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Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(German: [ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪ̯n]; Danish: Slesvig-Holsten) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein
Holstein
and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck
Lübeck
and Flensburg. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German
Low German
name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
and the former South Jutland County
South Jutland County
(Northern Schleswig) in Denmark.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Duchies in the Danish realm 1.2 Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question 1.3 Province of Prussia 1.4 Plebiscite in 1920 1.5 State of Federal Germany

2 Geography

2.1 Administration

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Culture

4.1 Symbols 4.2 Languages

5 Economy 6 Education 7 Politics

7.1 Current executive branch 7.2 Recent elections 7.3 List of Minister-Presidents of Schleswig-Holstein

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Schleswig-Holstein

The historic settlement areas in present-day Schleswig-Holstein

The Limes Saxoniae
Limes Saxoniae
border between the Saxons
Saxons
and the Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein

Kiel
Kiel
is the state's capital and largest city.

The city of Lübeck
Lübeck
was the centre of the Hanse, and its city centre is a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
today. Lübeck
Lübeck
is the birthplace of the author Thomas Mann.

World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
German Wadden Sea

A rapeseed field in Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
— agriculture continues to play an important role in parts of the state.

Schleswig-Holstein's islands, beaches, and cities are popular tourist attractions (here: Isle of Sylt).

The term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon
Old Saxon
Holseta Land, (Holz and Holt mean wood in modern Standardised German and in literary English, respectively). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi (Dithmarschen), Holstein
Holstein
and Sturmarii (Stormarn). The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör
Stör
River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein
Holstein
became a part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein
Holstein
(and thus the Empire) was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei
Schlei
inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, and linguistically identical (cognate) with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain. The Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Schleswig
or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg
Brandenburg
or Bavaria
Bavaria
vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony
Saxony
gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count
Count
Adolf I of Schauenburg. Duchies in the Danish realm[edit] Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein
have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark
Denmark
or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany
Germany
until the Second Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark
Denmark
was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark
Denmark
or was a Danish fief, and Holstein
Holstein
was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark
Denmark
should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part. This would later prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(from 1523 by the German Chancellary which was in 1806 renamed Schleswig-Holstein Chancellary).[5] Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question[edit] The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein
Holstein
and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark
Denmark
and Northern Schleswig. This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes
Danes
in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark
Denmark
declared that he would grant Denmark
Denmark
a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, i.e., not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes
Danes
(and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language
Danish language
in Schleswig (the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century). A liberal constitution for Holstein
Holstein
was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein
Holstein
were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein
Holstein
be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein
Holstein
as a member of the German Confederation. These demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein
Holstein
and southern Schleswig rebelled. This began the First Schleswig War
First Schleswig War
(1848–51), which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt. In 1863, conflict broke out again when Frederick VII died without legitimate issue. According to the order of succession of Denmark
Denmark
and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark
Denmark
and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein
Holstein
to the head of the (German-oriented) branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein. The promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark
Denmark
and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia
Prussia
and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig, which ended in Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864
London Conference of 1864
failed, and Denmark
Denmark
lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Lauenburg
Lauenburg
to Prussia
Prussia
and Austria. Province of Prussia[edit] Contrary to the hopes of German Schleswig-Holsteiners, the area did not gain its independence, but was annexed as a province of Prussia
Prussia
in 1867. Also following the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This condition, however, was never fulfilled by Prussia. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empire, authorities attempted a germanization policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish. The period also meant increased industrialisation of Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Kiel
Kiel
and Flensburg
Flensburg
as important Imperial German Navy locations. The northernmost part and west coast of the province saw a wave of emigration to America, while some Danes
Danes
of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark. Plebiscite in 1920[edit] Following the defeat of Germany
Germany
in World War I, the Allied powers arranged a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig. The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig. Steps were taken to also create a third zone covering a southern area, but zone III was cancelled again and never voted, as the Danish government asked the commission not to expand the plebiscite to this area. In zone I covering Northern Schleswig (10 February 1920), 75% voted for reunification with Denmark
Denmark
and 25% voted for Germany. In zone II covering central Schleswig (14 March 1920), the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany
Germany
and just 20% for Denmark. Only minor areas on the island of Föhr
Föhr
showed a Danish majority, and the rest of the Danish vote was primarily in the town of Flensburg.[6]

Results of the 1920 plebiscites in North and Central Schleswig (Slesvig)

Electorate German name Danish name For Germany For Denmark

percent votes percent votes

Zone I (Northern Schleswig), 10 February 1920 25.1 % 25,329 74.9 % 75,431

District of Hadersleben Haderslev 16.0% 6,585 84.0% 34,653

Town of Hadersleben Haderslev 38.6% 3,275 61.4% 5,209

District of Apenrade Aabenraa 32.3% 6,030 67.7% 12,653

Town of Apenrade Aabenraa 55.1% 2,725 44.9% 2,224

District of Sonderburg Sønderborg 22.9% 5,083 77.1% 17,100

Town of Sonderburg Sønderborg 56.2% 2,601 43.8% 2,029

Town of Augustenburg Augustenborg 48.0% 236 52.0% 256

Northern part of District of Tondern Tønder 40.9% 7,083 59.1% 10,223

Town of Tondern Tønder 76.5% 2,448 23.5% 750

Town of Hoyer Højer 72.6% 581 27.4% 219

Town of Lügumkloster Løgumkloster 48.8% 516 51.2% 542

Northern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 40.6% 548 59.4% 802

Zone II (Central Schleswig), 14 March 1920 80.2 % 51,742 19.8 % 12,800

Southern part of District of Tondern Tønder 87.9% 17,283 12.1% 2,376

Southern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 82.6% 6,688 17.4% 1,405

Town of Flensburg Flensborg 75.2% 27,081 24.8% 8,944

Northern part of District of Husum Husum 90.0% 672 10.0% 75

On 15 June 1920, Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany
Germany
by the Treaty
Treaty
of Versailles after World War I
World War I
which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler. In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg
Hamburg
Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Hamburg
was expanded, to encompass towns that had formally belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia
Prussia
for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck[7]), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein. State of Federal Germany[edit] After World War II, the Prussian province Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
came under British occupation. On 23 August 1946, the military government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land.[8] Because of the forced migrations of Germans in 1944 to 1950, the population of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
increased by 33% (860,000 people).[9] A pro-Danish political movement arose in Schleswig, with transfer of the area to Denmark
Denmark
as an ultimate goal. This was neither supported by the British occupation administration nor the Danish government. In 1955, the German and Danish governments issued the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations confirming the rights of the ethnic minorities on both sides of the border. Conditions between the nationalities have since been stable and generally respectful. Geography[edit] See also: List of places in Schleswig-Holstein

Geography

Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
lies on the base of Jutland Peninsula
Jutland Peninsula
between the North Sea
North Sea
and the Baltic Sea. Strictly speaking, "Schleswig" refers to the German Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
(German: Südschleswig or Landesteil Schleswig, Danish: Sydslesvig), whereas Northern Schleswig is in Denmark
Denmark
(South Jutland County). The state of Schleswig-Holstein further consists of Holstein, as well as Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and the formerly independent city of Lübeck. Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
borders Denmark
Denmark
(Southern Denmark) to the north, the North Sea
North Sea
to the west, the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
to the south. In the western part of the state, the lowlands have virtually no hills. The North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea
North Sea
coast, form the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer) which is the largest national park in Central Europe. Germany's only high-sea island, Heligoland, is situated in the North Sea. The Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast in the east of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
is marked by bays, fjords, and cliff lines. Rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at 168 metres or 551 feet) and many lakes are found, especially in the eastern part of Holstein
Holstein
called the Holstein Switzerland and the former Duchy of Lauenburg
Lauenburg
(Herzogtum Lauenburg). Fehmarn
Fehmarn
is the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbe
Elbe
is the Eider; the most important waterway is the Kiel Canal which connects the North Sea
North Sea
and Baltic Sea. Administration[edit]

Districts

Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
is divided into 11 Kreise (districts):

Dithmarschen Lauenburg
Lauenburg
(formally Herzogtum Lauenburg
Herzogtum Lauenburg
or "Duchy of Lauenburg") Nordfriesland Ostholstein Pinneberg Plön Rendsburg-Eckernförde Schleswig-Flensburg Segeberg Steinburg Stormarn

Furthermore, the four separate urban districts are:

KI   - Kiel HL   - Hansestadt ("Hanseatic town") Lübeck NMS - Neumünster FL   - Flensburg

Demographics[edit] Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
has an aging population. Since 1972 the natural increases have been negative. In 2015 the total fertility rate reached 1.512, highest value in 40 years (the average value being 1.4). In 2015 there were 23,549 births and 33,663 deaths, resulting in a natural decrease of -10,114.

Fluctuations 1970–2015[10]

Year Birthsd[›] Deaths Influx Outflux Balance TFR

1970 35,171 32,990 100,586 76,572 24,014

1975 24,282 32,993 75,949 69,169 – 1,931

1980 24,545 31,278 80,137 61,123 +12,281

1985 23,099 31,330 65,537 56 951 +355

1990 29,046 31,461 153,275 119,339 +31,521 1,47

1995 27,430 31,288 114,799 93,872 +17,069 1,33

2000 26,920 29,821 79,416 64,029 +12,486 1,43

2005 23,027 29,669 74,534 63,786 +4,106 1,37

2010 22,578 31,201 76,032 65,209 +2,200 1,45

2015 23,549 33,663 111,661 74,317 +27,230 1,51

Religion[edit]

Religion in Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
- 2011

religion

percent

EKD Protestants

53%

Roman Catholics

6%

Muslims

3%

Other or none

38%

The region has been strongly Protestant since the time of the Protestant Reformation. Percentage-wise it is the most Protestant of the 16 modern states. In 2015, members of the Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
make up 47.8% of the population, while members of the Catholic Church comprise 5.9%.[11] 46.3% of the population is not religious or adherent of other religions. Culture[edit]

Shared with neighboring Denmark: Rødgrød
Rødgrød
served in Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
with milk or custard

Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
combines Scandinavian and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition; some dishes like Rødgrød
Rødgrød
(German: Rote Grütze, literal English "red grits" or "red groats") are also shared, as well as surnames such as Hansen. The most important festivals are the Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Lübeck
Lübeck
Nordic Film Days, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck. The annual Wacken Open Air
Wacken Open Air
festival is considered to be the largest heavy metal rock festival in the world. The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Gottorf Castle in Schleswig. The Wagnerian tenor Klaus Florian Vogt
Klaus Florian Vogt
is from Schleswig - Holstein. Symbols[edit] The coat of arms shows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
decreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it. The motto of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
is "Up ewich ungedeelt" (Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: "Auf ewig ungeteilt"). It goes back to the Vertrag von Ripen or Handfeste von Ripen (Danish: Ribe Håndfæstning) or Treaty
Treaty
of Ribe in 1460. Ripen (Ribe) is a historical small town at the North Sea
North Sea
coast in Northern Schleswig. See History of Schleswig-Holstein. The anthem from 1844 is called "Wanke nicht, mein Vaterland" ("Don't falter, my fatherland"), but it is usually referred to with its first line "Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
meerumschlungen" (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") or "Schleswig-Holstein-Lied" (Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
song). The old city of Lübeck
Lübeck
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Languages[edit]

Helgoland
Helgoland
island in the North Sea

Danish, German, Low German
Low German
and North Frisian are the official languages of the state.[12] Historically, Low German
Low German
(in Holstein
Holstein
and the South of Schleswig), Danish (in Schleswig), and North Frisian (in North Frisia in Western Schleswig) were spoken. During the language change in the 19th century some Danish and North Frisian dialects in Southern Schleswig
Southern Schleswig
were replaced by German.[13][14] [15] Low German
Low German
is still used in many parts of the state, a pidgin of Low and standardised German (Missingsch) is used in most areas, and a pidgin of German and Danish (Petuh) is used in the Flensburg-Area. Danish is used by the Danish minority in Southern Schleswig, and North Frisian is spoken by the North Frisians
North Frisians
of the North Sea
North Sea
Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands in Southern Schleswig. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic (Halunder) is spoken on the island of Heligoland. High German was introduced in the 16th century, mainly for official purposes, but is today the predominant language. Economy[edit] Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
is a leader in the country's growing renewable energy industry.[16] In 2014, Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
became the first German state to cover 100% of its electric power demand with renewable energy sources (chiefly wind, solar, and biomass).[17] Education[edit] Compulsory education starts for children who are six years old on 30 June.[18] All children attend a "Grundschule", which is Germany's equivalent to primary school, for the first 4 years and then move on to a secondary school.[18] In Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
there are "Gemeinschaftsschulen", which is a new type of comprehensive school. The regional schools, which go by the German name "Regionalschule" have been done away with as of 1 January 2014.[18] The option of a Gymnasium is still available.[18] There are three universities in Kiel, Lübeck
Lübeck
and Flensburg.[19] Also, there are four public Universities of Applied Sciences in Flensburg, Heide, Kiel, and Lübeck.[19] There is the Conservatory in Lübeck
Lübeck
and the Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts in Kiel. There are also three private institutions of higher learning.[19] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
has its own parliament and government which are located in the state capital Kiel.[20] The Minister-President
Minister-President
of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
is elected by the Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein.[20] Current executive branch[edit]

Position Minister Party Source

Minister-President Daniel Günther CDU [21]

Minister of Education, Science and Cultural Affairs Karin Prien CDU [21]

Minister of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment, Nature and Digitalization Robert Habeck Greens [21]

Minister of Finances Monika Heinold Greens [21]

Minister of Interior, Rural Areas an Integration Hans-Joachim Grote CDU [21]

Minister of Justice, European Affairs, Consumer Protection and Equality Sabine Sütterlin-Waack CDU [21]

Minister of Social Affairs, Health, Youth, Family and Senior Citizens Heiner Garg FDP [21]

Minister of Economic Affairs, Transport, Employment, Technology and Tourism Bernd Klaus Buchholz FDP [21]

Recent elections[edit] See also: Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
state election, 2017 The most recent Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
state elections were held on 7 May 2017. The governing parties consisting of the Social Democrats, the Green Party, and the South Schleswig Voters' Association
South Schleswig Voters' Association
lost their majority. List of Minister-Presidents of Schleswig-Holstein[edit] Main article: List of Ministers-President of Schleswig-Holstein See also[edit]

Geography portal Europe portal European Union portal Germany
Germany
portal Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
portal

Outline of Germany Schleswig Holstein-Glückstadt Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön-Rethwisch Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Schleswig Region Sønderjylland-Schleswig

References[edit]

^ "Statistikamt Nord – Bevölkerung der Gemeinden in Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
4. Quartal 2016] (XLS-file)". Statistisches Amt für Hamburg
Hamburg
und Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(in German).  ^ By the federal vehicle registration reform of 1 July 1956 distinct prefixes were given for every district. ^ "Regional GDP per capita in the EU28 in 2013". Retrieved 2015-09-10.  ^ "State population". Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved 25 April 2007.  ^ German Chancellary (in Danish), The Great Danish Encyclopedia ^ Schwedler, Frank: Historischer Atlas Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
1867 bis 1945, Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster ^ "Lübeck: The town that said no to Hitler", Simon Heffer, www.telegraph.co.uk, Retrieved 2010-06-28. ^ Ordinance No. 46, "Abolition of the Provinces in the British Zone of the Former State of Prussia
Prussia
and Reconstitution thereof as Separate Länder" (PDF).  (218 KB) ^ Flucht und Vertreibung at Haus der Geschichte
Haus der Geschichte
(in German) ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland - Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31.12.2015 EKD Januar 2017 ^ Nygaard, Jørgen (14 May 2015). "Dansk er blevet officielt sprog i Slesvig". tvsyd.dk (in Danish).  ^ Bock, Karl N. (1948). Mittelniederdeutsch und heutiges Plattdeutsch im ehemaligen Dänischen Herzogtum Schleswig. Studien zur Beleuchtung des Sprachwechsels in Angeln und Mittelschleswig. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.  ^ Hinrichsen, Manfred (1984). Die Entwicklung der Sprachverhältnisse im Landesteil Schleswig. Wachholtz.  ^ http://www.nordfriiskinstituut.de/index.html ^ Gero Rueter (2013-09-10). "Northern Germany
Germany
spearheads energy transition". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2015-08-21.  ^ Lisa Waselikowski (2015-01-08). "Highlight of the Month: The First German State Achieves 100% Renewable Energy". Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved 2015-08-21.  ^ a b c d "Education in Schleswig-Holstein". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ a b c "Institutions of Higher Education in Schleswig-Holstein". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ a b "Responsibilities of the Government". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h "State Government". Retrieved 28 June 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Schleswig-Holstein.

Official government portal Official Directory Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Plebiscite Paper Money - 1919, 1920 Issues 360° Panoramas of Schleswig-Holstein Geographic data related to Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
at OpenStreetMap  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schleswig-Holstein". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

States of the Federal Republic of Germany

States

   Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(since 1952)    Bavaria
Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
Hesse
(since 1949)    Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(since 1949)    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(since 1990)    North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(since 1949)    Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(since 1949)    Saarland
Saarland
(since 1957)    Saxony
Saxony
(since 1990)    Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(since 1990)   Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
(since 1949)    Thuringia
Thuringia
(since 1990)

City-states

   Berlin
Berlin
(since 1990)   Bremen (since 1949)    Hamburg
Hamburg
(since 1949)

Former states

   South Baden
South Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Hohenzollern
Württemberg-Hohenzollern
(1949–1952)

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Flensburg Kiel Lübeck Neumünster

Rural districts

Dithmarschen Herzogtum Lauenburg Nordfriesland Ostholstein Pinneberg Plön Rendsburg-Eckernförde Schleswig-Flensburg Segeberg Steinburg Stormarn

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144869986 LCCN: n79074348 ISNI: 0000 0001 0775 3521 GND: 4052692-6 SELIBR: 148043 BNF:

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