Schleswig-Holstein
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Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16
states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , de ...

states of Germany
, comprising most of the historical duchy of
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost Sta ...
and the southern part of the former
Duchy of Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: ''Hartogdom Sleswig''; North Frisian: ''Härtochduum Slaswik'') was a duchy in Southern Jutland (''Sønderjylland'') covering the area between about ...
. Its capital city is
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
; other notable cities are
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
and
Flensburg Flensburg (; Danish language, Danish, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ''Flensborg''; North Frisian language, North Frisian: ''Flansborj''; South Jutlandic: ''Flensborre'') is an independent city, independent town (''kreisfreie Stadt'') in the nort ...

Flensburg
. The region is called in
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
and pronounced . In more dated
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, it is also known as ''Sleswick-Holsatia''. The
Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic languages, Germanic , fam3 = West Germanic languages, West Germanic , fam4 = North Sea Germ ...
name is ', and the North Frisian name is ''Slaswik-Holstiinj.'' Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former
South Jutland County South Jutland County (Danish language, Danish: ''Sønderjyllands Amt'') is a former counties of Denmark, county (Danish language, Danish: ''Amt (subnational entity), amt'') on the south-central portion of the Jutland Peninsula in southern Denmark. ...
(Northern Schleswig; now part of the
Region of Southern Denmark The Region of Southern Denmark ( da, Region Syddanmark, ; german: Region Süddänemark) is an administrative region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact charact ...
) in
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constituent of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, a constitution ...
. Schleswig was under Danish control during the
Viking Age The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and trans ...
, but in the 12th century it escaped full control and became a duchy. It bordered Holstein, which was a part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
. Beginning in 1460, both Schleswig and Holstein were ruled together by a single Duke. In the 19th century, Denmark and Prussia each believed they had a claim to Schleswig-Holstein, the population of which was majority ethnic German. The resulting long-term political and territorial dispute was known as the
Schleswig-Holstein Question File:Herzogtümer.png, Schleswig and Holstein before the Second Schleswig War. The Schleswig-Holstein Question (german: Schleswig-Holsteinische Frage; da, Spørgsmålet om Sønderjylland og Holsten) was a complex set of diplomatic and other issues ...
. In 1848, Denmark tried to formally annex the area. Prussia responded by invading, thus beginning the
First Schleswig War Roll of honour for the War in the cathedral of Schleswig The First Schleswig War (german: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War ( da, Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark Denmark ( da, ...
, which ended in a victory for Denmark and the signing of the 1852 London Protocol. But the fight broke out again in 1864 (the
Second Schleswig War The Second Schleswig War ( da, 2. Slesvigske Krig; german: Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century. The war began on 1 February 1864, when Prussian and Austrian fo ...
), and this time Prussia won and the territory was absorbed into it. More than 50 years later, after the German defeat in World War I, the Allies required that the question of sovereignty over the territory be submitted to plebiscites (the
1920 Schleswig plebiscites The Schleswig plebiscites were two plebiscite A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct and universal vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal and can have nationwide or lo ...
), which resulted in the return of some of the territory to Denmark. After World War II, Schleswig-Holstein took in over a million refugees. Today, Schleswig-Holstein's economy is known for its agriculture, such as its
Holstein cow Holstein Friesians (often shortened to Holsteins in North America, while the term Friesians is often used in the United Kingdom, UK and Ireland) are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Netherlands, Dutch provinces of North Holland and Fri ...

Holstein cow
s. Its position on the Atlantic Ocean makes it a major trade point and shipbuilding site; it is also the location of the
Kiel Canal estuary, and thence to the North Sea The Kiel Canal (german: Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North- oEast alticSea canal", formerly known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal) is a freshwater canal in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Schles ...
. Its offshore oil wells and wind farms produce significant amounts of energy. Fishing is a major industry, and the basis of its distinctive unique local cuisine. It is a favorite tourist destination for Germans.


History

The term "Holstein" derives from
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken lan ...
''Holseta Land,'' (''Holz'' means
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic materiala natural composite material, composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embe ...

wood
in modern Standardized German; ''
holt
holt
'' is a now-archaic English word for woods.) Originally, the term referred to the central of the three
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic * * * * peoples whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony Old Saxony is the ori ...

Saxon
tribes north of the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...
: ''Tedmarsgoi'' (
Dithmarschen Dithmarschen (, Low Saxon: ; archaic English: ''Ditmarsh''; da, Ditmarsken; la, label=Medieval Latin, Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bounded by (from the north and clockwise) the districts of Nordfriesland, Schle ...
),
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost Sta ...
and ''Sturmarii'' ( Stormarn). The area inhabited by the tribe of the Holsts lay between the Stör River and
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST ...

Hamburg
; after
Christianization Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategies and techniques were employed in Christianization campaigns from Late Antiquity and througho ...
, their main
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used to refer to the physical build ...
was in Schenefeld. Duchy of Saxony, Saxon Holstein became a part of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
after Charlemagne's Saxon Wars, Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Beginning in 811, the northern border of Holstein (and thus of the Empire) was the Eider (river), River Eider. The term “Schleswig” originally referred to the city of Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig. The city’s name derives from Schlei “inlet” in the east and ''vik'', which meant inlet in Old Norse and settlement in
Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken lan ...
, and is cognate with the "-wick" and "-wich" elements in place-names in Great Britain, Britain. The
Duchy of Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: ''Hartogdom Sleswig''; North Frisian: ''Härtochduum Slaswik'') was a duchy in Southern Jutland (''Sønderjylland'') covering the area between about ...
, or Southern Jutland, was originally an integral part of Denmark, but in medieval times was established as a fief under the control of the Kingdom of Denmark, having the same relationship with the Danish Royal Family, Danish Crown as, for example, Brandenburg or Bavaria had with the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duchy of Saxony, Duke of Saxony gave Holstein to Count Adolf I of Holstein, Adolf I of County of Schauenburg, Schauenburg.


Duchies in the Danish realm

Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. Schleswig was never part of Germany until after the Second Schleswig War in 1864. But for many centuries, the king of Denmark was both a Danish duke of Schleswig and a German duke of Holstein. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once, long before that, a sovereign state. Both were ruled for several centuries by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united into a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig: consequently, Schleswig would always follow the order of succession that applied in the Kingdom of Denmark. Government business in both duchies was conducted in the German language, even though for a long time they were governed from Copenhagen. (Beginning in 1523, however, they were governed by the ''German Chancellery,'' which in 1806 was renamed the ''Schleswig-Holstein Chancellery''). After the Protestant Reformation, church services were conducted in German in the southern part of Schleswig, and in Danish in the northern part. This difference would later contribute strongly to shaping the inhabitants’ national sentiments, as would the different languages spoken in different schools after 1814, when mandatory schooling was instituted.


Schleswig-Holstein Question

The Nationalism, German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig. This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the
Schleswig-Holstein Question File:Herzogtümer.png, Schleswig and Holstein before the Second Schleswig War. The Schleswig-Holstein Question (german: Schleswig-Holsteinische Frage; da, Spørgsmålet om Sønderjylland og Holsten) was a complex set of diplomatic and other issues ...
. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig (the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century). A liberalism, liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation. These demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled. This began the
First Schleswig War Roll of honour for the War in the cathedral of Schleswig The First Schleswig War (german: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War ( da, Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark Denmark ( da, ...
(1848–51), which ended in a Danish victory at Battle of Isted, Idstedt. In 1863, conflict broke out again when Frederick VII died without legitimate issue. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Duchy of House of Glücksburg, Glücksburg, who became Christian IX of Denmark, Christian IX. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the (German-oriented) branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein. The promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia and Austrian Empire, Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig, which ended in Danish defeat. United Kingdom, British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Herzogtum Lauenburg, Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.


Province of Prussia

Contrary to the hopes of German Schleswig-Holsteiners, the area did not gain its independence, but was annexed as a province of Prussia in 1867. Also following the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague (1866), Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This condition, however, was never fulfilled by Prussia. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empire, authorities attempted a Germanisation policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish. The period also meant increased industrialisation of Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Kiel and Flensburg as important Imperial German Navy locations. The northernmost part and west coast of the province saw a wave of emigration to America, while some Danes of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark.


Plebiscite in 1920

Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Allied powers arranged Schleswig Plebiscites, a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig. The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig. Steps were taken to also create a third zone covering a southern area, but zone III was cancelled again and never voted, as the Danish government asked the commission not to expand the plebiscite to this area. In zone I covering Northern Schleswig (10 February 1920), 75% voted for Political union, reunification with Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In zone II covering central Schleswig (14 March 1920), the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark. Only minor areas on the island of Föhr showed a Danish majority, and the rest of the Danish vote was primarily in the town of Flensburg. On 15 June 1920, Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler. In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act (''Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz''), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formerly belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.


State of Federal Germany

After World War II, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On 23 August 1946, the military government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate ''Land''. Due to the Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), forced migrations of Germans between 1944 and 1950, Schleswig-Holstein Refugees in Schleswig-Holstein after the Second World War, took in almost a million refugees after the war, increasing its population by 33%. A pro-Danish political movement arose in Schleswig, with transfer of the area to Denmark as an ultimate goal. This was supported neither by the British occupation administration nor the Danish government. In 1955, the German and Danish governments issued the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations confirming the rights of the ethnic minorities on both sides of the border. Conditions between the nationalities have since been stable and generally respectful.


Geography

Schleswig-Holstein lies on the base of Jutland Peninsula between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Strictly speaking, "Schleswig" refers to the German Southern Schleswig (german: Südschleswig or ''Landesteil Schleswig'', da, Sydslesvig), whereas Northern Schleswig is in Denmark (
South Jutland County South Jutland County (Danish language, Danish: ''Sønderjyllands Amt'') is a former counties of Denmark, county (Danish language, Danish: ''Amt (subnational entity), amt'') on the south-central portion of the Jutland Peninsula in southern Denmark. ...
,
Region of Southern Denmark The Region of Southern Denmark ( da, Region Syddanmark, ; german: Region Süddänemark) is an administrative region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact charact ...
). The state of Schleswig-Holstein further consists of Holstein, as well as Lauenburg and the formerly independent city of Lübeck. Schleswig-Holstein borders Denmark (Region of Southern Denmark, Southern Denmark) to the north, the North Sea to the west, the Baltic Sea to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony,
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST ...

Hamburg
, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the south. In the western part of the state, the lowlands have virtually no hills. The North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea coast, form the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (''Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer'') which is the largest national park in Central Europe. Germany's only high-sea island, Heligoland, is situated in the North Sea. The Baltic Sea coast in the east of Schleswig-Holstein is marked by bays, fjords, and cliff lines. Rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at ) and many lakes are found, especially in the eastern part of Holstein called the Holstein Switzerland and the former Duchy of Lauenburg (''Herzogtum Lauenburg''). Fehmarn is the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbe is the Eider (river), Eider. Schleswig-Holstein has the lowest quota of forest covered area, it is only 11.0% (national average 32.0%), which is even lower than in the city-states of
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST ...

Hamburg
and Bremen (state), Bremen. Typical landscape (from West to East): Keitum_Wattenmeer.jpg, Tidal Flats (Wattenmeer) Seesterm%C3%BCher_Marsch.JPG, Seestermüher Marsh Sylt02_ellenbogen.jpg, Geest (Island Sylt) Bungsberg_14.jpg, Schleswig-Holstein Uplands Steilufer_bei_Jellenbek.JPG, Eckernförde Bay (Jellenbek) Nord-ostsee-kanal-schleusenstrasse.JPG, Kieler Förde (Holtenau)


Administration

Schleswig-Holstein is divided into 11 Districts of Germany, ''Kreise'' (districts): Furthermore, the four separate Stadtbezirk, urban districts are: # KI   -
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
# HL   - ''Hansestadt'' ("Hanseatic town")
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
# NMS - Neumünster # FL   -
Flensburg Flensburg (; Danish language, Danish, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ''Flensborg''; North Frisian language, North Frisian: ''Flansborj''; South Jutlandic: ''Flensborre'') is an independent city, independent town (''kreisfreie Stadt'') in the nort ...

Flensburg
Ayuntamiento%2C_Kiel%2C_Alemania%2C_2019-09-10%2C_DD_51-53_HDR.jpg, Kiel Kieler_Woche.JPG, Kieler Week Germany_Luebeck_gables.jpg, Lübeck Gables L%C3%BCbeck_Museumshafen_Untertrave.jpg, Lübeck Museum Port Untertrave Travem%C3%BCnde_Altstadt.jpg, Lübeck-Travemünde Haus_Kliffende_in_Kampen.jpg, Kampen (Island Sylt)


Demographics

Schleswig-Holstein has an aging population. Since 1972 there has been a decrease in the natural rate of population change. In 2016 the total fertility rate reached 1.61, highest value in 40 years (the average value being 1.4). In 2016 there were 25,420 births and 33,879 deaths, resulting in a natural decrease of -8,459.


Vital statistics

*Births from January–September 2016 = 19,138 *Births from January–September 2017 = 19,086 *Deaths from January–September 2016 = 25,153 *Deaths from January–September 2017 = 25,832 *Natural growth from January–September 2016 = -6,015 *Natural growth from January–September 2017 = -6,746


Religion

The region has been strongly Protestantism in Germany, Protestant since the time of the Protestant Reformation. It is proportionally the most Protestant of the sixteen modern states. In 2018, members of the Evangelical Church in Germany make up 44.6% of the population, while members of the Catholicism in Germany, Catholic Church comprise 6.1%. 49.3% either adhere to other religions or disclaim any practising religious identity.


Foreigners

Largest groups of foreign residents by 31 December 2020


Culture

Schleswig-Holstein combines Danish, Frisian and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition; some dishes like Rødgrød (german: Rote Grütze, literal English "red grits" or "red groats") are also shared, as well as surnames such as Hansen (surname), Hansen. The most important festivals are the Kiel Week, Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Lübeck Nordic Film Days, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck. The annual Wacken Open Air festival is considered to be the largest heavy metal rock festival in the world. The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Gottorf Castle in Schleswig. The Wagnerian tenor Klaus Florian Vogt is from Schleswig - Holstein.


Symbols

The coat of arms shows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarck decreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it. The motto of Schleswig-Holstein is ''"Up ewich ungedeelt"'' (Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: ''"Auf ewig ungeteilt"''). It goes back to the Vertrag von Ripen or Handfeste von Ripen (Danish: Ribe Håndfæstning) or Treaty of Ribe in 1460. Ripen (Ribe) is a historical small town in Northern Schleswig, nowadays Denmark. The anthem from 1844 is called "Wanke nicht, mein Vaterland" ("Don't falter, my fatherland"), but it is usually referred to with its first line ''"Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen"'' (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") or "Schleswig-Holstein-Lied" (Schleswig-Holstein song). The old city of Lübeck is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Food and drink

Distinctive point of the cuisine is combination of sweetness with a taste contrast like sour or salty. These combinations are also described as "broken sweetness" is especially present in dishes which are sweet-sour. Typical dishes are: * Birnen, Bohnen und Speck consist of pears, Phaseolus vulgaris, beans, Summer savory, savory, parsley, bacon and potatoes * Holsteiner Sauerfleisch is sour aspic * Holsteiner Katenschinken is ham with traditional cold-smoking method * Different using of Crangon crangon, Nordseekraben in soup, porrenpann, with toast or scrambled eggs * Famous is smoked European sprat, Kieler Sprotten * Other fish also is popular: Flatfish or Herring * kale, Grünkohl. In the Schleswig-Holstein there is a real cult around this vegetable. In the autumn and winter months groups of friends or colleagues go on a cabbage ride and choose their cabbage king, often combined with the typical regional sports of Boßeln and Klootschießen. The most popular dish is kale, Grünkohl with Pinkel, but also possible other combination like Grünkohl with Kassler. The Dithmarschen, Dithmarsch marshland is particularly suitable for growing cabbage. The soils are fertile, so that a good yield can still be achieved even in bad years. Due to the constant sea wind, there are far fewer pests in the area * Lübecker Marzipan is a sweet made from ground almonds, sugar and added flavorings * Liquorice (confectionery), Lakritz confection flavored with extract of the roots of the liquorice plant (sweet, salt, salmiak and choco) * Lübecker Rotspon, Bordeaux wine, which is delivered in oak barrels to Lübeck and there it maturated. * Flensburger Rum-Verschnitt, braun mix of oversea rum, water and neutral alcohol (typical 40-42%) Birnen%2C_Bohnen_und_Speck.jpg, Birnen, Bohnen und Speck Holsteiner_Sauerfleisch%2C_2017.jpg, Holsteiner Sauerfleisch Holsteiner_Katenschinken-01.jpg, Holsteiner Katenschinken Krabbentoast_mit_Dill_Hamburger_Snack_%28retuschiert%29.jpg, Crab toast with dill KielerSprotten_P8290009.JPG, Kieler Sprotten Gr%C3%BCnkohl%2C_Pinkel%2C_Salzkartoffeln.jpg, Grünkohl mit Pinkel


Languages

The official language of Schleswig-Holstein is German language, German. In addition,
Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic languages, Germanic , fam3 = West Germanic languages, West Germanic , fam4 = North Sea Germ ...
,
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
and North Frisian are recognized minority languages. Historically, Low German (in Holstein and Southern Schleswig), Danish (in Schleswig), and North Frisian (in Western Schleswig) were widely spoken in Schleswig-Holstein. During the language change in the 19th century some Danish and North Frisian dialects in Southern Schleswig were replaced by Standard German. Low German is still used in many parts of the state. Missingsch, a Low German dialect with heavy High German (Standard German) influence, is commonly spoken informally throughout the state, while a mixed language Petuh (mixture of High German and
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
) is used in and around
Flensburg Flensburg (; Danish language, Danish, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ''Flensborg''; North Frisian language, North Frisian: ''Flansborj''; South Jutlandic: ''Flensborre'') is an independent city, independent town (''kreisfreie Stadt'') in the nort ...

Flensburg
. Danish is used by the Danish minority of Southern Schleswig, Danish minority in Southern Schleswig, and North Frisian is spoken by the North Frisians of the North Sea Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands in Southern Schleswig. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic dialect, Heligolandic (''Halunder'') is spoken on the island of Heligoland. As is the case throughout Germany, High German, introduced in the 16th century, has come to steadily replace local dialects for official purposes, and is today the predominant language of media, law and legislature. It is spoken by virtually all inhabitants in formal situations. Since the end of World War II and widespread adoption of TV, radio and other mass media, it has gradually come to supplant local dialects in urban areas as well.


Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 62.7 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 1.9% of German economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 30,400 euros or 101% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 95% of the EU average. The GDP per capita was the lowest of all states in West Germany. In 2017, Schleswig-Holstein had an export surplus for the first time since 1989: export 22.6 billion euros/ import 20.8 billion euros.


Energy

Schleswig-Holstein is a leader in the Renewable energy in Germany, country's growing renewable energy industry. In 2014, Schleswig-Holstein became the first states of Germany, German state to cover 100% of its electric power demand with renewable energy sources (chiefly wind power, wind 70%, solar power, solar 3.8%, and biomass 8.3%). The largest German oil field Mittelplate is located in the North Sea off the Dithmarschen, Dithmarsch coast and connected with refinery in Hemmingstedt and chemical plants in Brunsbüttel via pipeline. It produce ca. 1.4 million tonnes of oil annually.


Nuclear power

There were three nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein: Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant, Krümmel, Brunsbüttel Nuclear Power Plant, Brunsbüttel and Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant, Brockdorf. The last operating plant in Schleswig-Holstein, the Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant, Brokdorf-plant was shut down on new-years eve 2021. There is also a nuclear research center knwon Helmholtz-Zentrum Geeshacht (rebranded as Hereon) with 2 research reactors, located right next to the Krümmel plant. During the 1990s, ten more cases of leukemia among children than was expected were identified in Elbmarsch, near the Krümmel plant. Anti-nuclear activists believed it was due to the nuclear plant, which led to several investigations. The reported discovery of small spherical beads of nuclear material in the area led to further concern, as well as the presence of minute amounts of plutonium in the Elbe. The origins of the nuclear material were disputed, with one report determining them to not be that of the Krümmel plant. Another report claimed that they may have come from an undisclosed fire in 1986, however this theory has been questioned as it would have required a substantial government coverup. The Chernobyl disaster has also been suggested as a source, though is considered unlikely. The probable source of the material, especially in the Elbe, is nuclear reprocessing plants in France. A 2010 report exonerated the nuclear power plants on the Elbe as the cause of contamination. Further doubt was cast on the nature of the supposed beads of nuclear material, with a Federal commission chastising the original commission that claimed to have discovered the beads. The exact cause of the increased leukemia cases remains unknown, and could be due to other environmental factors, or even by chance. The nuclear plants have further been questioned as a source of the cases due to comparison to the Savannah River Site in the United States. Despite release of radiation at the Savannah River Site, there is no increase in cases of leukemia around it. Alternative hypotheses for the cause of the cases have included electromagnetic fields, parental radiation exposure prior to conception, other carcinogens, and benzene exposure; however, none have been supported by the existing evidence. Intriguingly, a larger case-control study in Lower Saxony found a correlation between the "untrained immune system" (as judged as contact with other children, vaccinations, etc.) and leukemia risk, suggested that an immature immune system that has not been challenged is at greater risk for developing malignancy, possibly secondary to an undetermined environment factor. Kernkraftwerk_Kruemmel_Side_retouched.jpg, NPP Krümmel Lce1.jpg, View form Elbe: Left is NPP Krümmel, right is the Research Center Skizze_cluster.gif, KKK - NPP Krümmel, GKSS - Research Center


Tourism

Located between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, Schleswig-Holstein is also a popular Tourism in Germany, tourist destination in Germany. Its islands, beaches and cities attract millions of tourists every year. It has the second highest tourism intensity per local among the German states, after Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, but in absolute value it is rank 6th and only 1/3 of top destination Bavaria. According to a ruling by the Federal Administrative Court (Germany), Federal Administrative Court, everyone has the right to free access to the beach. Nevertheless, most of the seaside resorts kept cashing in (2-€3 /day/person). Lubeck_widok_na_Stare_Miasto_1.jpg, Lübeck-Altstadt Germany_Luebeck_townhall.JPG, Lübeck Townhall Travemuende_old_town.jpg, Lübeck-Travemünde Timmendorfer_Strand_-_Seeschl%C3%B6sschenbr%C3%BCcke_2016-07.jpg, Timmendorfer Strand Windjammerparade.jpg, Tall Ships Parade at Kiel Week KiWo_Marine_Nationen.JPG, Guest Marine Ships at Kiel Week Heringstage_Panorama2_Kappeln2008.jpg, Kappeln Herring Day Rumregatta01.jpg, Rum Regatta Westerland_Beach.jpg, Westerland Beach (Island Sylt) Sylt_Rotes_Kliff.jpg, Rotes Kliff (Island Sylt) Bank_met_ondermeer_kokkels_mosselen_en_Japanse_oesters_in_de_Waddenzee_bij_Schiermonnikoog.jpg, Mussels Bank (Wattenmmer) Seehunde_auf_Duene.jpg, Harbor Seal (Wattenmeer)


Agriculture

63% of land in Schleswig-Holstein (990 403 ha) is used for agriculture (national average 47%). Cultivated crops: * Wheat, 208 000 ha * Maize for silage, 176 000 ha * Winter rapeseed, 112 000 ha * Sugar beet, 7 500 ha * Potatoes, 5 500 ha There are some special cultivation regions: * Elbmarschen, west of
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST ...

Hamburg
for fruits cultivation, but in SH is the smallest part of it * Dithmarschen, Ditmarschen for cabbage * Between Mölln, Schleswig-Holstein, Mölln and
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
for asparagus * Pinneberg (district), Pinnenberg for tree Plant nursery, nurseries and flower garden (especially, roses of Rosen Tantau and W. Kordes' Söhne), 2 931 ha. These 2 companies have over 50% of the world cut roses market. There is a German Nurseries Museum ("Deutsches Baumschulmuseum"). Sch%C3%BClp_kohltrikolore.JPG, Cabbage field Rape-fieldSH.jpg, Rapeseed Baumschule_Pinneberg.jpg, Tree nursery in Pinneberg Gew%C3%A4chshaus_Tantau.jpg, Greenhouse of Rosen Tantau Rosa_Iceberg_1.jpg, Rosa Iceberg ("World-favorite Rose", 1983) from W. Kordes' Söhne Apricola_%28Kordes_2000%29.JPG, Rosa Apricola ("Goldenen Rose", 2005) from W. Kordes' Söhne


Animal husbandry

The dairy and cattle farming in connection with fodder cultivation is mainly concentrated on the marshland and the bordering Geest areas. In 2020, around 1 million cattle including 360,000 dairy cows were counted in Schleswig-Holstein, rank 4th of German states. Livestock is continuously declining. Schleswig-Holstein is home of the most productive dairy cattle: Holstein Friesian cattle, Holsteins, which produce an average of per year of milk. It is now the main dairy cow around the world. Pig breeding is mainly found in the Schleswig-Holstein Uplands. In principle, Schleswig-Holstein is one of the regions with relatively few pigs (a total of around 1.6 million; in comparison Lower Saxony: over 8 million). Poultry and sheep are also of little importance in animal husbandry. Schleswig-Holstein had Europe's largest snake farm in Uetersen with over 600 venomous reptiles, but it closed in 2019.


Fishing and Aquaculture

Image: Krabbenkutter_Ivonne_Pellworm_P5242390jm.JPG, thumbnail, Shrimp cutter near Südfall Total production from fishing in North and Baltic Seas was 40 780 tonnes in 2019, ca. 1/3 German production. In the Baltic Sea total production amounted to 10377 tonnes (2019), of which 5432 tonnes of European sprat, sprat, 2568 tonnes of flatfish and 1190 tonnes of atlantic cod, cod. In the North Sea the numbers were 19,487 tonnes of Mytilidae, mussels, 3560 tonnes of Crangon crangon, North Sea shrimp, 1166 tonnes of herring and 7062 other fishes. The one important aquaculture product is Mytilidae, mussels, 16864 tonnes. Inland fishing and aquaculture is not significant with 221 and 250 tonnes in 2019 respectively.


Companies

The largest company headquarters in Schleswig-Holstein with annual sales over 1 billion euros are: * Wholesaler Bartels-Langness,
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
5.3 billion € * Conglomerate Possehl,
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
3.8 billion € * Medical equipment manufacturer Dräger (company), Drägerwerke,
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
3.4 billion € * Telecommunication service provider Freenet AG, Freenet, Büdelsdorf 2.9 billion € * Oil refinery Heide, Hemmingstedt 2.4 billon € * Submarine shipyards ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems,
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
1.8 billion € The unemployment rate stood at 5.0% in October 2021.


Industries

* Shipbuilding. Ca. 20% of German shipbuilding. The biggest ship yard ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems situated in
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
and build submarines of Type 212 submarine, 212 and Type 214 submarine, 214 types. In
Flensburg Flensburg (; Danish language, Danish, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ''Flensborg''; North Frisian language, North Frisian: ''Flansborj''; South Jutlandic: ''Flensborre'') is an independent city, independent town (''kreisfreie Stadt'') in the nort ...

Flensburg
Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, FSG yard build ferry, ferries. Famous luxury megayachts are built by Lürssen, Lürssen-Kröger Werft, Schacht-Audorf and Nobiskrug, Rendsburg. Shipyard in
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
and Caterpillar-MaK marine engine plant were closed. Raytheon Anschütz deliveries navigation equipment, autopilots, radars to shipyards. Salvatore_Todaro_%28S-526%29.jpg, Submarine 212 Type SEATRUCK_PROGRESS.JPG, RoRo Ship SeaTruck MY_Topaz_Superyacht_berthed_at_the_North_Mole%2C_Port_of_Gibraltar.jpg, Megayacht Topaz (Lürssen-Kröger) MV-Tatoosh---La-Rochelle.jpg, Megayacht Tatoosh (Nobiskrug) * Locomotive. Vossloh Locomotives (owned by Chinese CRRC) manufactures three models of diesel-hydraulic (G6, G12, G18) and two models of diesel-electric (DE12, DE18) locomotives. Other manufacturer was Voith Turbo Lokomotivtechnik, but closed in 2014 year. Both firms are in
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
. VL_G_12_%28_4_120_001%29.jpg, Vossloh G 12 Vossloh_DE_18_Hannover.jpg, Vossloh DE 18 Vossloh_G_2000_BB_im_Essener_Hauptbahnhof.jpg, Vossloh G 2000 BB Lueneburg_Sued_Voith_Gravita_15L_BB_6132_Torsten_Baetge.jpg, Voith Gravita 15L BB Voith_Revita.jpg, Voith Revita Voith_Maxima.JPG, Voith Maxima * Industrial equipment. Fish and poultry processing machinery from Baader,
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
, bottle washers and pasteurizers from Krones,
Flensburg Flensburg (; Danish language, Danish, Northern Low Saxon, Low Saxon: ''Flensborg''; North Frisian language, North Frisian: ''Flansborj''; South Jutlandic: ''Flensborre'') is an independent city, independent town (''kreisfreie Stadt'') in the nort ...

Flensburg
, grinding machine tools from Peter Wolters, Rendsburg, machinery to manufacture man-made fibers and non-woven textile from Oerlikon Neumag and Oerlikon Nonwoven, Neumünster. * Medical and labor equipment. Dräger (company), Drägerwerk,
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
manufacture breathing equipment, medical ventilators and monitors, anesthetic machines, neonatal incubators, gas detectors, drug testing equipment, diving equipment, rebreathers, breathalyzer . The company delivery breathing devices for reanimation COVID-19 patients. Euroimmun,
Lübeck Lübeck ( , ; Low German also ; da, Lybæk ), officially the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (german: Hansestadt Lübeck), is a city in Northern Germany. With around 217,000 inhabitants, Lübeck is the second-largest city on the German Baltic Sea, Ba ...

Lübeck
produces test systems with which antibodies can be determined in the serum of patients and thus autoimmune and infectious diseases (including COVID-19) as well as allergies. * Chemical. Almost all chemical industry concentrate around Brunsbüttel. Covestro with 650 employee produced annually 400 000 tonnes methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, which using in synthesis of polyurethane. Yara International, Yara (214 empl.) produce nitrogen fertilizers, but with special process instead of using natural gas, it use heavy oil, which allow also manufacture as byproduct vanadium oxide and sulphur. Heavy oil is source material to produce bitumen by Total SE, Total Bitumen (130 empl.). Other plant is Sasol (520 empl.) produce Fatty alcohol, fatty and Guerbet alcohols, Paraffin wax, paraffin and high-purity aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide and triethylaluminium. Other important location of chemical industry is Neumünster with Ems-Chemie, EMS-Griltech which manufacture technical fibers from polyamides and polyesters, adhesives and powder coatings.


Transport


Kiel Canal

The most important transport way in Schleswig-Holstein is Kiel Canal, which connect Brunsbüttel on North Sea with
Kiel Kiel () is the capital and most populous city in the northern Germany, German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016). Kiel lies approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the southeast of the J ...

Kiel
on Baltic Sea. Total cargo of ships reach peaks in 2007 and 2012, after that it continuous decline with 73.8 million tonnes in 2020. 13-09-23-Fotoflug-Nordsee-RalfR-N3S_0008.jpg, Start Point Brunsbüttel Nordostseekanalholtenau_panorama.jpg, End Point Kiel Aeolian_Vision_2012-04-15_JDohrn.jpg, Ship Aeolian Vision passed through the canal Hochdonn%2C_F%C3%A4hre_%C3%BCber_den_Nord-Ostsee-Kanal_NIK_0273.JPG, Ferry Hochdonn NOK.Lotsenstation.R%C3%BCsterbergen.wmt.jpg, Pilot Station Rüsterbergen


Ports

The state has a total of 46 public ports and landing stages, four of which fulfill international transit functions: Port of Kiel, Kiel, Lübeck / Travemünde and Puttgarden on the Baltic Sea, Brunsbüttel on the North Sea. Kiel and Lübeck are also important for freight traffic to Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Lübeck-Travemünde and Kiel are also important ferry and cruise ports. Puttgarden is the German port of the Vogelfluglinie to Denmark. Brunsbüttel is an important port for bulk goods and also serves as the basis for the offshore wind energy industry. Nilsholgersson2x.jpg, Lübeck-Travemünde KielCanalNorthSeaLocks.jpg, Brunsbüttel Puttgarden_bordershop.jpg, Puttgarden Matthias_Suessen_Kiel-6579.jpg, Kiel


Education

Compulsory education starts for children who are six years old on 30 June. All children attend a "Grundschule", which is Germany's equivalent to primary school, for the first 4 years and then move on to a secondary school. In Schleswig-Holstein there are "Gemeinschaftsschulen", which is a new type of comprehensive school. The regional schools, which go by the German name "Regionalschule" have been done away with as of 1 January 2014. The option of a Gymnasium (Germany), Gymnasium is still available. In a comparison of the federal states, Schleswig-Holstein has the highest student-to-teacher ratio in Germany at around 16.5:1 (national average: 15.2:1). In addition, Schleswig-Holstein is 14th from 16 federal state in terms of expenditure per pupil at public schools with around 5750 euros (national average: 6500 euros). There are three universities in University of Kiel, Kiel (classical, budget 167.1 M€), University of Lübeck, Lübeck (medicine, budget 80.8 M€) and University of Flensburg, Flensburg (pedagogical, 37.4 M€). It is really poor financing in comparison to universities with the same size in South Germany, for example University of Tübingen has budget (2019) 642.2 M€. Also, there are four public Universities of Applied Sciences in Flensburg University of Applied Sciences, Flensburg, Heide, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Kiel, and Technical University of Applied Sciences Lübeck, Lübeck. There is the Conservatory in Lübeck and the Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts in Kiel. There are also three private institutions of higher learning. Olshausenstrasse_Kiel_Zugang_Uni.jpg, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel Koenigstrasse45.JPG, Universität zu Lübeck UnivFlensburg.jpg, Europa-Universität Flensburg


Politics

Schleswig-Holstein has its own Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein, parliament and government which are located in the state capital Kiel. The List of Ministers-President of Schleswig-Holstein, Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein is elected by the Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein.


Current executive branch


Recent elections

The most recent Schleswig-Holstein state elections were held on 7 May 2017. The governing parties consisting of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democrats, the Green Party of Germany, Green Party, and the South Schleswig Voters' Association lost their majority.


List of Minister-Presidents of Schleswig-Holstein


See also

* Outline of Germany * Schleswig, Schleswig-Holstein, Schleswig * Holstein-Glückstadt * Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Rethwisch * Coat of arms of Schleswig *Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig *Schleswig-Holstein Police


References


External links


Official government portal

Official Directory

Schleswig-Holstein Plebiscite Paper Money
- 1919, 1920 Issues
360° Panoramas of Schleswig-Holstein
* *
link had completely unrelated info on 18 February 2009 --> {{Authority control Schleswig-Holstein, NUTS 1 statistical regions of the European Union States and territories established in 1946 1946 establishments in Germany Danish-speaking countries and territories States of Germany