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The Info List - Scathophagidae


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The Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
are a small family of Muscoidea
Muscoidea
which are often known as dung flies, although this name is not appropriate except for a few species of the genus Scathophaga
Scathophaga
which do indeed pass their larval stages in animal dung. The name probably derives from the yellow dung fly, S. stercoraria, which is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous flies in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. The Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
are medium-sized or quite small flies with a body length of 3.0 to 12.0 mm. The body is slender, especially in males, usually with an elongated, cylindrical abdomen. Many scathophagids appear more robust, however, due to a dense pubescence. Body colour body ranges from yellow to black; some species are glossy, but never with a metallic gloss. Some species are bicolored. The eyes are wide-set on the frons in males and females. The bristles on the head, thorax, and legs are well developed. The occiput usually has pale, long hairs. The arista is bare to plumose. Interfrontal bristles are absent. The wing is usually clear, but in some species has distinct marks or darkening at the tip or along the crossveins. The anal vein is long and usually reaches the wing margin. The meron is without bristles along the hind margin, near the posterior spiracle.

Play media

Hunting Cordilura on leaves of blackberry (video, 57s)

Biology[edit] The larval biology of this family is actually quite diverse, including plant feeders (leaf miners, stem borers, or feeding in seed capsules), aquatic predators, and predators on other insect larvae in wet situations - such as piles of rotting vegetable matter, seaweed, or dung. The adults are predators on other small insects, and while they are commonly seen on flowers, they are hunting prey there, rather than acting as pollinators. They are, in fact, one of the better predators of blow flies, thus are beneficial agents of biological control. Some species are attracted to dung in great numbers. One of the best-known species of this family is Scathophaga stercoraria
Scathophaga stercoraria
(Linnaeus). The reddish-brown, densely pilose males of this species gather on cattle dung and may, in parts of its range, be observed at all times of the year. Worldwide, about 500 described species are placed in 66 genera. The great majority are found in the Palearctic
Palearctic
and Nearctic
Nearctic
regions and the family is almost confined to the Northern Hemisphere with only five species so far known from the Southern Hemisphere (and two of those are common northern species of Scathophaga
Scathophaga
which have probably been imported with livestock into South Africa and Brazil). The most diverse fauna is found in the Russian Far East, and many new species have been described from this area over the last few decades. Because of the northerly distribution of many species, even within the Holarctic, Vockeroth (1987) has described this as the most northerly distributed of all fly families. He reports that, of the 150 species recorded from Canada, 25 are confined to the arctic tundra. Fifty-four species are currently recorded from the British Isles and nearly all of these have a Holarctic
Holarctic
distribution. References[edit]

Vockeroth, V.R. (1987). "Scathophagidae". Agriculture Canada Monographs. 28: 1085–1097. 

Further reading[edit] Identification

K.B. Gorodkov Family Scatophagidae
Scatophagidae
(Cordyluridae, Scatomyzidae, Scopeumatidae) in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision . Hackman, W., 1956. The Scatophagidae
Scatophagidae
(Dipt.) of Eastern Fennoscandia. Societas Fauna Flora Fennica, Fauna Fennica 2: 1-67, Fig. 1-165, Helsinki. Sack, 1937. Coryluridae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region , 7, 62a, 1-103. Séguy, E., 1934 Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae
Muscidae
acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scathophagidae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Scathophagidae

Image Gallery from Diptera.info Image Gallery from BuG Guide Family Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
at EOL Image Gallery

Species lists

Palaearctic Nearctic Japan Australasian/Oceanian World list

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1265791 BugGuide: 87 EoL: 9004 EPPO: 1SCTPF Fauna Europaea: 10953 Fossilworks: 139444 GBIF: 1555553 ITIS: 678096 NCBI: 4

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