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Scania, also known by its local name Skåne (pronounced [²skoːnɛ] ( listen)), is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden
Sweden
which consists of a peninsula on the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
and some islands close to it. Scania
Scania
is roughly equivalent to the modern Skåne County (Skåne län). The responsibility for overseeing implementation of the Swedish government's policy in the county is administered by the County Administrative Board.[3] Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are independent and separate from the Scania Regional Council which has its seat in Kristianstad. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden
Sweden
as a whole, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia. To the north, Scania
Scania
borders the provinces of Halland
Halland
and Småland, to the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and Bornholm
Bornholm
island, and to the west Øresund. Since 2000, a road and railway bridge, the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge,[4] bridges the sound to the Danish island of Amager. The HH Ferry route
HH Ferry route
across the northern part of Øresund
Øresund
also remains as an important link between the Scandinavian Peninsula and Zealand. Scania
Scania
is part of the transnational Øresund Region.[5] Scania
Scania
was part of the kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
up until the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658.[6] The period 1658–1720 saw widespread violence by the Swedish military against the local population. The same was also true about the Danish military, though to a far lesser extent. The region did not become part of Sweden
Sweden
proper until 3.July.1720.[7][8] Between the initial Swedish conquest and this date, Scania
Scania
had the same status as for instance Swedish Pomerania, territory owned by the Swedish Monarch. Until the early 19th century, a policy of forced assimilation was employed by the Swedish government
Swedish government
in what until then had been a linguistically Danish region. Controversy about whether the Scanian dialects should be classified as a regional language or as Danish or Swedish dialects
Swedish dialects
remains to this day.[9] All contact with relatives in Denmark
Denmark
was prohibited, Church services were only allowed in Swedish. All Danish literature was also banned within Scania
Scania
(but not in Sweden) well into the 19th century. The people suffered by hunger followed by diseases. Executions of many at the same time for intimidate reasons were not rare. Charles XI
Charles XI
even had plans of ethnic cleansing, in which the Scanian population should be moved to the Baltic states, due to their hostility. Instead "proper Swedes" should take their places, but this part of the Swedification process was never executed.[10] Also after 1720, locals have been exposed to dishonesty and military killings of civilians, like at the Klågerup riots in 1811. From north to south Scania
Scania
is around 130 kilometres (81 miles) and covers less than 3% of Sweden's total area, but the population of over 1,320,000 (by end of year 2016)[11] represents 13% of the country's entire population. About 16% of Scania's population is foreign-born.[12] With 121 inh/km2 Scania
Scania
is the second most densely populated province of Sweden, next only to Södermanland. The western part, along the coast of the Øresund, is by far the most populated part with a population density of close to 300 inh/km2.[13]

Contents

1 Name

1.1 Endonym and exonyms 1.2 Etymology

2 Administration 3 Heraldry 4 History 5 Regional politics 6 Communications 7 Geography and environmental factors

7.1 Origin of the Scanian topography 7.2 Vegetation and vegetation zones 7.3 National parks 7.4 Extremes

8 Population

8.1 Population around Øresund 8.2 Cities 8.3 Population development 8.4 Hundreds

9 Climate and seasons

9.1 Winter 9.2 Spring 9.3 Summer 9.4 Autumn

10 Culture

10.1 Architecture 10.2 Language, literature, and art

11 Dukes 12 Sports 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

16.1 Official links 16.2 Organizations

Name[edit] Endonym and exonyms[edit] The endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages
North Germanic languages
is Skåne (formerly spelled Skaane in Danish and Norwegian). The Latinized form Scania
Scania
occurs especially in British English as an exonym.[14] However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English text, such as in tourist information,[15] even sometimes as Skane with the diacritic omitted, which is wrong both in Swedish and English.[16][17] Scania
Scania
is the only Swedish province for which exonyms are still widely used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie, Dutch and German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc. For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the endonym Skåne is used in English.[18] In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel accounts, the Old English
Old English
form Sconeg appears.[19][20] Frankish sources mention a place called Sconaowe; Æthelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, wrote about Scani;[21] and in Beowulf's fictional account, the names Scedenige and Scedeland appear as names for what is a Danish land.[19] Etymology[edit] The names Scania
Scania
and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are considered to have the same etymology[22][23][24][25] and the southernmost tip of what is today Sweden
Sweden
was called Scania
Scania
by the Romans and thought to be an island. The name is possibly derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã, which appears in Old Norse
Old Norse
as Skáney.[26] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger" or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden, Swedish skada).[27] Skanör
Skanör
in Scania, with its long Falsterbo
Falsterbo
reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". Administration[edit] See also: Skåne County, Region Skåne, Counties of Sweden, and Municipalities of Sweden

Counties of Scania
Scania
before 1997

Like the other provinces of Sweden, the province of Scania
Scania
serves no administrative or political purposes, but is an exclusively historical and cultural entity. Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two administrative counties (län), Kristianstad
Kristianstad
County and Malmöhus County, each under a governor (landshövding) appointed by the central government of Sweden. When the first local government acts took effect in 1863, each county also got an elected county council (landsting). The counties were further divided into municipalities. The local government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, and a second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974, established today's 33 municipalities[28] (Swedish: kommuner) in Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city commissions, and are further divided into parishes (församlingar). The parishes are primarily entities of the Church of Sweden, but they also serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population registration and other statistical uses. In 1997 the two counties were merged, and Skåne County
Skåne County
has approximately the same boundaries as the province. For the pre-1997 counties see map to the right, which also outlines the still valid municipal limits. Two years later, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming Skåne Regional Council
Skåne Regional Council
(Region Skåne), responsible mainly for public healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture. Heraldry[edit] See also: Swedish heraldry

Letter from Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania
dated 1437, with a description of the arms granted to the city of Malmö.

The coat of arms of Scania
Scania
in an engraving from 1712 in Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna

During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden, however, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since 1560.[29] When Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Sweden
suddenly died in 1660 a coat of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of Malmö
Malmö
was used as a base for the new provincial arms. The Malmö
Malmö
coat of arms had been granted in 1437, during the Kalmar Union, by Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania
and contains a Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules, crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed. The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996. Coats of arms were created for these entities, also using the griffin motif. The new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a coat of arms that is the same as the province's, but with reversed tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown, it represents the County Administrative Board, which is the regional presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county councils (landsting) were amalgamated forming Region Skåne. It is the only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is also the same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's head on a blue shield.[30] The 33 municipalities within the county also have coats of arms. The Scania
Scania
Griffin
Griffin
has become a well-known symbol for the province and is also used by commercial enterprises. It is, for instance, included in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer Scania AB
Scania AB
and the airline Malmö
Malmö
Aviation. Coat of arms:

City of Malmö
Malmö
(1437)

City of Malmö (revised 1974)

Skåne (1660, revised 1939)

Kristianstad
Kristianstad
County (revised 1939)

Malmöhus County (revised 1939)

Skåne County (1997)

History[edit] Main article: History of Scania

Ale's Stones, a stone ship (burial monument) from c. 500 AD on the coast at Kåseberga, around ten kilometres (6.2 miles) south east of Ystad.

Map of Denmark
Denmark
in the Middle Ages, Scania
Scania
was together with the provinces Blekinge
Blekinge
and Halland
Halland
a part of Denmark

Front page of the latest and current peace treaty between Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden, Swedish version

Scania
Scania
was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century. It came under Danish king Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
in the middle of the 10th century. It was, together with Blekinge
Blekinge
and Halland, situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula, but formed the eastern part of the kingdom of Denmark. This geographical position made it the focal point of the frequent Dano-Swedish wars for hundreds of years. By the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, all Danish lands east of Øresund
Øresund
were ceded to the Swedish Crown. First placed under a Governor-General, the province was eventually integrated into the kingdom of Sweden. The last Danish attempt to regain its lost provinces failed after the Battle of Helsingborg
Helsingborg
(1710). In 1719 the province was subdivided in two counties and administered in the same way as the rest of Sweden. Scania
Scania
has since that year been fully integrated in the Swedish nation. In the following summer, July 1720, the last peace treaty between Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
was signed.[31][32] On 28 November 2017 it was ruled that the Scanian flag would become the official flag of Scania.[33][34] Regional politics[edit] During Sweden's financial crisis in the early and mid-1990s, Scania, Västra Götaland
Götaland
and Norrbotten
Norrbotten
were among the hardest hit in the country, with high unemployment rates as a result.[35] In response to the crisis, the County Governors were given a task by the government in September 1996 to co-ordinate various measures in the counties to increase economic growth and employment by bringing in regional actors.[35] The first proposal for regional autonomy and a regional parliament had been introduced by the Social Democratic Party's local districts in Scania
Scania
and Västra Götaland
Götaland
already in 1993. When Sweden joined the European Union
European Union
two years later, the concept "Regions of Europe" came in focus and a more regionalist-friendly approach was adopted in national politics.[36] These factors contributed to the subsequent transformation of Skåne County
Skåne County
into one of the first "trial regions" in Sweden
Sweden
in 1999, established as the country's first "regional experiment".[36] The relatively strong regional identity in Scania
Scania
is often referred to in order to explain the general support in the province for the decentralization efforts introduced by the Swedish government.[37] On the basis of large scale interview investigations about Region Skåne in Scania, scholars have found that the prevailing trend among the inhabitants of Scania
Scania
is to "[look] upon their region with more positive eyes and a firm reliance that it would deliver the goods in terms of increased democracy and constructive results out of economic planning".[38] Communications[edit]

The motorway through western Scania, E6, here at motorway service Glumslöv, is the artery of the western part of the province.

Schematic railway map of Scania, showing train type and stations for the local Pågatågen
Pågatågen
trains,the inter-regional Øresund
Øresund
trains and Småland
Småland
province local trains within Scania. These three train types shares fare zones and any tickets are valid on any train of these three operators within Scania. In all there are 66 train stations in Scania. In December 2016 was Marieholm station reopened. The line Helsingborg
Helsingborg
- Teckomatorp - Lund
Lund
does now go over Eslöv, instead of Kävlinge
Kävlinge
[39]

[40] Just as five Scanian stations are served partly ( Hässleholm
Hässleholm
and Osby) or entirely (Ballingslöv, Hästveda
Hästveda
and Killeberg) by Småland local trains, the Scanian Pågatåg trains serve Markaryd
Markaryd
in Småland.[41] There are basically three ticket systems, one for internal Scanian travel, one for travel between Scania
Scania
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and its surroundings and one for the Swedish national SJ-tickets for longer trips to the north. If traveling by railway towards the south, it's best to either use a travel agency or to purchase the ticket at Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Main Station (København H). An exception is if traveling to Berlin
Berlin
by night train and on the train ferry route between Trelleborg
Trelleborg
and Sassnitz. Unfortunately the current operator, Swedish Veolia, only uses this classic route during the summer[citation needed] (while many visitors believe Berlin
Berlin
to be best during spring and autumn[citation needed]). Electrified dual track railroad exists from the border with Denmark
Denmark
at the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge to Lund, where it splits into two directions.[42] The dual tracks going towards Gothenburg
Gothenburg
end at Helsingborg,[43] while the other branch continues beyond the provincial border to neighbouring Småland, close to Killeberg.[40][42] This latter dual track continues to mid-Sweden.[42] There are also a few single track railroads.[42] The E6 motorway is the main artery through the western part of Scania all the way from Trelleborg
Trelleborg
to the provincial border towards neighbouring Halland. It continues along the Swedish west coast to Gothenburg
Gothenburg
and most of the way to the Norwegian border. There are also several other motorways, especially around Malmö. Since 2000, the economic focus of the region has changed, with the opening of a road link across the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge to Denmark.[44] The car ferry service between Helsingborg
Helsingborg
and Helsingør
Helsingør
has 70 departures in each direction daily as of 2014[update].[45] There are three minor airports in Sturup, Ängelholm
Ängelholm
and Kristianstad. The nearby Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Airport, which is the largest international airport in the Nordic countries, also serves the province.[46] Geography and environmental factors[edit]

Aerial view of Scania
Scania
near Lund

A typical Beech
Beech
forest, the Western edge of Karlslund in Northern Landskrona

Land usage in Scania, showing hardwood forests (light green), pinewood forests (dark green) fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and residential areas (red)

Pruned willows and rapefields are typical for this area of Sweden.

Unlike some of the other regions of Sweden, the Scanian landscape is generally not mountainous, though a few examples of uncovered cliffs can be found at Hovs Hallar, at Kullaberg, and on the island Hallands Väderö. With the exception of the lake-rich and densely forested northern parts (Göinge), the rolling hills in the north-west (the Bjäre and Kulla peninsulas) and the beech-wood-clad areas extending from the slopes of the horsts, a sizeable portion of Scania's terrain consists of plains. Its low profile and open landscape distinguish Scania
Scania
from most other geographical regions of Sweden
Sweden
which consist mainly of waterway-rich, cool, mixed coniferous forests, boreal taiga and alpine tundra.[47] The province has several lakes but there are relatively few compared to Småland, the province just to the north of Scania. Stretching from the north-western to the south-eastern parts of Scania
Scania
is a belt of deciduous forests following the Linderödsåsen ridge and previously marking the border between Malmöhus County
Malmöhus County
and Kristianstad
Kristianstad
County. The much denser fir forests — so typical of the greater part of Sweden
Sweden
— are only found in the north-eastern Göinge parts of Scania
Scania
along the border with the forest-dominated province of Småland. While the landscape typically has a slightly sloping profile, in some places, such as north of Malmö, the terrain is almost completely flat. The typical rather narrow lakes with a long north to south extent, which are very common just a little bit further north, are lacking in the province. The largest lake, Ivösjön
Ivösjön
in the north-east, has similarities with the lakes further north, but has a different shape. All other lakes tend to be round, oval or of more complex shape and also lack any specific cardinal direction. Ringsjön, in the middle of the province, is the largest of such lakes. In the winter, some smaller lakes east of Lund
Lund
often attract young Eurasian sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla).

Typical Scanian coastline, here southern peak of Ven island in Øresund. The yellow colour indicates sand rather than chalk, while white colour at similar cliffs indicates chalk rather than sand

Where the sea meets higher parts of the sloping landscape, dramatic cliffs emerge very suddenly. Such cliffs are white if the soil has a high content of chalk. Typically like White Cliffs of Dover, but in Scania
Scania
and parts of Denmark
Denmark
the soil is usually more sandy, and the cliffs then become yellow instead. Good examples of such coastlines exist at the southern side of Ven in Øresund, and also between the towns of Helsingborg
Helsingborg
and Landskrona, as well as in parts of the Scanian south and south-east coast. Where the cliffs aren't steep enough, they may become overgrown with grass. Such yellow (or white) coastline cliffs also exist in nearby south-eastern Denmark, Stevns Klint and Møns Klint, and at the German island of Rügen
Rügen
by Kap Arkona. In other Swedish provinces, steep coastlines usually reveal primary rock instead. The two major plains, Söderslätt
Söderslätt
in the south-west and Österlen
Österlen
in the south-east, consist of highly fertile agricultural land—the yield per unit area is higher than in any other region in Sweden. The Scanian plains are an important resource for the rest of Sweden
Sweden
since 25–95% of the total production of various types of cereals come from the region. Almost all Swedish sugar beet comes from Scania; the plant needs a long vegetation period. The same applies also to corn, pea and rape (grown for its vegetarian oil), although these plants are less imperative in compare with sugar beets.[48] The soil is among the most fertile in the world. The Kullaberg
Kullaberg
Nature Preserve in northwest Scania
Scania
is home to several rare species including spring vetchling, Lathyrus sphaericus.[49] Origin of the Scanian topography[edit]

[T]he present landscape is a mosaic of landforms shaped during widely different ages. —  Karna Lidmar-Bergström and co-workers.[50]

The gross relief of Scania
Scania
reflect more the preglacial development than the erosion and deposits caused by the Quaternary
Quaternary
glaciers.[50] In Swedish the word ås commonly refer to eskers but major landmarks in Scania
Scania
like the Söderåsen
Söderåsen
are horsts[51] formed by inversion tectonic activity along the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone
Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone
in the late Cretaceous. The Scanian horsts run in a north-west to south-east direction, marking the southwest border of Fennoscandia.[52] Tectonic activity of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone
Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone
during the break-up of Pangaea
Pangaea
in the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epochs led to the formation of hundreds of small volcanoes in central Scania.[53][54] Remnants of the volcanoes are still visible today.[53] Parallel with volcanism a hilly peneplain formed in northeastern Scania
Scania
due to weathering and erosion of the basement rocks.[55][56] The kaolinite formed by this weathering can be observed at Ivö Klack.[56] In the Campanian
Campanian
age of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
a sea level rise led to the complete drowning of Scania. Subsequently, marine sediments buried old surfaces preserving the rocky shores and hilly terrain of the day.[56][57] In the Paleogene period southern Sweden
Sweden
was at a lower position relative to sea level but was likely still above it as it was covered by sediments.[50][55] Rivers flowing over the South Småland
Småland
peneplain flowed also across Scania
Scania
which was at the time covered by thick sediments.[50] As the relative sea level sank and much of Scania
Scania
lost its sedimentary cover antecedent rivers begun to incise the Söderåsen
Söderåsen
horst forming valleys.[50] During deglaciation these valleys likely evacuated large amounts of melt-water.[50] The relief of Scania's south-western landscape was formed by the accumulation of thick Quaternary
Quaternary
sediments during the Quaternary
Quaternary
glaciations.[52] Vegetation and vegetation zones[edit] The vast majority of Scania
Scania
belongs to the European hardwood vegetation zone, a considerable part of which is now agricultural rather than the original forest. This zone covers Europe west of Poland
Poland
and north of the Alps, and includes the British Isles, northern and central France
France
and the countries and regions to the south and southeast of the North Sea
North Sea
up to Denmark. A smaller north-eastern part of Scania
Scania
is part of the pinewood vegetation zone, in which spruce grows naturally. Within the larger part, pine may grow together with birch on sandy soil. The most common tree is beech. Other common trees are willow, oak, ash, alder and elm (which until the 1970s formed a few forests but now is heavily infected by the elm disease). Also rather southern trees like walnut tree, chestnut and hornbeam can be found. In parks horse chestnut, lime and maple are commonly planted as well. Common fruit trees planted in commercial orchards and private gardens include several varieties of apple, pear, cherry and plum; strawberries are commercially cultivated in many locations across the province. Examples of wild berries grown in domesticated form are blackberry, raspberry, cloudberry (in the north-east), blueberry, wild strawberry and loganberry. National parks[edit] Three of the 29 National parks of Sweden[58] are situated in Scania.

Dalby Söderskog[59] Stenshuvud[60] Söderåsen[61]

Extremes[edit]

Southernmost point: Smygehuk, Trelleborg
Trelleborg
Municipality, (55° 20' N) (also the southernmost point of Sweden)[62] Northernmost point: Gränsholmen, Osby
Osby
Municipality Westernmost point: Kulla udd, Höganäs
Höganäs
Municipality Easternmost point: Nyhult, Bromölla Municipality Highest point: Highest peak of Söderåsen, 212 metres Lowest spot: Kristianstad, - 2.7 metres (also the lowest spot in all of Sweden) Largest lake: Ivösjön, 55 km2 Largest island: Ven, 7.5 km2

Population[edit]

Map of the 33 municipalities of Scania. The western, yellow coloured municipalities, close to Øresund, have much higher population densities than the eastern ones

Scania
Scania
is divided into 33 municipalities with population and land surface as the table below shows. There is a large population differency between the western Scania, that is located by, or close to Øresund
Øresund
sea compared to the middle and eastern parts of the province.

Municipality Population (April 2013) Land area (km2) Population density
Population density
(/km2)

The 17 municipalities that have coast by Øresund, or border to a municipality that does In yellow

Bjuv 14,813 115.3 128.5

Burlöv 17,079 18.9 903.7

Eslöv 31,761 419.1 75.8

Helsingborg 132,254 344.0 384.4

Höganäs 24,986 150.8 165.7

Kävlinge 29,513 152.6 193.4

Landskrona 42,751 148.3 288.3

Lomma 22,415 55.6 403.1

Lund 118,542 448.5 264.3

Malmö 328,494 166,3 1975.2

Staffanstorp 22,572 106.8 211.3

Svalöv 13,217 387.3 34.1

Svedala 20,039 218.1 91.9

Trelleborg 42,744 339.9 125.8

Vellinge 33,725 142.6 236.5

Åstorp 14,849 92.2 161.0

Ängelholm 39,836 420.1 95.1

Other municipalities In white

Bromölla 12,314 162.5 74.4

Båstad
Båstad
* 14,224 209.8 67.8

Hässleholm 50,171 1268.5 39.6

Hörby 14,882 419.4 35.5

Höör 15,591 290.9 53.6

Klippan 16,741 374.3 44.7

Kristianstad 80,854 1246.3 64.9

Osby 12,704 576.2 22.0

Perstorp 7,089 158.8 44.6

Simrishamn 18,950 391.4 48.4

Sjöbo 18,359 492.2 37.3

Skurup 14,997 193.6 77.5

Tomelilla 12,913 395.9 32.6

Ystad 28,562 350.1 81.6

Örkelljunga 9,640 319.6 30.1

Östra Göinge 13,609 432.0 31.5

[63] * A small part of Båstad
Båstad
municipality is located within the neighbouring province of Halland, this includes the village "Östra Karup" and some area around it, around 500 people lives in Båstad municipality, but outside the historical boundaries of the Scanian province.

Western part of Scania
Scania
(yellow on the map and close to the Øresund sea) covers 3201.3 km2of land, and had (in April 2013) 925.982 inhabitants, almost 290 inhabitants/km2 The other municipalities cover 7281.3 km2of land, and had at the same time only 341.009 inhabitants or 47 inhabitants/km2 The same figures for the entire province are 10482.6 km2, 1.266.991 inhabitants and 121 inhab/km 2

These figures can be compared with around to 21 inhabitants per km2 for entire Sweden. Population around Øresund[edit] Western Scania
Scania
has a high population density, not only by Scandinavian standards but also by average European standards, at close to 300 inhabitants per square kilometre. But the Danish Copenhagen
Copenhagen
region at north-east Zealand, on the other side of Øresund
Øresund
Sea, is even more populated. The north-east part of Zealand
Zealand
(or the Danish Region Hovedstaden without the Baltic island of Bornholm) has a population density of 878 inhabitants/km2, most of Greater Copenhagen
Copenhagen
included. And by adding the population of western Scania
Scania
to the same of Metropolitan area of Copenhagen, then close to 3 million people live around the Øresund
Øresund
sea, within a maximum distance from Øresund
Øresund
of 25 to 30 kilometres. At a land surface of approx. 6100 km2 (approx 460 inhabitants/km2). This is in many ways a better measurement of describing the area around Øresund
Øresund
than what the far wider Øresund Region constitutes, as the latter includes also eastern Scania
Scania
(whose beaches are Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
ones and is far less populated) as well as entire Denmark
Denmark
east of Great Belt. Regardless of counting a smaller area with higher population density or a larger one, the Øresund
Øresund
Straight is located in the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
with Finland. Cities[edit] See also: List of towns in Skåne, Sweden
Sweden
and Urban areas in Sweden

Eslöv
Eslöv
church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic
Neo-Gothic
style, sometimes known in Swedish as " Eslöv
Eslöv
Gothic".[64]

The Øresund
Øresund
Bridge

The Annehem neighborhood in Lund

In 1658, the following ten places in Scania
Scania
were chartered and held town rights: Lund
Lund
(since approximately 990), Helsingborg
Helsingborg
(1085), Falsterbo
Falsterbo
(approximately 1200), Ystad
Ystad
(approximately 1200), Skanör (approximately 1200), Malmö
Malmö
(approximately 1250), Simrishamn (approximately 1300), Landskrona
Landskrona
(1413), and Kristianstad
Kristianstad
(1622). Others had existed earlier, but lost their privileges. Ängelholm
Ängelholm
got new privileges in 1767, and in 1754, Falsterbo
Falsterbo
and Skanör
Skanör
were merged. The concept of municipalities was introduced in Sweden
Sweden
in 1863, making each of the towns a city municipality of its own. In the 19th and 20th centuries, four more municipalities were granted city status, Trelleborg
Trelleborg
(1867), Eslöv
Eslöv
(1911), Hässleholm
Hässleholm
(1914) and Höganäs
Höganäs
(1936). The system with city status was abolished in 1971. Over 90% of Scania's population live in urban areas.[65] In 2000, the Øresund
Øresund
Bridge—the longest combined road and rail bridge in Europe—linked Malmö
Malmö
and Copenhagen, making Scania's population part of a 3.6 million total population in the Øresund
Øresund
Region. In 2005, the region had 9,200 commuters crossing the bridge daily, the vast majority of them from Malmö
Malmö
to Copenhagen.[66] The following localities had more than 10,000 inhabitants [67] (Year 2010.)

Malmö, 280,415 * Helsingborg, 97,122 Lund, 82,800 Kristianstad, 35,711 Landskrona, 30,499 Trelleborg, 28,290 Ängelholm, 23,240 Hässleholm, 18,500 Ystad, 18,350 Eslöv, 17,748 Staffanstorp, 14,808 Höganäs, 14,107 Kävlinge
Kävlinge
& Furulund, 13,200

Population development[edit]

The Turning Torso
Turning Torso
in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.[68]

It has been estimated that around 1570, Scania
Scania
had about 110,000 inhabitants.[69] But before the plague in the middle of the 14th century the population of all Danish territory east of Øresund (Scania, Island of Bornholm, Blekinge
Blekinge
and Halland) may have exceeded 250,000. The figures here are from two different sources.[70][71]

Year Population Year Population Year Population

1620 126,000 1820 312,000 1930 757,000

1699 142,000 1830 350,000 1940 778,000

1718 152,000 1840 388,000 1950 843,000

1735 180,000 1850 443,000 1960 882,000

1750 197,000 1860 494,000 1970 983,000

1760 202,000 1870 538,000 1980 1,023,000

1772 216,000 1880 580,000 1990 1,068,000

1780 231,000 1890 591,000 2000 1,129,000

1795 250,000 1900 628,000 2010 1,228,000

1800 259,000 1910 685,000 2015 1,303,600

1810 275,000 1920 728,000 2016 1,322,200

2015 data.[11]

Hundreds[edit] See also: List of hundreds of Sweden Scania
Scania
was formerly divided into 23 hundreds. Climate and seasons[edit]

Location of some SMHI temperature stations in Scania

Scania
Scania
has the mildest climate in Sweden, but there are some local differences. The table shows average temperatures in degrees Celsius
Celsius
at ten Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) weather stations in Scania
Scania
and three stations further north for comparison issues. Average temperature in this case means the average of the temperature taken throughout both day and night unlike the more usual daily maximum or minimum average. This is done for specific measured periods of thirty years. The last period began at 1 January 1961 and ended at 31 December 1990. The current such period started at 1 January 1991 and will end by 31 December 2020. At that time it will be possible to with a high degree of mathematical certainty to measure possible climate changes, by comparing two separate periods of 30 years with each other.

st.no Station Approx Latitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual

5320 Smygehuk 55 −0.1 −0.3 1.4 4.6 9.4 14.0 15.6 15.7 12.9 9.4 5.2 1.7 7.5

5223 Falsterbo 55 0.3 0.0 1.7 5.1 10.1 14.7 16.4 16.4 13.7 10.0 5.7 2.3 8.0

5337 Malmö
Malmö
2 55.5 0.1 0.0 2.2 6.4 11.6 15.8 17.1 16.8 13.6 9.8 5.3 1.9 8.4

5433 Simrishamn 55.5 −0.1 −0.3 1.7 4.9 9.5 14.6 16.3 16.1 13.1 9.2 4.9 1.6 7.6

5251 Örja 55.5 0.0 0.0 2.2 6.1 11.5 15.3 16.5 16.7 13.5 9.4 5.2 2.2 8.2

6203 Helsingborg 56 0.6 −0.1 2.0 6.0 11.2 15.3 16.7 16.6 13.6 9.9 5.2 1.8 8.3

5343 Lund 55.5 −0.6 −0.5 2.0 6.0 11.5 15.4 16.8 16.5 13.1 9.1 4.5 1.1 7.9

5353 Hörby 55.5 −1.6 −1.5 1.0 5.4 10.4 14.4 15.5 15.3 11.9 8.0 3.6 0.1 6.9

5455 Kristianstad 55.5 −1.0 −1.0 1.4 5.2 10.3 14.7 16.1 15.7 12.3 8.5 4.0 0.6 7.2

6322 Osby 56 −2.2 −2.1 0.6 5.0 10.5 14.4 15.5 14.9 11.3 7.4 2.8 −0.7 6.5

For comparison, some northern locations within Sweden

9749 Stockholm
Stockholm
Arlanda 60 −4.4 −4.6 -1.0 4.0 10.2 14.9 16.3 15.2 10.8 6.4 1.2 -2.9 5.5

12731 Sundsvall 62.5 −9.0 −7.9 −3.1 2.0 7.8 13.4 15.3 14.0 9.4 4.5 −2.0 −6.7 3.1

16268 Luleå 66 −11.5 −10.7 −6.0 0.1 6.4 13.0 15.5 13.6 8.3 3.0 −4.0 −9.0 1.6

[72] All three of the northern locations are at low altitude and fairly close to the Baltic Sea. Compared with locations further north, the Scanian climate differs primary by being far less cold during the winter and in having longer springs and autumns. While the July temperatures doesn't differ much (see table above). The highest temperature ever recorded in the province is 36.0 °C (97 °F) (Ängelholm, 30 July 1947) and the lowest ever recorded is −34 °C (−29 °F) (Stehag, 26 January 1942) Temperatures below −15 °C (5 °F) are extremely rare even at night, while summer temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) occurs once in a while every summer. Precipitation is spread fairly evenly, both across the province and during the year. Slightly more precipitation falls during July and August than during the other months. Winter[edit] A typical winter, with average temperatures around the freezing point during January and February, means that a period of mild weather (often windy or/and rainy) is followed by a colder period (when precipitation falls as snow)—and then the mild weather returns etc., rather than a stable temperature close to zero degrees. During the colder periods, the temperature often is below freezing point also during daytime, while as during the milder periods, temperatures below freezing point are unusual even at night. During the mild periods temperatures slightly below freezing point only occur if the night is both calm and free of clouds. If the same circumstances occur during a cold period, the nights can get very cold though. All together this adds up to a 24 hrs/day "winter average" of around 0 degrees In the north-eastern corner (and at the top of the ridges) the winter is in general notably colder though, and a snow cover may last for weeks. Spring[edit] March is locally known as the first month of the spring. The colder periods are fewer and sunny days may even feel pleasant. During April and early May temperature rises rather fast. Though spring (especially in the sense "first heat") arrives later compared to northernmost of Germany and Poland. This is particularly notable in the south-eastern corner. This is explained with the open coastline and low temperatures in the Baltic sea. Øresund
Øresund
is both narrow and shallow and gets warmer faster. The most common Scanian tree, the beech, leafes usually during the last days in April or first days of May. But is usually delayed 10–14 days in the south-east, due to "the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
chill factor". Summer[edit] Unlike the other seasons, summer isn't warmer in Scania
Scania
compared to many other Swedish provinces. Like during the winter the weather usually changes in periods that either are sunny and fairly hot (up to 30 degrees, even higher away from the coastlines), and periods of unstable cloudy and cooler weather. The time between sunset and sunrise during June and earliest July is less than 7 hours, and both the dawn and the dusk are rather long as well. But it still remains a few hours of real night. Further north in Sweden
Sweden
there is no real night, as dusk turns into dawn. (And in the northernmost of Sweden, the sun doesn't even set at all for around two months) Autumn[edit] The autumn in Scania
Scania
is a slow process, compared with more northern parts of Sweden
Sweden
(but a faster one, when comparing with any part of the British Isles). During the first half of September, temperatures usually are not so much affected, but the sunset is obviously earlier compared with in June. Temperatures drop in steps. Every new period with sunny weather becomes a bit cooler than the last one. By the end of October the defoliation process becomes evident. But not until late November all trees have lost their leaves. The period when storms and even hurricanes becomes most likely to occur durates between November and February. Most of them are coming from the Atlantic Ocean and doesn't involve snow or temperatures below freezing point. Late Scanian autumn is in general benefited from the surrounding waters (the opposite effect early spring). Culture[edit]

Traditional half-timbered farm of the southern plains in Scania.

Scania's long-running and sometimes intense trade relations with other communities along the coast of the European continent through history have made the culture of Scania
Scania
distinct from other geographical regions of Sweden. Its open landscape, often described as a colourful patchwork quilt of wheat and rapeseed fields, and the relatively mild climate at the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula, have inspired many Swedish artists and authors to compare it to European regions like Provence
Provence
in southern France
France
and Zeeland
Zeeland
in the Netherlands.[73] Among the many authors who have described the "foreign" continental elements of the Scanian landscape, diet and customs are August Strindberg
August Strindberg
and Carl Linnaeus. In 1893 August Strindberg wrote about Scania: "In beautiful, large wave lines, the fields undulate down toward the lake; a small deciduous forest limits the coastline, which is given the inviting look of the Riviera, where people shall walk in the sun, protected from the north wind. [...] The Swede leaves the plains with a certain sense of comfort, because its beauty is foreign to him." In another chapter he states: "The Swedes have a history that is not the history of the South Scandinavians. It must be just as foreign as Vasa’s history is to the Scanian."[74] In Ystad, singer-songwriter Michael Saxell's popular Scanian anthem Om himlen och Österlen
Österlen
(Of Heaven and Österlen), the flat, rolling hill landscape is described as appearing to be a little closer to heaven and the big, unending sky. Scania's historical connection to Denmark, the vast fertile plains, the deciduous forests and the relatively mild climate make the province culturally and physically distinct from the emblematic Swedish cultural landscape of forests and small hamlets.[75] Architecture[edit] See also: List of castles in Scania

The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, Scania, built 1641.

The Old Church of Södra Åsum in Sjöbo Municipality
Sjöbo Municipality
— a typical example of a medieval Danish Scanian church.

Traditional Scanian architecture is shaped by the limited availability of wood; it incorporates different applications of the building technique called half-timbering. In the cities, the infill of the façades consisted of bricks,[76] whereas the country-side half-timbered houses had infill made of clay and straw.[77] Unlike many other Scanian towns, the town of Ystad
Ystad
has managed to preserve a rather large core of its half-timbered architecture in the city center—over 300 half-timbered houses still exist today.[78] Many of the houses in Ystad
Ystad
were built in the renaissance style that was common in the entire Øresund
Øresund
Region, and which has also been preserved in Elsinore
Elsinore
(Helsingør). Among Ystad's half-timbered houses is the oldest such building in Scandinavia, Pilgrändshuset from 1480.[79] In Göinge, located in the northern part of Scania, the architecture was not shaped by a scarcity of wood, and the pre-17th-century farms consisted of graying, recumbent timber buildings around a small grass and cobblestone courtyard. Only a small number of the original Göinge farms remain today. During two campaigns, the first in 1612 by Gustav II Adolf and the second by Charles XI
Charles XI
in the 1680s, entire districts were levelled by fire.[80] In Örkened Parish, in what is now eastern Osby
Osby
Municipality, the buildings were destroyed to punish the different villages for their protection of members of the Snapphane movement in the late 17th century.[81] An original, 17th century Göinge farm, Sporrakulla Farm, has been preserved in a forest called Kullaskogen, a nature reserve close to Glimåkra
Glimåkra
in Östra Göinge. According to the local legend, the farmer saved the farm in the first raid of 1612 by setting a forest fire in front of it, making the Swedish troops believe that the farm had already been plundered and set ablaze.[82] A number of Scanian towns flourished during the Viking Age. The city of Lund
Lund
is believed to have been founded by the Viking-king Sweyn Forkbeard.[83] Scanian craftsmen and traders were prospering during this era and Denmark's first and largest mint was established in Lund. The first Scanian coins have been dated to 870 AD.[84] The archaeological excavations performed in the city indicate that the oldest known stave church in Scania
Scania
was built by Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
in Lund
Lund
in 990.[85] In 1103, Lund
Lund
was made the archbishopric for all of Scandinavia.[86] Many of the old churches in today's Scanian landscape stem from the medieval age, although many church renovations, extensions and destruction of older buildings took place in the 16th and 19th century. From those that have kept features of the authentic style, it is still possible to see how the medieval, Romanesque or Renaissance churches of Danish Scania
Scania
looked like. Many Scanian churches have distinctive crow-stepped gables and sturdy church porches, usually made of stone. The first version of Lund
Lund
Cathedral was built in 1050, in sandstone from Höör, on the initiative of Canute the Holy.[86] The oldest parts of today's cathedral are from 1085, but the actual cathedral was constructed during the first part of the 12th century with the help of stone cutters and sculptors from the Rhine valley and Italy, and was ready for use in 1123. It was consecrated in 1145 and for the next 400 years, Lund
Lund
became the ecclesiastical power center for Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and one of the most important cities in Denmark.[85] The cathedral was altered in the 16th century by architect Adam van Düren
Adam van Düren
and later by Carl Georg Brunius
Carl Georg Brunius
and Helgo Zetterwall.

Lund
Lund
skyline, with the Cathedral towers.

Scania
Scania
also has churches built in the gothic style, such as Saint Petri Church in Malmö, dating from the early 14th century. Similar buildings can be found in all Hansa cities around the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
(such as Helsingborg
Helsingborg
and Rostock). The parishes in the countryside did not have the means for such extravagant buildings. Possibly the most notable countryside church is the ancient and untouched stone church in Dalby. It is the oldest stone church in Sweden, built around the same time as Lund
Lund
cathedral. After the Lund
Lund
Cathedral was built, many of the involved workers travelled around the province and used their acquired skills to make baptism fonts, paintings and decorations, and naturally architectural constructions.

Vittskövle Castle.

Scania
Scania
has 240 palaces and country estates—more than any other province in Sweden.[87] Many of them received their current shape during the 16th century, when new or remodelled castles started to appear in greater numbers, often erected by the reuse of stones and material from the original 11th–15th-century castles and abbeys found at the estates. Between 1840 and 1900, the landed nobility in Scania
Scania
built and rebuilt many of the castles again, often by modernizing previous buildings at the same location in a style that became typical for Scania. The style is a mixture of different architectural influences of the era, but frequently refers back to the style of the 16th-century castles of the Reformation era, a time when the large estates of the Catholic Church were made Crown property and the abbeys bartered or sold to members of the aristocracy by the Danish king.[88] For many of the 19th century remodels, Danish architects were called in. According to some scholars, the driving force behind the use of historical Scanian architecture, as interpreted by 19th century Danish architects using Dutch Renaissance style, was a wish to refer back to an earlier era when the aristocracy had special privileges and political power in relation to the Danish king.[89] Language, literature, and art[edit] See also: Scanian dialects Scanian dialects
Scanian dialects
have various local native idioms and speech patterns, and realizes diphthongs and South Scandinavian Uvular trill, as opposed to the supradental /r/-sound characteristic of spoken Standard Swedish. They are very similar to the dialect of Danish spoken in Bornholm, Denmark. The prosody of the Scanian dialects
Scanian dialects
has more in common with German, Danish and Dutch (and sometimes also with English, although to a lesser extent) than with the prosody of central Swedish dialects.[90] Famous Scanian authors include Victoria Benedictsson, (1850–1888) from Domme, Trelleborg, who wrote about the inequality of women in the 19th century society, but who also authored regional stories about Scania, such as Från Skåne of 1884; Ola Hansson[91] (1860–1925) from Hönsinge, Trelleborg; Vilhelm Ekelund
Vilhelm Ekelund
(1880–1949) from Stehag, Eslöv; Fritiof Nilsson Piraten
Fritiof Nilsson Piraten
(1895–1972) from Vollsjö, Sjöbo; Hjalmar Gullberg
Hjalmar Gullberg
(1898–1961) from Malmö; Artur Lundkvist (1906–1991) from Hagstad, Perstorp; Hans Alfredsson
Hans Alfredsson
(born 1931) and Jacques Werup
Jacques Werup
(born 1945), both from Malmö. Birgitta Trotzig (1929-2011) from Gothenburg
Gothenburg
has written several historic novels set in Scania, such as The Exposed of 1957, which describes life in 17th century Scania
Scania
with a primitive country priest as its main character and the 1961 novel A Tale from the Coast, which recounts a legend about human suffering and is set in Scania
Scania
in the 15th century. Gabriel Jönsson
Gabriel Jönsson
(1892–1984) from Ålabodarna, Landskrona. A printing-house was established in the city of Malmö
Malmö
in 1528. It became instrumental in the propagation of new ideas and during the 16th century, Malmö
Malmö
became the center for the Danish reformation.[92]

Traditional Scanian nuptial array in Auguste Racinet's Le costume historique.

Scanian culture, as expressed through the medium of textile art, has received international attention during the last decade.[93] The art form, often referred to as Scanian Marriage Weavings, flourished from 1750
1750
for a period of 100 years, after which it slowly vanished. Consisting of small textile panels mainly created for wedding ceremonies, the art is strongly symbolic, often expressing ideas about fertility, longevity and a sense of hope and joy.[94] The Scanian artists were female weavers working at home, who had learned to weave at a young age, often in order to have a marriage chest filled with beautiful tapestries as a dowry.[95] According to international collectors and art scholars, the Scanian patterns are of special interest for the striking similarities with Roman, Byzantine
Byzantine
and Asian art. The designs are studied by art historians tracing how portable decorative goods served as transmitters of art concepts from culture to culture, influencing designs and patterns along the entire length of the ancient trade routes.[95] The Scanian textiles show how goods traded along the Silk Road brought Coptic, Anatolian, and Chinese designs and symbols into the folk art of far away regions like Scania, where they were reinterpreted and integrated into the local culture. Some of the most ancient designs in Scanian textile art are pairs of birds facing a tree with a "great bird" above, often symbolized simply by its wings.[95] Regionally derived iconography include mythological Scanian river horses in red (Swedish: bäckahästar), with horns on their foreheads and misty clouds from their nostrils.[95] The horse motif has been traced to patterns on 4th- and 5th-century Egyptian fabrics, but in Scanian art it is transformed to illustrate the Norse river horse of Scanian folklore.[96] Dukes[edit] Main article: Dukes of Swedish Provinces The title of duke was reintroduced in Sweden
Sweden
in 1772 and since this time, Swedish princes have been created dukes of various provinces, although the titles are purely nominal. The Dukes of Scania
Scania
have been:

Crown Prince Carl (from his birth in 1826 until he became king in 1859) Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (from his birth in 1882 until he became king in 1950) Prince Oscar 2016-

From his marriage, in 1905, King Gustaf VI Adolf had his summer residence at Sofiero Palace
Sofiero Palace
in Helsingborg. He and his family spent their summers there, and the cabinet meetings held there during the summer months forced the ministers to arrive by night train from Stockholm. He died at Helsingborg
Helsingborg
Hospital in 1973. Sports[edit] Football has always been the most popular arena and team sport within the province, from attendances not least. Clubs are administered by Skånes Fotbollförbund. Malmö
Malmö
FF has won Allsvenskan
Allsvenskan
23 times, Helsingborg
Helsingborg
IF 7 times and was one of the twelve clubs in the league's very first season, 1924/25. Also Landskrona
Landskrona
BoIS was among the twelve original clubs, but has never won. These three clubs are historically the most famous football clubs in Scania. But also IFK Malmö, Stattena IF, Råå IF
Råå IF
(the latter two clubs are both from Helsingborg) as well as Trelleborgs FF have participated. Handball
Handball
is also a relatively popular team sport, whilst Basketball never really has gained much interest. Ice hockey
Ice hockey
was for a long time thought of as a "Northern sport", but has nevertheless became a popular attendance sport too. Malmö Redhawks has even become Swedish Champions twice, but also Rögle BK (from Ängelholm) have participated at the highest level of Swedish ice hockey during quite a lot of seasons. Rugby is played in Scania
Scania
by the Skåne Crusaders
Skåne Crusaders
who play in the Sweden
Sweden
Rugby League. The overwhelmingly largest sport related events in both Scanian as well as Swedish history, were however the motorcycle Saxtorp TT-races during the 1930s, which most of the years gathered crowds of 150.000 or more. Tennis
Tennis
is very much associated with Båstad, a small town, but of the kind which grows enormously during the summer. Golf
Golf
is the most popular sport to exercise after a certain age, at least. Scania
Scania
has a large amount of golf courses, of which Barsebäck Golf
Golf
& Country Club is the most well-known. Most Golf
Golf
courses are open also during the winter, but may sometimes close temporarily in cases of snowy periods. See also[edit]

2008 Skåne County
Skåne County
earthquake 460 Scania, an asteroid discovered in 1900 Sång till Skåne, a song about the province

Notes[edit]

^ "Statistics Sweden". Archived from the original on 20 August 2010.  ^ "Folkmängd i landskapen den 31 december 2016". Statistiska Centralbyrån.  ^ "index - Länsstyrelsen i Skåne". Lansstyrelsen.se. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Prices Øresundsbron". Uk.oresundsbron.com. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Öresundsregionen.se". Oresundsregionen.se. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ Graham, Brian and Peter Howard, eds. (2008). The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-4922-9, p. 79 ^ Swedish National Archive, (in French as it was dictated by France and earlier signed at Fontainebleau
Fontainebleau
and Fredensborg
Fredensborg
earlier the same year; press left to read the entire text)[1] ^ Danish encyclopedic source "Den Store Danske" ^ Scanian « Sorosoro. Sorosoro.org. Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ Swedish linguist and celebrity Fredrik Lindström (writer)
Fredrik Lindström (writer)
at [2] ^ a b "Folkmängd 31 december; ålder - Regionfakta". www.regionfakta.com.  ^ Skåne i siffror Archived 16 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Den skånska resan mot framtiden. Länsstyrelsen i Skåne län, 14 February 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. ^ definition and sources, see below ^ Skane county and province, Sweden
Sweden
Britannica.com. Global.britannica.com. Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ " Sweden
Sweden
/ Skåne". Geographia.com. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Skane, Sweden". Planetware.com. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ "Map of Skane in Sweden". Map-of-sweden.co.uk. Retrieved 3 March 2010.  ^ [3] Archived 26 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b North, Richard (1997). Heathen Gods in Old English
Old English
Literature. Cambridge University Press: 1997, ISBN 978-0-521-55183-0, p. 192. ^ Svenskt ortnamnslexikon, 2003 ^ Björkman,Erik (1973). Studien über die Eigennamen im Beowulf. M. Sändig, ISBN 978-3-500-28470-5, p. 99. ^ Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976. ^ Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-47299-9. p. XXII. "The name Scandinavia
Scandinavia
was used by classical authors in the first centuries of the Christian era to identify Scania
Scania
and the mainland further north which they believed to be an island." ^ Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, p. 3: "The very name 'Scandinavia' is of cultural origin, since it derives from the Scanians or Scandians (the Latinised spelling of Skåninger), a people who long ago lent their name to all of Scandinavia, perhaps because they lived centrally, at the southern tip of the peninsula." ^ Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25-71. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999. ^ Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-47299-9. ^ Region Skåne. Municipalities in Skåne[permanent dead link]. Official site. Retrieved 24 August 2007. ^ Clara Nevéus, Bror Jacques de Wærn: Ny svensk vapenbok. Riksarkivet 1992. (In Swedish) ^ Vårt vapen[permanent dead link]. Region Skåne. (In Swedish). Retrieved 4 April 2008. ^ 3 juli 1720 - Riksarkivet - Sök i arkiven. Sok.riksarkivet.se. Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ Fredstraktat, tillige med dend: over bemelte Freds-tractat forfattede ... - Google Břger. Books.google.dk. Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ [4] ^ [5] ^ a b McCallion, Malin Stegmann (2004). The Europeanisation of Swedish Regional Government. Policy Networks in Sub National Governance: Understanding Power Relations. Paper 8, Workshop 25, European Consortium of Political Research. 2004 Joint Sessions of Workshops, Uppsala, Sweden. ^ a b Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism: Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden. The Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, EUROPUB Case Study (WP2). ^ Kramsch,Olivier and Olivier Thomas (2004). Cross-border Governance in the European Union. Routledge, 2004, ISBN 978-0-415-31541-8. ^ Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism and Regionalism: Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden, The Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, EUROPUB Case Study (WP2). Final Report. ^ https://www.skanetrafiken.se/globalassets/dokumentbank/linjekartor/alla_taglinjer.pdf ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014. ; chose "linjekarta för tåg (PDF)" ^ as stated in the train map info, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.  , and press for PDF "Linjekarta fær tåg (pdf)" Note though that this PDF also shows a part of the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
rail network ^ a b c d Sveriges järnvägsnät - Trafikverket. Trafikverket.se (31 March 2015). Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ Last part of http://www.trafikverket.se/Privat/Vagar-och-jarnvagar/Sveriges-jarnvagsnat/Vastkustbanan/ "Enligt vår nuvarande planering kommer utbyggnaden till största delen vara klar 2012–2014. Några sträckor kommer då att återstå, bland annat sträckan genom Varberg och sträckan Ängelholm–Helsingborg. Tunneln genom Hallandsås planeras vara klar 2015." No dual tracks exist between Helsingborg
Helsingborg
and Ängelholm ^ "The final span over the Öresund". Archived from the original on 11 July 2011.  ^ Helsingborg
Helsingborg
ferry, compare prices, times and book tickets. Directferries.co.uk. Retrieved on 24 June 2015. ^ ""2013 satte Københavns Lufthavn for tredje år i træk passagerrekord, da 24,1 million passagerer rejste gennem lufthavnen."".  ^ Österberg, Klas (2001). Forest - Geographical Regions. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 25 January 2001. Retrieved 4 November 2006. Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ SCB. Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok 2006. (Agricultural Statistic Yearbook 2006). Published online in pdf-format by Statiska Centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden). (In Swedish). Retrieved 10 January 2007. Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hogan, C.M. (2004). Kullaberg
Kullaberg
environmental analysis. Lumina Technologies prepared for municipality of Höganäs, Aberdeen Library Archives, Aberdeen, Scotland, 17 July 2004. ^ a b c d e f Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Elvhage, Christian; Ringberg, Bertil (1991). "Landforms in Skåne, South Sweden". Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. 73 (2): 61–91. doi:10.2307/520984.  ^ Lundin, Jonas (13 November 2013). " Söderåsen
Söderåsen
ingen riktig ås". Lokaltidningen Landskrona
Landskrona
Svalöv (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna and Jens-Ove Näslund (2005). "Uplands and Lowlands in Southern Sweden". In The Physical Geography of Fennoscandia. Ed. Matti Seppälä. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 255–261. ISBN 978-0-19-924590-1. ^ a b Bergelin, Ingemar (2009). " Jurassic
Jurassic
volcanism in Skåne, southern Sweden, and its relation to coeval regional and global events". GFF. 131 (1–2): 165–175. doi:10.1080/11035890902851278.  ^ Augustsson, Carita (2001). "Lapilli tuff as evidence of Early Jurassic
Jurassic
Strombolian-type volcanism in Scania, southern Sweden". GFF. 123 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1080/11035890101231023.  ^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Olvmo, Mats; Bonow, Johan M. (2017). "The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient shield". GFF.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b c Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter (2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological paradigms: Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden". Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Research. 31: 567–576. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.07.006.  ^ "Nationalparker och andra fina platser - Naturvårdsverket - Swedish EPA". Naturvardsverket.se. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.  ^ "Dalby Söderskog, Skåne län - Naturvårdsverket - Swedish EPA". Naturvardsverket.se. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ "Welcome - Länsstyrelsen i Skåne". Lst.se. 18 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ " Söderåsen
Söderåsen
National Park". Nationalpark-soderasen.lst.se. Retrieved 6 March 2010.  ^ "skanebravaden.se". skanebravaden.se. Retrieved 4 March 2010.  ^ inahbitants "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "Churches - Eslövs kommun". Eslov.se. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010.  ^ The Foundation for Recreational Areas in Skåne. "Information about the Skaneled Trails" Archived 18 October 2003 at the Wayback Machine.. Region Skåne. Retrieved 20 October 2006. ^ Peter, Laurence. "Bridge shapes new Nordic hub". BBC News, 14 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006. ^ "Tätortsstatistik från Statistiska centralbyrån". [permanent dead link] ^ "Tallest Building In Sweden
Sweden
Opens, And Is Pretty Twisted Looking". The Huffington Post. 28 August 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ "De svenska länens befolkning". Tacitus.nu. 7 September 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2010.  ^ Folkmängden i Sveriges socknar och kommuner 1571-1991 ^ B.R Mitchell: International Historical Statistics 1750–1993 ^ Source: Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI. From http://www.smhi.se/polopoly_fs/1.2860!ttm6190%5B1%5D.pdf , the number and name of all Swedish meteorological weather stations are available. By the use of the station number, the average temperature for each months and annual average is available at http://data.smhi.se/met/climate/time_series/month_year/normal_1961_1990/SMHI_month_year_normal_61_90_temperature_celsius.txt The exact location of the stations is given in the internal Swedish "Coordinates of the reich", however four figured stations numbers that begins with a "5" is located between the 55th and 56th latitude, "6" between 56th and 57th latitude etc. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1750). Skånska resa (Scanian Journey). ^ Strindberg, August (1893). "Skånska landskap med utvikningar". Prosabitar från 1890-talet. Bonniers , Stockholm, 1917. (In Swedish). ^ Germundsson, Tomas (2005). "Regional Cultural Heritage versus National Heritage in Scania’s Disputed National Landscape." International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 21–37. (ISSN 1470-3610). ^ Albertsson, Rolf. "Half-timbered houses". Section in Malmö
Malmö
1692 - a historical project. Malmö
Malmö
City Culture Department and Museum of Foteviken. Retrieved 16 January 2007. Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Oresundstid.Images: Half-timbered house in Scania. Retrieved 16 January 2007. Archived 13 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ystad
Ystad
Municipality. Welcome to Ystad
Ystad
Archived 3 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Official site. Retrieved 16 January 2007. ^ Ystad
Ystad
Municipality. A walk through the centuries, section "Pedestrian street". Official site. Retrieved 16 January 2007. Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ A letter from the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf
describes a raid in 1612: "We have been in Scania
Scania
and we have burned most of the province, so that 24 parishes and the town of Vä lie in ashes. We have met no resistance, neither from cavalry nor footmen, so we have been able to rage, plunder, burn and kill to our hearts' content. We had thought of visiting Århus in the same way, but when it was brought to our knowledge that there were Danish cavalry in the town, we set out for Markaryd
Markaryd
and we could destroy and ravage as we went along and everything turned out lucky for us." (Quoted and translated by Oresundstid in the section "Skåne was ravaged".) ^ Herman Lindquist (1995). Historien om Sverige – storhet och fall. Norstedts Förlag, 2006. ISBN 978-91-1-301535-4. (In Swedish). ^ Skåneleden: 6B. Breanäsleden Archived 23 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (In Swedish). Official site by The Foundation for Recreational Areas in Skåne and Region Skåne. See also Göingebygden, official site by Skåne Nordost Tourism Office and The Snapp-hane Kingdom. Official site by Osby
Osby
Tourism Office. Archived 2 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Touchdowns in the History of Lund
Lund
- Lunds kommun". Lund.se. 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.  ^ Hauberg, P. (1900). Myntforhold og Udmyntninger i Danmark indtil 1146. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6. Række, historisk og filosofisk Afd. V. I., Chapter III: Danmarks Mynthistorie indtil 1146 Archived 20 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine., and Chapter V: Myntsteder published online by Gladsaxe Gymnasium. (In Danish). Retrieved 10 January 2007. ^ a b City of Lund. Touchdowns in the History of Lund
Lund
Archived 24 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Official site for the City of Lund. Retrieved 10 January 2006. ^ a b Terra Scaniae. Lunds Domkyrka Archived 31 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. (In Swedish). Retrieved 11 January 2007. ^ Region Skåne
Region Skåne
(2006). What is typical Skåne?. Official site. Retrieved 22 January 2007.[dead link] ^ Terra Scaniae. 1600-talet. (In Swedish). Retrieved 27 January 2007. Archived 30 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bjurklint Rosenblad, Kajsa. Scenografi för ett ståndsmässigt liv: adelns slottsbyggande i Skåne 1840-1900. Malmö: Sekel, 2005. ISBN 978-91-975222-3-6. Abstract in English at Scripta Academica Lundensia, Lund
Lund
University. Archived 23 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gårding, Eva (1974). "Talar skåningarna svenska?" (Do Scanians speak Swedish?). Svenskans beskrivning. Ed. Christer Platzack. Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk, 1973, p 107, 112. (In Swedish) ^ "Poems" of 1884 and "Notturno" of 1885 celebrate the natural beauty and folkways of Scania. The result of a globetrotting life style, Ola Hansson's later poetry had various continental influences, but like many other Scanian writers', his authorship often reflected the tension between cosmopolitan culture and regionalism. For larger trends and a historic perspective on Scanian literature, see Vinge, Louise (ed.) Skånes litteraturhistoria del I, ISBN 978-91-564-1048-2, and Skånes litteraturhistoria del II, ISBN 978-91-564-1049-9, Corona: Malmö, 1996–1997. (In Swedish). ^ Infotek Öresund. Litteraturhistoria, Malmö
Malmö
Archived 5 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Fact sheet produced by Infotek Öresund, a cooperative project between the public libraries of Helsingborg, Elsinore, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Malmö, published online by Malmö
Malmö
Public Library, 4 November 2005. (In Swedish). "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ See for example: Monument to Love and Textiles de Skåne des XVIIIe et XIXe Siècles. Scanian textiles from the Khalili Collection exhibited at the Swedish Cultural Centre in Paris and the Boston University Art Gallery. Retrieved 15 January 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Keelan, Major Andrew and Wendy Keelan. The Khalili Collection - An Introduction. The Khalili Family Trust. Retrieved 15 January 2007. Archived 18 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d Hansen, Viveka (1997). Swedish Textile Art: Traditional Marriage Weavings from Skåne. Nour Foundation: 1997. ISBN 978-1-874780-07-6. ^ Lundström, Lena (2003). "Vattenväsen i väverskans händer". Curator's description of the exhibition "Aqvaväsen" at Trelleborgs Museum in Vårt Trelleborg, 2:2003, pp. 20-21. Available online in pdf format. (In Swedish).

References[edit]

Albertsson, Rolf (2007). "Half-timbered houses". Malmö
Malmö
1692 - a historical project. Malmö
Malmö
City Culture Department and Museum of Foteviken. Retrieved 16 January 2007. Anderson, Carl Edlund (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999. Björk, Gert and Henrik Persson. "Fram för ett öppet och utåtriktat Skåne". Sydsvenskan, 20 May 2000. Reproduced by FSF. (In Swedish). Retrieved 3 April 2008. Bjurklint Rosenblad, Kajsa (2005). Scenografi för ett ståndsmässigt liv: adelns slottsbyggande i Skåne 1840-1900. Malmö: Sekel, 2005. ISBN 978-91-975222-3-6. Bonney, Richard (1995). Economic Systems and State Finance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820545-6. Craig, David J. (2003). "Monument to Love". Boston University Bridge, 29 August 2003,• Vol. VII, No. 1. Retrieved 2 April 2008. Danish National Archives (2006). Lensregnskaberne 1560-1658. (In Danish). Retrieved 20 October 2006. City of Lund
Lund
(2006).Touchdowns in the History of Lund. Retrieved 10 January 2006. Gårding, Eva (1974). "Talar skåningarna svenska". Svenskans beskrivning. Ed. Christer Platzack. Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk, 1973. (In Swedish) Germundsson, Tomas (2005). "Regional Cultural Heritage versus National Heritage in Scania’s Disputed National Landscape." International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005. ISSN 1470-3610. Hansen, Viveka (1997). Swedish Textile Art: Traditional Marriage Weavings from Scania. Nour Foundation: 1997. ISBN 978-1-874780-07-6. Hauberg, P. (1900). Myntforhold og Udmyntninger i Danmark indtil 1146. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6. Række, historisk og filosofisk Afd. V. I., Chapter III: Danmarks Mynthistorie indtil 1146, and Chapter V: Myntsteder, Gladsaxe Gymnasium. (In Danish). Retrieved 10 January 2007. Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976. Helle, Knut, ed. (2003). The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-47299-9. Hogan, C.M. (2004). Kullaberg
Kullaberg
environmental analysis. Lumina Technologies, Aberdeen Library Archives, Aberdeen, Scotland, 17 July 2004. Jespersen, Knud J. V. (2004) . A History of Denmark. Palgrave Macmillian. ISBN 978-0-333-65917-5. Keelan, Major Andrew and Wendy Keelan (2006). The Khalili Collection. The Khalili Family Trust. Retrieved 1 April 2008. Lidmar-Bergström, Karna and Jens-Ove Näslund (2005). "Uplands and Lowlands in Southern Sweden". The Physical Geography of Fennoscandia. Ed. Matti Seppälä. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0-19-924590-1. Lindquist, Herman (1995). Historien om Sverige – storhet och fall. Norstedts Förlag, 2006. ISBN 978-91-1-301535-4. (In Swedish). Linnaeus, Carl (1750). Skånska resa. (In Swedish). Lund
Lund
University School of Aviation (2005). Ljungbyhed airport - ESTL. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Lundström, Lena (2003). "Vattenväsen i väverskans händer". Vårt Trelleborg, 2:2003. (In Swedish). Malmö
Malmö
Public Library (2005). Litteraturhistoria, Malmö. Infotek Öresund, 4 November 2005. (In Swedish). Nevéus, Clara and Bror Jacques de Wærn (1992). Ny svensk vapenbok. Riksarkivet 1992. (In Swedish) Olin, Martin (2005). "Royal Galleries in Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
Sweden
around 1700". Kungliga rum – maktmanifestation och distribution. Historikermöte 2005, Uppsala University. Retrieved 2 April 2008. Olwig, Kenneth R. (2005). "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005. Oresundstid (2008). "The Swedification of Scania", "Renaissance Houses: Half-timbered houses". Retrieved 2 April 2008. Österberg, Klas (2001). Forest - Geographical Regions. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 25 January 2001. Retrieved 4 November 2006. Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997. Peter, Laurence (2006). "Bridge shapes new Nordic hub". BBC News, 14 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006. Region Skåne
Region Skåne
(2007). Municipalities in Skåne[permanent dead link], Democracy-Increased autonomy.What is typical Skåne?. Retrieved 22 January 2007. Sawyer, Birgit; Sawyer, Peter H. (1993). Medieval
Medieval
Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa 800–1500. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1739-5.  SCB (2007). "Skördar". Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok 2006. Statiska Centralbyrån. (In Swedish). Retrieved 10 January 2007. Skåne Regional Council
Skåne Regional Council
(1999). Newsletter., No. 2, 1999. Stadin, Kekke (2005). "The Masculine Image of a Great Power: Representations of Swedish imperial power c. 1630–1690". Scandinavian Journal of History, Vol. 30, No. 1. March 2005, pp. 61–82. ISSN 0346-8755. Stiftelsen för fritidsområden i Skåne (2006).Skåneleden: 6B. Breanäsleden (In Swedish), Information about the Skaneled Trails. The Foundation for Recreational Areas in Skåne and Region Skåne. Retrieved 11 April 2008. Strindberg, August (1893). "Skånska landskap med utvikningar". Prosabitar från 1890-talet. Bonniers, Stockholm, 1917. (In Swedish). SAOB (2008). Skåneland.(In Swedish). Retrieved 2 April 2008. Sorens, Jason (2005). "The Cross-Sectional Determinants of Secessionism in Advanced Democracies". Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, 304-326 (2005). doi:10.1177/0010414004272538 2005 SAGE Publications. Språk- och Folkminnesinstitutet (2003). Svenskt Ortnamnslexikon. Uppsala, 2003. (In Swedish) Tägil, Sven (2000). "Regions in Europe – a historical perspective". In Border Regions in Comparison. Ed. Hans-Åke Persson. Studentlitteratur, Lund. ISBN 978-91-44-01858-4. Terra Scaniae (2008). Skånes län efter 1658, Hårdare försvenskning, "Kuppförsök mot svenskarna 1658", "Lunds Domkyrka", 1600-talet, Generalguvernörens uppgifter.(In Swedish). Retrieved 2 April 2008. Upton, Anthony F. (1998). Charles XI
Charles XI
and Swedish Absolutism, 1660–1697. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-521-57390-0. Vinge, Louise (ed.) Skånes litteraturhistoria, Corona: Malmö, 1996–1997, Part I, ISBN 978-91-564-1048-2, and Part II, ISBN 978-91-564-1049-9. (In Swedish). Ystad
Ystad
Municipality (2007). Welcome to Ystad
Ystad
and "Pedestrian street". A walk through the centuries. Retrieved 16 January 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Scania.

Official links[edit]

Region Skåne
Region Skåne
- The County council Scania's Public Recreational Areas - Region Skåne's public forests and parks Skåne - Business Region Skåne's official website for culture, heritage and tourism Länsstyrelsen - County Administration Board Skåneleden - Public nature trails through Scania

Organizations[edit]

Oresund Region - The regional body of the Oresund Region Regional Museum - Museum in Kristianstad Kommunförbundet Skåne - A cooperation between Scania's 33 municipalities Skånes hembygdsförbund (in Swedish) - Heritage conservation organization Terra Scaniae - History project established for Scanian schools, financed with subsidies from Skåne Regional Council.

v t e

Lands and Provinces of Sweden

Götaland

Blekinge Bohuslän Dalsland Gotland Halland Öland Östergötland Scania Småland Västergötland

Svealand

Dalarna Närke Södermanland Uppland Värmland Västmanland

Norrland

Ångermanland Gästrikland Hälsingland Härjedalen Jämtland Lappland Medelpad Norrbotten Västerbotten

Coordinates: 55°48′N 13°37′E / 55.800°N 13.617°E / 55

.