the Haller Gesundheits- und Naturheiltagen in Schwäbisch Hall.[17] Sports[edit] The sports played in Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
include swimming, light athletics, tennis, shooting, soccer, baseball, handball and American football.[18] There are 22 sports halls and 25 outdoor playing fields.[18] The Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns have been among the preeminent German American Football teams ever since their two national championships in 2011 and 2012. The Unicorns are further notable for being the former team of Moritz Böhringer. People from Schwäbisch Hall[edit]

Melchior Hofmann
Melchior Hofmann

Melchior Hofmann
Melchior Hofmann
(around 1500–1543), Baptist leader Johann Ulrich Steigleder (1593–1635), composer and organist Louis Brown (1836–1916), professor of art and important history painter in Munich Otto Ruff
Otto Ruff
(1871–1939), chemist Walter Haeussermann, (1914–2010), German-American aerospace engineer and physicist.[19] Hans Beißwenger, (1916–1943), Luftwaffe
ace Wolfgang Gönnenwein (1933–2015), conductor, music educator and politician Walter Müller, (born 1943), physician and politician (SPD) Joachim Rücker
Joachim Rücker
(born 1951), diplomat, Special
Envoy of the UN Secretary General and Head of United Nations Human Rights Council Heinrich Schmieder (1970–2010), German actor known for playing Rochus Misch in Downfall (Der Untergang). Marco Sailer, (born 1985), footballer for SV Darmstadt 98 Tobias Weis, (born 1985), footballer for TSG 1899 Hoffenheim.[20] Louk Sorensen, (born 1985), Irish professional tennis player Jonas Koch
Jonas Koch
(born 1993), cyclist Bahram Nikmard (born 1974), painter.[1]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
is twinned with:[21]

Épinal, France, 1964[21] Loughborough, England, 1966[21] Lappeenranta, Finland, 1985[21]

Neustrelitz, Germany, 1988[21] Zamość, Poland, 1989[21][22] Balıkesir, Turkey, 2006[21]

Rasht, Iran, 2016 [23][24]


^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g The city of Schwäbisch Hall, Goethe-Institut, retrieved March 22, 2011  ^ Kuno Ulshöfer, Herta Beutter (ed.): Hall und das Salz. Beiträge zur hällischen Stadt- und Salinengeschichte, Sigmaringen 1982, p. 8. ^ "Schwäbisch Hall". castleroad.de. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j The history of Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
- an overview, Schwäbisch Hall, retrieved March 23, 2011  ^ Elkins, Walter. "U.S. ARMY INSTALLATIONS - HEILBRONN". USARMYGERMANY.COM. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ a b c d Welcome, Schwäbisch Hall, retrieved March 23, 2011  ^ "Religion" (in German). Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ GmbH, Q4U. "Festivals and Celebrations – City Schwäbisch Hall". www.schwaebischhall.de. Retrieved 7 April 2018.  ^ a b "Schulen in Schwäbisch Hall" (in German). Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ a b Goethe-Institute, Schwäbisch Hall, retrieved March 23, 2011  ^ a b c d "Stadt- und Hospitalarchiv" (in German). Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 31, 2011.  ^ "Open Source for municipalities". Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 24, 2011.  ^ "Wahlen in Schwäbisch Hall". Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 31, 2011.  ^ Learning German in Schwäbisch Hall, Goethe Institute, retrieved March 22, 2011  ^ a b c d "Overview of Economic Data". Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 23, 2011.  ^ a b c d e "Health and Wellness". Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved March 24, 2011.  ^ a b The sports city, Schwäbisch Hall, retrieved March 23, 2011  ^ "Walter Haeussermann". stimme.de. Retrieved August 11, 2011.  ^ "Tobias Weis". TSG 1899 Hoffenheim. Retrieved March 24, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g " Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
and its twin towns". Stadt Schwäbisch Hall. Retrieved 2013-07-26.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Zamość". Urząd Miasta Zamość
(in Polish). Retrieved 2013-07-26.  ^ http://gilnegah.ir/39793/%D8%B1%D8%B4%D8%AA-%D9%88-%D8%B4%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%B4-%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%84-%D8%A2%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%87%D8%B1%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AF%D9%87-%D8%B4%D8%AF%D9%86/ ^ http://rasht.ir/Index.aspx?page_=news&lang=1&tempname=newmain&sub=0&sampledetails=shownews6&PageID=15970&PageIDF=2&BlockName=tool_news_sample_newmain_block232&isPopUp=false

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Schwäbisch Hall.

Official website (in English)  "Hall, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Württemberg". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Swabian League
Swabian League
(1488–1534) of the  Holy Roman Empire

Imperial cities

Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen Dinkelsbühl Donauwörth Esslingen Giengen Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Leutkirch Lindau Memmingen Nördlingen Pfullendorf Ravensburg Reutlingen Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Wimpfen


St George's Shield (Gesellschaft von Sanktjörgenschild)


Brandenburg-Ansbach Baden Bavaria Bayreuth Palatinate Hesse Mainz Trier Württemberg

v t e

Swabian Circle
Swabian Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire


Augsburg Constance Ellwangen Kempten Lindau


Baden Buchau Heiligenberg Hohenzollern-Hechingen Klettgau Liechtenstein Tengen Waldburg

Scheer Trauchburg Waldsee Wolfegg Wurzach Zeil



Baindt Buchau Elchingen Gengenbach Gutenzell Heggbach Irsee Kaisheim Mainau Marchtal Neresheim Ochsenhausen Petershausen Roggenburg Rot Rottenmünster Salmanweiler St. George's in Isny Schussenried Söflingen Ursberg Weingarten Weißenau Wettenhausen Zwiefalten

Counts Lords

Altshausen Baar Bondorf Eberstein Eglingen Eglofs Fugger

Jakob Johann Markus

Gundelfingen Gutenstein Hausen Heiligenberg Hohenems Hohengeroldseck Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Justingen Kinzigerthal Königsegg and Aulendorf Lustenau Meßkirch Mindelheim
/ Schwabegg Oberdischingen Öttingen

Baldern Öttingen Wallerstein

Rechberg Rothenfels and Stauffen Stühlingen
and Hohenhöwen Tettnang
/ Langenargen Thannhausen Wiesensteig


Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen Buchau Buchhorn Dinkelsbühl Eßlingen Gengenbach Giengen Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Leutkirch Lindau Memmingen Nördlingen Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Reutlingen Rottweil Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Wimpfen Zell

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire

By 1792

Aachen Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen BremenH Buchau Buchhorn CologneH Dinkelsbühl DortmundH Eßlingen Frankfurt Friedberg Gengenbach Giengen GoslarH HamburgH Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Kessenich Leutkirch Lindau LübeckH Memmingen Mühlhausen MülhausenD, S Nordhausen Nördlingen Nuremberg Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Regensburg Reutlingen Rothenburg RottweilS Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Schweinfurt Speyer Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Weißenburg in Bayern Wetzlar Wimpfen Windsheim Worms Zell

Free Imperial Cities as of 1648

Lost imperial immediacy or no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by 1792

BaselS BernS Besançon Brakel Cambrai Diessenhofen Donauwörth Duisburg Düren Gelnhausen HagenauD Herford KaysersbergD KolmarD Konstanz LandauD Lemgo LucerneS Mainz Metz MunsterD ObernaiD Pfeddersheim Rheinfelden RosheimD St. GallenS Sarrebourg SchaffhausenS Schmalkalden SchlettstadtD SoestH SolothurnS Straßburg Toul TurckheimD Verden Verdun Warburg Weißenburg in ElsaßD ZürichS

D Member of the Décapole H Member of the Hanseatic League S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall

Blaufelden Braunsbach Bühlertann Bühlerzell Crailsheim Fichtenau Fichtenberg Frankenhardt Gaildorf Gerabronn Ilshofen Kirchberg an der Jagst Kreßberg Langenburg Mainhardt Michelbach an der Bilz Michelfeld Oberrot Obersontheim Rosengarten Rot am See Satteldorf Schrozberg Schwäbisch Hall Stimpfach Sulzbach-Laufen Untermünkheim Vellberg Wallhausen Wolpertshausen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151295327 GND: 4053684-1 BNF: