Scania, also known by its local name Skåne
(pronounced [²skoːnɛ] ( listen)), is the
southernmost province (landskap) of
Sweden which consists of a
peninsula on the southern tip of the
Scandinavian Peninsula and some
islands close to it.
Scania is roughly equivalent to the modern Skåne
County (Skåne län). The responsibility for overseeing implementation
of the Swedish government's policy in the county is administered by
the County Administrative Board. Within Scania, there are 33
municipalities that are independent and separate from the Scania
Regional Council which has its seat in Kristianstad. Scania's largest
city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in
Sweden as a whole,
as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.
To the north,
Scania borders the provinces of
Halland and Småland, to
the northeast Blekinge, to the east and south the
Baltic Sea and
Bornholm island, and to the west Øresund. Since 2000, a road and
railway bridge, the
Øresund Bridge, bridges the sound to the
Danish island of Amager. The
HH Ferry route
HH Ferry route across the northern part
Øresund also remains as an important link between the Scandinavian
Peninsula and Zealand.
Scania is part of the transnational Øresund
Scania was part of the kingdom of
Denmark up until the Treaty of
Roskilde in 1658. The period 1658–1720 saw widespread violence by
the Swedish military against the local population. The same was also
true about the Danish military, though to a far lesser extent. The
region did not become part of
Sweden proper until 3.July.1720.
Between the initial Swedish conquest and this date,
Scania had the
same status as for instance Swedish Pomerania, territory owned by the
Until the early 19th century, a policy of forced assimilation was
employed by the
Swedish government in what until then had been a
linguistically Danish region. Controversy about whether the Scanian
dialects should be classified as a regional language or as Danish or
Swedish dialects remains to this day. All contact with relatives in
Denmark was prohibited, Church services were only allowed in Swedish.
All Danish literature was also banned within
Scania (but not in
Sweden) well into the 19th century. The people suffered by hunger
followed by diseases. Executions of many at the same time for
intimidate reasons were not rare.
Charles XI even had plans of ethnic
cleansing, in which the Scanian population should be moved to the
Baltic states, due to their hostility. Instead "proper Swedes" should
take their places, but this part of the Swedification process was
never executed. Also after 1720, locals have been exposed to
dishonesty and military killings of civilians, like at the Klågerup
riots in 1811.
From north to south
Scania is around 130 kilometres (81 miles) and
covers less than 3% of Sweden's total area, but the population of over
1,320,000 (by end of year 2016) represents 13% of the country's
entire population. About 16% of Scania's population is
foreign-born. With 121 inh/km2
Scania is the second most densely
populated province of Sweden, next only to Södermanland. The western
part, along the coast of the Øresund, is by far the most populated
part with a population density of close to 300 inh/km2.
1.1 Endonym and exonyms
5 Regional politics
7 Geography and environmental factors
7.1 Origin of the Scanian topography
7.2 Vegetation and vegetation zones
7.3 National parks
8.1 Population around Øresund
8.3 Population development
9 Climate and seasons
10.2 Language, literature, and art
13 See also
16 External links
16.1 Official links
Endonym and exonyms
The endonym used in Swedish and other
North Germanic languages
North Germanic languages is
Skåne (formerly spelled Skaane in Danish and Norwegian). The
Scania occurs especially in British English as an
exonym. However, sometimes the endonym Skåne is used in English
text, such as in tourist information, even sometimes as Skane with
the diacritic omitted, which is wrong both in Swedish and
Scania is the only Swedish province for which exonyms
are still widely used in many languages, e.g. French Scanie, Dutch and
German Schonen, Polish Skania, Spanish Escania, Italian Scania, etc.
For the province's modern administrative counterpart, Skåne län, the
endonym Skåne is used in English.
In the Alfredian translation of Orosius's and Wulfstan's travel
Old English form Sconeg appears. Frankish
sources mention a place called Sconaowe; Æthelweard, an Anglo-Saxon
historian, wrote about Scani; and in Beowulf's fictional account,
the names Scedenige and Scedeland appear as names for what is a Danish
Scandinavia are considered to have the same
etymology and the southernmost tip of what is today
Sweden was called
Scania by the Romans and thought to be an island.
The name is possibly derived from the Germanic root *Skaðin-awjã,
which appears in
Old Norse as Skáney. According to some scholars,
the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *Skaðan- meaning "danger"
or "damage" (English scathing, German Schaden, Swedish skada).
Skanör in Scania, with its long
Falsterbo reef, has the same stem
(skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks".
See also: Skåne County, Region Skåne, Counties of Sweden, and
Municipalities of Sweden
Scania before 1997
Like the other provinces of Sweden, the province of
Scania serves no
administrative or political purposes, but is an exclusively historical
and cultural entity.
Between 1719 and 1996, the province was subdivided in two
administrative counties (län),
Kristianstad County and Malmöhus
County, each under a governor (landshövding) appointed by the central
government of Sweden. When the first local government acts took effect
in 1863, each county also got an elected county council (landsting).
The counties were further divided into municipalities. The local
government reform of 1952 reduced the number of municipalities, and a
second subdivision reform, carried out between 1968 and 1974,
established today's 33 municipalities (Swedish: kommuner) in
Scania. The municipalities have municipal governments, similar to city
commissions, and are further divided into parishes (församlingar).
The parishes are primarily entities of the Church of Sweden, but they
also serve as a divisioning measure for the Swedish population
registration and other statistical uses.
In 1997 the two counties were merged, and
Skåne County has
approximately the same boundaries as the province. For the pre-1997
counties see map to the right, which also outlines the still valid
Two years later, the county council areas were amalgamated, forming
Skåne Regional Council
Skåne Regional Council (Region Skåne), responsible mainly for public
healthcare, public transport and regional planning and culture.
See also: Swedish heraldry
Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania dated 1437, with a description of the
arms granted to the city of Malmö.
The coat of arms of
Scania in an engraving from 1712 in Erik
Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna
During the Danish era, the province had no coat of arms. In Sweden,
however, every province had been represented by heraldic arms since
1560. When Charles X Gustav of
Sweden suddenly died in 1660 a coat
of arms had to be created for the newly acquired province, as each
province was to be represented by its arms at his royal funeral. After
an initiative from Baron Gustaf Bonde, the Lord High Treasurer of
Sweden, the coat of arms of the City of
Malmö was used as a base for
the new provincial arms. The
Malmö coat of arms had been granted in
1437, during the Kalmar Union, by
Eric of Pomerania
Eric of Pomerania and contains a
Pomeranian griffin's head. To distinguish it from the city's coat of
arms the tinctures were changed and the official blazon for the
provincial arms is, in English: Or, a griffin's head erased gules,
crowned azure and armed azure, when it should be armed.
The province was divided in two administrative counties 1719–1996.
Coats of arms were created for these entities, also using the griffin
motif. The new Skåne County, operative from 1 January 1997, got a
coat of arms that is the same as the province's, but with reversed
tinctures. When the county arms is shown with a Swedish royal crown,
it represents the County Administrative Board, which is the regional
presence of central government authority. In 1999 the two county
councils (landsting) were amalgamated forming Region Skåne. It is the
only one of its kind using a heraldic coat of arms. It is also the
same as the province's and the county's, but with a golden griffin's
head on a blue shield. The 33 municipalities within the county
also have coats of arms.
Griffin has become a well-known symbol for the province and
is also used by commercial enterprises. It is, for instance, included
in the logotypes of the automotive manufacturer
Scania AB and the
Coat of arms:
City of Malmö
(1660, revised 1939)
Main article: History of Scania
Ale's Stones, a stone ship (burial monument) from c. 500 AD on the
coast at Kåseberga, around ten kilometres (6.2 miles) south east of
Denmark in the Middle Ages,
Scania was together with the
Halland a part of Denmark
Front page of the latest and current peace treaty between
Sweden, Swedish version
Scania was first mentioned in written texts in the 9th century. It
came under Danish king
Harald Bluetooth in the middle of the 10th
century. It was, together with
Blekinge and Halland, situated on the
Scandinavian Peninsula, but formed the eastern part of the kingdom of
Denmark. This geographical position made it the focal point of the
frequent Dano-Swedish wars for hundreds of years. By the Treaty of
Roskilde in 1658, all Danish lands east of
Øresund were ceded to the
Swedish Crown. First placed under a Governor-General, the province was
eventually integrated into the kingdom of Sweden. The last Danish
attempt to regain its lost provinces failed after the Battle of
Helsingborg (1710). In 1719 the province was subdivided in two
counties and administered in the same way as the rest of Sweden.
Scania has since that year been fully integrated in the Swedish
nation. In the following summer, July 1720, the last peace treaty
Denmark was signed.
On 28 November 2017 it was ruled that the Scanian flag would become
the official flag of Scania.
During Sweden's financial crisis in the early and mid-1990s, Scania,
Norrbotten were among the hardest hit in the
country, with high unemployment rates as a result. In response to
the crisis, the County Governors were given a task by the government
in September 1996 to co-ordinate various measures in the counties to
increase economic growth and employment by bringing in regional
actors. The first proposal for regional autonomy and a regional
parliament had been introduced by the Social Democratic Party's local
Scania and Västra
Götaland already in 1993. When Sweden
European Union two years later, the concept "Regions of
Europe" came in focus and a more regionalist-friendly approach was
adopted in national politics. These factors contributed to the
subsequent transformation of
Skåne County into one of the first
"trial regions" in
Sweden in 1999, established as the country's first
The relatively strong regional identity in
Scania is often referred to
in order to explain the general support in the province for the
decentralization efforts introduced by the Swedish government. On
the basis of large scale interview investigations about Region Skåne
in Scania, scholars have found that the prevailing trend among the
Scania is to "[look] upon their region with more
positive eyes and a firm reliance that it would deliver the goods in
terms of increased democracy and constructive results out of economic
The motorway through western Scania, E6, here at motorway service
Glumslöv, is the artery of the western part of the province.
Schematic railway map of Scania, showing train type and stations for
Pågatågen trains,the inter-regional
Øresund trains and
Småland province local trains within Scania. These three train types
shares fare zones and any tickets are valid on any train of these
three operators within Scania. In all there are 66 train stations in
Scania. In December 2016 was Marieholm station reopened. The line
Helsingborg - Teckomatorp -
Lund does now go over Eslöv, instead of
 Just as five Scanian stations are served partly (
Osby) or entirely (Ballingslöv,
Hästveda and Killeberg) by Småland
local trains, the Scanian Pågatåg trains serve
There are basically three ticket systems, one for internal Scanian
travel, one for travel between
Copenhagen and its
surroundings and one for the Swedish national SJ-tickets for longer
trips to the north. If traveling by railway towards the south, it's
best to either use a travel agency or to purchase the ticket at
Copenhagen Main Station (København H). An exception is if traveling
Berlin by night train and on the train ferry route between
Trelleborg and Sassnitz. Unfortunately the current operator, Swedish
Veolia, only uses this classic route during the summer[citation
needed] (while many visitors believe
Berlin to be best during spring
and autumn).
Electrified dual track railroad exists from the border with
Øresund Bridge to Lund, where it splits into two directions.
The dual tracks going towards
Gothenburg end at Helsingborg, while
the other branch continues beyond the provincial border to
neighbouring Småland, close to Killeberg. This latter dual
track continues to mid-Sweden. There are also a few single track
The E6 motorway is the main artery through the western part of Scania
all the way from
Trelleborg to the provincial border towards
neighbouring Halland. It continues along the Swedish west coast to
Gothenburg and most of the way to the Norwegian border. There are also
several other motorways, especially around Malmö. Since 2000, the
economic focus of the region has changed, with the opening of a road
link across the
Øresund Bridge to Denmark.
The car ferry service between
Helsingør has 70
departures in each direction daily as of 2014[update].
There are three minor airports in Sturup,
Ängelholm and Kristianstad.
Copenhagen Airport, which is the largest international
airport in the Nordic countries, also serves the province.
Geography and environmental factors
Aerial view of
Scania near Lund
Beech forest, the Western edge of Karlslund in Northern
Land usage in Scania, showing hardwood forests (light green), pinewood
forests (dark green) fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and
residential areas (red)
Pruned willows and rapefields are typical for this area of Sweden.
Unlike some of the other regions of Sweden, the Scanian landscape is
generally not mountainous, though a few examples of uncovered cliffs
can be found at Hovs Hallar, at Kullaberg, and on the island Hallands
Väderö. With the exception of the lake-rich and densely forested
northern parts (Göinge), the rolling hills in the north-west (the
Bjäre and Kulla peninsulas) and the beech-wood-clad areas extending
from the slopes of the horsts, a sizeable portion of Scania's terrain
consists of plains. Its low profile and open landscape distinguish
Scania from most other geographical regions of
Sweden which consist
mainly of waterway-rich, cool, mixed coniferous forests, boreal taiga
and alpine tundra. The province has several lakes but there are
relatively few compared to Småland, the province just to the north of
Scania. Stretching from the north-western to the south-eastern parts
Scania is a belt of deciduous forests following the Linderödsåsen
ridge and previously marking the border between
Malmöhus County and
Kristianstad County. The much denser fir forests — so typical of the
greater part of
Sweden — are only found in the north-eastern Göinge
Scania along the border with the forest-dominated province of
Småland. While the landscape typically has a slightly sloping
profile, in some places, such as north of Malmö, the terrain is
almost completely flat.
The typical rather narrow lakes with a long north to south extent,
which are very common just a little bit further north, are lacking in
the province. The largest lake,
Ivösjön in the north-east, has
similarities with the lakes further north, but has a different shape.
All other lakes tend to be round, oval or of more complex shape and
also lack any specific cardinal direction. Ringsjön, in the middle of
the province, is the largest of such lakes. In the winter, some
smaller lakes east of
Lund often attract young Eurasian sea eagles
Typical Scanian coastline, here southern peak of Ven island in
Øresund. The yellow colour indicates sand rather than chalk, while
white colour at similar cliffs indicates chalk rather than sand
Where the sea meets higher parts of the sloping landscape, dramatic
cliffs emerge very suddenly. Such cliffs are white if the soil has a
high content of chalk. Typically like White Cliffs of Dover, but in
Scania and parts of
Denmark the soil is usually more sandy, and the
cliffs then become yellow instead. Good examples of such coastlines
exist at the southern side of Ven in Øresund, and also between the
Helsingborg and Landskrona, as well as in parts of the
Scanian south and south-east coast. Where the cliffs aren't steep
enough, they may become overgrown with grass. Such yellow (or white)
coastline cliffs also exist in nearby south-eastern Denmark, Stevns
Klint and Møns Klint, and at the German island of
Rügen by Kap
Arkona. In other Swedish provinces, steep coastlines usually reveal
primary rock instead.
The two major plains,
Söderslätt in the south-west and
the south-east, consist of highly fertile agricultural land—the
yield per unit area is higher than in any other region in Sweden. The
Scanian plains are an important resource for the rest of
25–95% of the total production of various types of cereals come from
the region. Almost all Swedish sugar beet comes from Scania; the plant
needs a long vegetation period. The same applies also to corn, pea and
rape (grown for its vegetarian oil), although these plants are less
imperative in compare with sugar beets. The soil is among the most
fertile in the world.
Kullaberg Nature Preserve in northwest
Scania is home to several
rare species including spring vetchling, Lathyrus sphaericus.
Origin of the Scanian topography
[T]he present landscape is a mosaic of landforms shaped during widely
Karna Lidmar-Bergström and co-workers.
The gross relief of
Scania reflect more the preglacial development
than the erosion and deposits caused by the
In Swedish the word ås commonly refer to eskers but major landmarks
Scania like the
Söderåsen are horsts formed by inversion
tectonic activity along the
Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone in the late
Cretaceous. The Scanian horsts run in a north-west to south-east
direction, marking the southwest border of Fennoscandia. Tectonic
activity of the
Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone during the break-up of
Pangaea in the
Cretaceous epochs led to the formation of
hundreds of small volcanoes in central Scania. Remnants of the
volcanoes are still visible today. Parallel with volcanism a hilly
peneplain formed in northeastern
Scania due to weathering and erosion
of the basement rocks. The kaolinite formed by this weathering
can be observed at Ivö Klack. In the
Campanian age of the Late
Cretaceous a sea level rise led to the complete drowning of Scania.
Subsequently, marine sediments buried old surfaces preserving the
rocky shores and hilly terrain of the day.
Paleogene period southern
Sweden was at a lower position
relative to sea level but was likely still above it as it was covered
by sediments. Rivers flowing over the South
flowed also across
Scania which was at the time covered by thick
sediments. As the relative sea level sank and much of
its sedimentary cover antecedent rivers begun to incise the
Söderåsen horst forming valleys. During deglaciation these
valleys likely evacuated large amounts of melt-water. The relief
of Scania's south-western landscape was formed by the accumulation of
Quaternary sediments during the
Vegetation and vegetation zones
The vast majority of
Scania belongs to the European hardwood
vegetation zone, a considerable part of which is now agricultural
rather than the original forest. This zone covers Europe west of
Poland and north of the Alps, and includes the British Isles, northern
France and the countries and regions to the south and
southeast of the
North Sea up to Denmark. A smaller north-eastern part
Scania is part of the pinewood vegetation zone, in which spruce
grows naturally. Within the larger part, pine may grow together with
birch on sandy soil. The most common tree is beech. Other common trees
are willow, oak, ash, alder and elm (which until the 1970s formed a
few forests but now is heavily infected by the elm disease). Also
rather southern trees like walnut tree, chestnut and hornbeam can be
found. In parks horse chestnut, lime and maple are commonly planted as
well. Common fruit trees planted in commercial orchards and private
gardens include several varieties of apple, pear, cherry and plum;
strawberries are commercially cultivated in many locations across the
province. Examples of wild berries grown in domesticated form are
blackberry, raspberry, cloudberry (in the north-east), blueberry, wild
strawberry and loganberry.
Three of the 29 National parks of Sweden are situated in Scania.
Southernmost point: Smygehuk,
Trelleborg Municipality, (55° 20' N)
(also the southernmost point of Sweden)
Northernmost point: Gränsholmen,
Westernmost point: Kulla udd,
Easternmost point: Nyhult, Bromölla Municipality
Highest point: Highest peak of Söderåsen, 212 metres
Lowest spot: Kristianstad, - 2.7 metres (also the lowest spot in all
Largest lake: Ivösjön, 55 km2
Largest island: Ven, 7.5 km2
Map of the 33 municipalities of Scania. The western, yellow coloured
municipalities, close to Øresund, have much higher population
densities than the eastern ones
Scania is divided into 33 municipalities with population and land
surface as the table below shows. There is a large population
differency between the western Scania, that is located by, or close to
Øresund sea compared to the middle and eastern parts of the province.
Population (April 2013)
Land area (km2)
Population density (/km2)
The 17 municipalities that have coast by Øresund, or border to a
municipality that does
 * A small part of
Båstad municipality is located within the
neighbouring province of Halland, this includes the village "Östra
Karup" and some area around it, around 500 people lives in Båstad
municipality, but outside the historical boundaries of the Scanian
Western part of
Scania (yellow on the map and close to the Øresund
sea) covers 3201.3 km2of land, and had (in April 2013) 925.982
inhabitants, almost 290 inhabitants/km2
The other municipalities cover 7281.3 km2of land, and had at the
same time only 341.009 inhabitants or 47 inhabitants/km2
The same figures for the entire province are 10482.6 km2,
1.266.991 inhabitants and 121 inhab/km 2
These figures can be compared with around to 21 inhabitants per km2
for entire Sweden.
Population around Øresund
Scania has a high population density, not only by Scandinavian
standards but also by average European standards, at close to 300
inhabitants per square kilometre. But the Danish
Copenhagen region at
north-east Zealand, on the other side of
Øresund Sea, is even more
populated. The north-east part of
Zealand (or the Danish Region
Hovedstaden without the Baltic island of Bornholm) has a population
density of 878 inhabitants/km2, most of Greater
And by adding the population of western
Scania to the same of
Metropolitan area of Copenhagen, then close to 3 million people live
Øresund sea, within a maximum distance from
Øresund of 25
to 30 kilometres. At a land surface of approx. 6100 km2 (approx
460 inhabitants/km2). This is in many ways a better measurement of
describing the area around
Øresund than what the far wider Øresund
Region constitutes, as the latter includes also eastern
Baltic Sea ones and is far less populated) as well as
Denmark east of Great Belt.
Regardless of counting a smaller area with higher population density
or a larger one, the
Øresund Straight is located in the largest
metropolitan area in
Scandinavia with Finland.
See also: List of towns in Skåne,
Sweden and Urban areas in Sweden
Eslöv church, built 1890 in
Neo-Gothic style, sometimes known in
Swedish as "
The Annehem neighborhood in Lund
In 1658, the following ten places in
Scania were chartered and held
Lund (since approximately 990),
Falsterbo (approximately 1200),
Ystad (approximately 1200), Skanör
Malmö (approximately 1250), Simrishamn
Landskrona (1413), and
Others had existed earlier, but lost their privileges.
new privileges in 1767, and in 1754,
merged. The concept of municipalities was introduced in
1863, making each of the towns a city municipality of its own. In the
19th and 20th centuries, four more municipalities were granted city
Hässleholm (1914) and
Höganäs (1936). The system with city status was abolished in 1971.
Over 90% of Scania's population live in urban areas. In 2000, the
Øresund Bridge—the longest combined road and rail bridge in
Malmö and Copenhagen, making Scania's population part
of a 3.6 million total population in the
Øresund Region. In 2005, the
region had 9,200 commuters crossing the bridge daily, the vast
majority of them from
Malmö to Copenhagen.
The following localities had more than 10,000 inhabitants  (Year
Malmö, 280,415 *
Kävlinge & Furulund, 13,200
Turning Torso in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.
It has been estimated that around 1570,
Scania had about 110,000
inhabitants. But before the plague in the middle of the 14th
century the population of all Danish territory east of Øresund
(Scania, Island of Bornholm,
Blekinge and Halland) may have exceeded
The figures here are from two different sources.
See also: List of hundreds of Sweden
Scania was formerly divided into 23 hundreds.
Climate and seasons
Location of some SMHI temperature stations in Scania
Scania has the mildest climate in Sweden, but there are some local
The table shows average temperatures in degrees
Celsius at ten Swedish
Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) weather stations in
Scania and three stations further north for comparison issues. Average
temperature in this case means the average of the temperature taken
throughout both day and night unlike the more usual daily maximum or
minimum average. This is done for specific measured periods of thirty
years. The last period began at 1 January 1961 and ended at 31
December 1990. The current such period started at 1 January 1991 and
will end by 31 December 2020. At that time it will be possible to with
a high degree of mathematical certainty to measure possible climate
changes, by comparing two separate periods of 30 years with each
For comparison, some northern locations within Sweden
 All three of the northern locations are at low altitude and
fairly close to the Baltic Sea.
Compared with locations further north, the Scanian climate differs
primary by being far less cold during the winter and in having longer
springs and autumns. While the July temperatures doesn't differ much
(see table above).
The highest temperature ever recorded in the province is 36.0 °C
(97 °F) (Ängelholm, 30 July 1947) and the lowest ever recorded
is −34 °C (−29 °F) (Stehag, 26 January 1942)
Temperatures below −15 °C (5 °F) are extremely rare even
at night, while summer temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F)
occurs once in a while every summer. Precipitation is spread fairly
evenly, both across the province and during the year.
Slightly more precipitation falls during July and August than during
the other months.
A typical winter, with average temperatures around the freezing point
during January and February, means that a period of mild weather
(often windy or/and rainy) is followed by a colder period (when
precipitation falls as snow)—and then the mild weather returns etc.,
rather than a stable temperature close to zero degrees. During the
colder periods, the temperature often is below freezing point also
during daytime, while as during the milder periods, temperatures below
freezing point are unusual even at night. During the mild periods
temperatures slightly below freezing point only occur if the night is
both calm and free of clouds. If the same circumstances occur during a
cold period, the nights can get very cold though. All together this
adds up to a 24 hrs/day "winter average" of around 0 degrees In the
north-eastern corner (and at the top of the ridges) the winter is in
general notably colder though, and a snow cover may last for weeks.
March is locally known as the first month of the spring. The colder
periods are fewer and sunny days may even feel pleasant. During April
and early May temperature rises rather fast. Though spring (especially
in the sense "first heat") arrives later compared to northernmost of
Germany and Poland. This is particularly notable in the south-eastern
corner. This is explained with the open coastline and low temperatures
in the Baltic sea.
Øresund is both narrow and shallow and gets warmer
faster. The most common Scanian tree, the beech, leafes usually during
the last days in April or first days of May. But is usually delayed
10–14 days in the south-east, due to "the
Baltic Sea chill factor".
Unlike the other seasons, summer isn't warmer in
Scania compared to
many other Swedish provinces. Like during the winter the weather
usually changes in periods that either are sunny and fairly hot (up to
30 degrees, even higher away from the coastlines), and periods of
unstable cloudy and cooler weather. The time between sunset and
sunrise during June and earliest July is less than 7 hours, and both
the dawn and the dusk are rather long as well. But it still remains a
few hours of real night. Further north in
Sweden there is no real
night, as dusk turns into dawn. (And in the northernmost of Sweden,
the sun doesn't even set at all for around two months)
The autumn in
Scania is a slow process, compared with more northern
Sweden (but a faster one, when comparing with any part of the
British Isles). During the first half of September, temperatures
usually are not so much affected, but the sunset is obviously earlier
compared with in June. Temperatures drop in steps. Every new period
with sunny weather becomes a bit cooler than the last one. By the end
of October the defoliation process becomes evident. But not until late
November all trees have lost their leaves. The period when storms and
even hurricanes becomes most likely to occur durates between November
and February. Most of them are coming from the Atlantic Ocean and
doesn't involve snow or temperatures below freezing point. Late
Scanian autumn is in general benefited from the surrounding waters
(the opposite effect early spring).
Traditional half-timbered farm of the southern plains in Scania.
Scania's long-running and sometimes intense trade relations with other
communities along the coast of the European continent through history
have made the culture of
Scania distinct from other geographical
regions of Sweden. Its open landscape, often described as a colourful
patchwork quilt of wheat and rapeseed fields, and the relatively mild
climate at the southern tip of the Scandinavian Peninsula, have
inspired many Swedish artists and authors to compare it to European
Provence in southern
Zeeland in the
Netherlands. Among the many authors who have described the
"foreign" continental elements of the Scanian landscape, diet and
August Strindberg and Carl Linnaeus. In 1893 August
Strindberg wrote about Scania: "In beautiful, large wave lines, the
fields undulate down toward the lake; a small deciduous forest limits
the coastline, which is given the inviting look of the Riviera, where
people shall walk in the sun, protected from the north wind. [...] The
Swede leaves the plains with a certain sense of comfort, because its
beauty is foreign to him." In another chapter he states: "The Swedes
have a history that is not the history of the South Scandinavians. It
must be just as foreign as Vasa’s history is to the Scanian."
In Ystad, singer-songwriter Michael Saxell's popular Scanian anthem Om
Österlen (Of Heaven and Österlen), the flat, rolling hill
landscape is described as appearing to be a little closer to heaven
and the big, unending sky.
Scania's historical connection to Denmark, the vast fertile plains,
the deciduous forests and the relatively mild climate make the
province culturally and physically distinct from the emblematic
Swedish cultural landscape of forests and small hamlets.
See also: List of castles in Scania
The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, Scania, built
The Old Church of Södra Åsum in
Sjöbo Municipality — a typical
example of a medieval Danish Scanian church.
Traditional Scanian architecture is shaped by the limited availability
of wood; it incorporates different applications of the building
technique called half-timbering. In the cities, the infill of the
façades consisted of bricks, whereas the country-side
half-timbered houses had infill made of clay and straw. Unlike
many other Scanian towns, the town of
Ystad has managed to preserve a
rather large core of its half-timbered architecture in the city
center—over 300 half-timbered houses still exist today. Many of
the houses in
Ystad were built in the renaissance style that was
common in the entire
Øresund Region, and which has also been
Elsinore (Helsingør). Among Ystad's half-timbered houses
is the oldest such building in Scandinavia, Pilgrändshuset from
In Göinge, located in the northern part of Scania, the architecture
was not shaped by a scarcity of wood, and the pre-17th-century farms
consisted of graying, recumbent timber buildings around a small grass
and cobblestone courtyard. Only a small number of the original Göinge
farms remain today. During two campaigns, the first in 1612 by Gustav
II Adolf and the second by
Charles XI in the 1680s, entire districts
were levelled by fire. In Örkened Parish, in what is now eastern
Osby Municipality, the buildings were destroyed to punish the
different villages for their protection of members of the Snapphane
movement in the late 17th century. An original, 17th century
Göinge farm, Sporrakulla Farm, has been preserved in a forest called
Kullaskogen, a nature reserve close to
Glimåkra in Östra Göinge.
According to the local legend, the farmer saved the farm in the first
raid of 1612 by setting a forest fire in front of it, making the
Swedish troops believe that the farm had already been plundered and
A number of Scanian towns flourished during the Viking Age. The city
Lund is believed to have been founded by the Viking-king Sweyn
Forkbeard. Scanian craftsmen and traders were prospering during
this era and Denmark's first and largest mint was established in Lund.
The first Scanian coins have been dated to 870 AD. The
archaeological excavations performed in the city indicate that the
oldest known stave church in
Scania was built by
Sweyn Forkbeard in
Lund in 990. In 1103,
Lund was made the archbishopric for all of
Many of the old churches in today's Scanian landscape stem from the
medieval age, although many church renovations, extensions and
destruction of older buildings took place in the 16th and 19th
century. From those that have kept features of the authentic style, it
is still possible to see how the medieval, Romanesque or Renaissance
churches of Danish
Scania looked like. Many Scanian churches have
distinctive crow-stepped gables and sturdy church porches, usually
made of stone.
The first version of
Lund Cathedral was built in 1050, in sandstone
from Höör, on the initiative of Canute the Holy. The oldest
parts of today's cathedral are from 1085, but the actual cathedral was
constructed during the first part of the 12th century with the help of
stone cutters and sculptors from the Rhine valley and Italy, and was
ready for use in 1123. It was consecrated in 1145 and for the next 400
Lund became the ecclesiastical power center for
one of the most important cities in Denmark. The cathedral was
altered in the 16th century by architect
Adam van Düren
Adam van Düren and later by
Carl Georg Brunius
Carl Georg Brunius and Helgo Zetterwall.
Lund skyline, with the Cathedral towers.
Scania also has churches built in the gothic style, such as Saint
Petri Church in Malmö, dating from the early 14th century. Similar
buildings can be found in all Hansa cities around the
Baltic Sea (such
Helsingborg and Rostock). The parishes in the countryside did not
have the means for such extravagant buildings. Possibly the most
notable countryside church is the ancient and untouched stone church
in Dalby. It is the oldest stone church in Sweden, built around the
same time as
Lund cathedral. After the
Lund Cathedral was built, many
of the involved workers travelled around the province and used their
acquired skills to make baptism fonts, paintings and decorations, and
naturally architectural constructions.
Scania has 240 palaces and country estates—more than any other
province in Sweden. Many of them received their current shape
during the 16th century, when new or remodelled castles started to
appear in greater numbers, often erected by the reuse of stones and
material from the original 11th–15th-century castles and abbeys
found at the estates. Between 1840 and 1900, the landed nobility in
Scania built and rebuilt many of the castles again, often by
modernizing previous buildings at the same location in a style that
became typical for Scania. The style is a mixture of different
architectural influences of the era, but frequently refers back to the
style of the 16th-century castles of the Reformation era, a time when
the large estates of the Catholic Church were made Crown property and
the abbeys bartered or sold to members of the aristocracy by the
Danish king. For many of the 19th century remodels, Danish
architects were called in. According to some scholars, the driving
force behind the use of historical Scanian architecture, as
interpreted by 19th century Danish architects using Dutch Renaissance
style, was a wish to refer back to an earlier era when the aristocracy
had special privileges and political power in relation to the Danish
Language, literature, and art
See also: Scanian dialects
Scanian dialects have various local native idioms and speech patterns,
and realizes diphthongs and South Scandinavian Uvular trill, as
opposed to the supradental /r/-sound characteristic of spoken Standard
Swedish. They are very similar to the dialect of Danish spoken in
Bornholm, Denmark. The prosody of the
Scanian dialects has more in
common with German, Danish and Dutch (and sometimes also with English,
although to a lesser extent) than with the prosody of central Swedish
Famous Scanian authors include Victoria Benedictsson, (1850–1888)
from Domme, Trelleborg, who wrote about the inequality of women in the
19th century society, but who also authored regional stories about
Scania, such as Från Skåne of 1884; Ola Hansson (1860–1925)
from Hönsinge, Trelleborg;
Vilhelm Ekelund (1880–1949) from Stehag,
Fritiof Nilsson Piraten
Fritiof Nilsson Piraten (1895–1972) from Vollsjö, Sjöbo;
Hjalmar Gullberg (1898–1961) from Malmö; Artur Lundkvist
(1906–1991) from Hagstad, Perstorp;
Hans Alfredsson (born 1931) and
Jacques Werup (born 1945), both from Malmö. Birgitta Trotzig
Gothenburg has written several historic novels set in
Scania, such as The Exposed of 1957, which describes life in 17th
Scania with a primitive country priest as its main character
and the 1961 novel A Tale from the Coast, which recounts a legend
about human suffering and is set in
Scania in the 15th century.
Gabriel Jönsson (1892–1984) from Ålabodarna, Landskrona.
A printing-house was established in the city of
Malmö in 1528. It
became instrumental in the propagation of new ideas and during the
Malmö became the center for the Danish reformation.
Traditional Scanian nuptial array in Auguste Racinet's Le costume
Scanian culture, as expressed through the medium of textile art, has
received international attention during the last decade. The art
form, often referred to as Scanian Marriage Weavings, flourished from
1750 for a period of 100 years, after which it slowly vanished.
Consisting of small textile panels mainly created for wedding
ceremonies, the art is strongly symbolic, often expressing ideas about
fertility, longevity and a sense of hope and joy. The Scanian
artists were female weavers working at home, who had learned to weave
at a young age, often in order to have a marriage chest filled with
beautiful tapestries as a dowry.
According to international collectors and art scholars, the Scanian
patterns are of special interest for the striking similarities with
Byzantine and Asian art. The designs are studied by art
historians tracing how portable decorative goods served as
transmitters of art concepts from culture to culture, influencing
designs and patterns along the entire length of the ancient trade
routes. The Scanian textiles show how goods traded along the Silk
Road brought Coptic, Anatolian, and Chinese designs and symbols into
the folk art of far away regions like Scania, where they were
reinterpreted and integrated into the local culture. Some of the most
ancient designs in Scanian textile art are pairs of birds facing a
tree with a "great bird" above, often symbolized simply by its
wings. Regionally derived iconography include mythological Scanian
river horses in red (Swedish: bäckahästar), with horns on their
foreheads and misty clouds from their nostrils. The horse motif
has been traced to patterns on 4th- and 5th-century Egyptian fabrics,
but in Scanian art it is transformed to illustrate the Norse river
horse of Scanian folklore.
Main article: Dukes of Swedish Provinces
The title of duke was reintroduced in
Sweden in 1772 and since this
time, Swedish princes have been created dukes of various provinces,
although the titles are purely nominal.
The Dukes of
Scania have been:
Crown Prince Carl (from his birth in 1826 until he became king in
Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (from his birth in 1882 until he became king
Prince Oscar 2016-
From his marriage, in 1905, King Gustaf VI Adolf had his summer
Sofiero Palace in Helsingborg. He and his family spent
their summers there, and the cabinet meetings held there during the
summer months forced the ministers to arrive by night train from
Stockholm. He died at
Helsingborg Hospital in 1973.
Football has always been the most popular arena and team sport within
the province, from attendances not least. Clubs are administered by
Malmö FF has won
Allsvenskan 23 times,
Helsingborg IF 7 times and was
one of the twelve clubs in the league's very first season, 1924/25.
Landskrona BoIS was among the twelve original clubs, but has
never won. These three clubs are historically the most famous football
clubs in Scania. But also IFK Malmö, Stattena IF,
Råå IF (the
latter two clubs are both from Helsingborg) as well as Trelleborgs FF
Handball is also a relatively popular team sport, whilst Basketball
never really has gained much interest.
Ice hockey was for a long time thought of as a "Northern sport", but
has nevertheless became a popular attendance sport too. Malmö
Redhawks has even become Swedish Champions twice, but also Rögle BK
(from Ängelholm) have participated at the highest level of Swedish
ice hockey during quite a lot of seasons.
Rugby is played in
Scania by the
Skåne Crusaders who play in the
Sweden Rugby League.
The overwhelmingly largest sport related events in both Scanian as
well as Swedish history, were however the motorcycle Saxtorp TT-races
during the 1930s, which most of the years gathered crowds of 150.000
Tennis is very much associated with Båstad, a small town, but of the
kind which grows enormously during the summer.
Golf is the most
popular sport to exercise after a certain age, at least.
Scania has a
large amount of golf courses, of which Barsebäck
Golf & Country
Club is the most well-known. Most
Golf courses are open also during
the winter, but may sometimes close temporarily in cases of snowy
Skåne County earthquake
460 Scania, an asteroid discovered in 1900
Sång till Skåne, a song about the province
^ "Statistics Sweden". Archived from the original on 20 August
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Scandinavia was used
by classical authors in the first centuries of the Christian era to
Scania and the mainland further north which they believed to
be an island."
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and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a
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Latinised spelling of Skåninger), a people who long ago lent their
name to all of Scandinavia, perhaps because they lived centrally, at
the southern tip of the peninsula."
^ Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity –
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of English), University of Cambridge, 1999.
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Scandinavia. Ed. E. I. Kouri et al. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
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Official site. Retrieved 24 August 2007.
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Riksarkivet 1992. (In Swedish)
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^ 3 juli 1720 - Riksarkivet - Sök i arkiven. Sok.riksarkivet.se.
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Regional Government. Policy Networks in Sub National Governance:
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^ a b Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism:
Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden. The Interdisciplinary
Centre for Comparative Research in the Social Sciences, EUROPUB Case
^ Kramsch,Olivier and Olivier Thomas (2004). Cross-border Governance
in the European Union. Routledge, 2004, ISBN 978-0-415-31541-8.
^ Peterson, Martin (2003). "The Regions and Regionalism and
Regionalism: Regionalism in Sweden". CoR Report Sweden, The
Interdisciplinary Centre for Comparative Research in the Social
Sciences, EUROPUB Case Study (WP2). Final Report.
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
Retrieved 11 September 2014. ; chose "linjekarta för tåg (PDF)"
^ as stated in the train map info, "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014. , and
press for PDF "Linjekarta fær tåg (pdf)" Note though that this PDF
also shows a part of the
Copenhagen rail network
^ a b c d Sveriges järnvägsnät - Trafikverket. Trafikverket.se (31
March 2015). Retrieved on 24 June 2015.
^ Last part of
"Enligt vår nuvarande planering kommer utbyggnaden till största
delen vara klar 2012–2014. Några sträckor kommer då att
återstå, bland annat sträckan genom Varberg och sträckan
Ängelholm–Helsingborg. Tunneln genom Hallandsås planeras vara klar
2015." No dual tracks exist between
Helsingborg and Ängelholm
^ "The final span over the Öresund". Archived from the original on 11
Helsingborg ferry, compare prices, times and book tickets.
Directferries.co.uk. Retrieved on 24 June 2015.
^ ""2013 satte Københavns Lufthavn for tredje år i træk
passagerrekord, da 24,1 million passagerer rejste gennem
^ Österberg, Klas (2001). Forest - Geographical Regions. The Swedish
Environmental Protection Agency, 25 January 2001. Retrieved 4 November
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^ SCB. Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok 2006. (Agricultural Statistic
Yearbook 2006). Published online in pdf-format by Statiska
Centralbyrån (Statistics Sweden). (In Swedish). Retrieved 10 January
2007. Archived 21 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Hogan, C.M. (2004).
Kullaberg environmental analysis. Lumina
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^ a b c d e f Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Elvhage, Christian; Ringberg,
Bertil (1991). "Landforms in Skåne, South Sweden". Geografiska
Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography. 73 (2): 61–91.
^ Lundin, Jonas (13 November 2013). "
Söderåsen ingen riktig ås".
Landskrona Svalöv (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 October
^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna and Jens-Ove Näslund (2005). "Uplands
and Lowlands in Southern Sweden". In The Physical Geography of
Fennoscandia. Ed. Matti Seppälä. Oxford University Press, 2005, pp.
255–261. ISBN 978-0-19-924590-1.
^ a b Bergelin, Ingemar (2009). "
Jurassic volcanism in Skåne,
southern Sweden, and its relation to coeval regional and global
events". GFF. 131 (1–2): 165–175.
^ Augustsson, Carita (2001). "Lapilli tuff as evidence of Early
Jurassic Strombolian-type volcanism in Scania, southern Sweden". GFF.
123 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1080/11035890101231023.
^ a b Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Olvmo, Mats; Bonow, Johan M. (2017).
"The South Swedish Dome: a key structure for identification of
peneplains and conclusions on Phanerozoic tectonics of an ancient
shield". GFF. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b c Lidmar-Bergström, Karna; Bonow, Johan M.; Japsen, Peter
(2013). "Stratigraphic Landscape Analysis and geomorphological
Scandinavia as an example of Phanerozoic uplift and
subsidence". Global and Planetary Change. 100: 153–171.
doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.10.015. access-date= requires
^ Surlyk, Finn; Sørensen, Anne Mehlin (2010). "An early Campanian
rocky shore at Ivö Klack, southern Sweden".
Cretaceous Research. 31:
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EPA". Naturvardsverket.se. 6 November 2009. Archived from the original
on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ "Dalby Söderskog, Skåne län - Naturvårdsverket - Swedish EPA".
Naturvardsverket.se. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15
October 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
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^ "skanebravaden.se". skanebravaden.se. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
^ inahbitants "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3
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5 March 2010.
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^ Source: Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
From http://www.smhi.se/polopoly_fs/1.2860!ttm6190%5B1%5D.pdf , the
number and name of all Swedish meteorological weather stations are
available. By the use of the station number, the average temperature
for each months and annual average is available at
The exact location of the stations is given in the internal Swedish
"Coordinates of the reich", however four figured stations numbers that
begins with a "5" is located between the 55th and 56th latitude, "6"
between 56th and 57th latitude etc.
^ Linnaeus, Carl (1750). Skånska resa (Scanian Journey).
^ Strindberg, August (1893). "Skånska landskap med utvikningar".
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^ A letter from the Swedish king
Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf describes a raid in
1612: "We have been in
Scania and we have burned most of the province,
so that 24 parishes and the town of Vä lie in ashes. We have met no
resistance, neither from cavalry nor footmen, so we have been able to
rage, plunder, burn and kill to our hearts' content. We had thought of
visiting Århus in the same way, but when it was brought to our
knowledge that there were Danish cavalry in the town, we set out for
Markaryd and we could destroy and ravage as we went along and
everything turned out lucky for us." (Quoted and translated by
Oresundstid in the section "Skåne was ravaged".)
^ Herman Lindquist (1995). Historien om Sverige – storhet och fall.
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^ Skåneleden: 6B. Breanäsleden Archived 23 February 2007 at the
Wayback Machine. (In Swedish). Official site by The Foundation for
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Snapp-hane Kingdom. Official site by
Osby Tourism Office. Archived 2
November 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Touchdowns in the History of
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^ Hauberg, P. (1900). Myntforhold og Udmyntninger i Danmark indtil
1146. D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6. Række, historisk og
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Archived 20 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine., and Chapter V:
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^ a b City of Lund. Touchdowns in the History of
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^ Bjurklint Rosenblad, Kajsa. Scenografi för ett ståndsmässigt liv:
adelns slottsbyggande i Skåne 1840-1900. Malmö: Sekel, 2005.
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Lund University. Archived 23 July 2009 at the Wayback
^ Gårding, Eva (1974). "Talar skåningarna svenska?" (Do Scanians
speak Swedish?). Svenskans beskrivning. Ed. Christer Platzack. Lund:
Institutionen för nordiska språk, 1973, p 107, 112. (In Swedish)
^ "Poems" of 1884 and "Notturno" of 1885 celebrate the natural beauty
and folkways of Scania. The result of a globetrotting life style, Ola
Hansson's later poetry had various continental influences, but like
many other Scanian writers', his authorship often reflected the
tension between cosmopolitan culture and regionalism. For larger
trends and a historic perspective on Scanian literature, see Vinge,
Louise (ed.) Skånes litteraturhistoria del I,
ISBN 978-91-564-1048-2, and Skånes litteraturhistoria del II,
ISBN 978-91-564-1049-9, Corona: Malmö, 1996–1997. (In
^ Infotek Öresund. Litteraturhistoria,
Malmö Archived 5 January 2007
at the Wayback Machine.. Fact sheet produced by Infotek Öresund, a
cooperative project between the public libraries of Helsingborg,
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Library, 4 November 2005. (In Swedish). "Archived copy". Archived from
the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2007. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ See for example: Monument to Love and Textiles de Skåne des XVIIIe
et XIXe Siècles. Scanian textiles from the Khalili Collection
exhibited at the Swedish Cultural Centre in Paris and the Boston
University Art Gallery. Retrieved 15 January 2007. "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 18 January 2007. Retrieved 16 January
2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Keelan, Major Andrew and Wendy Keelan. The Khalili Collection - An
Introduction. The Khalili Family Trust. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
Archived 18 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c d Hansen, Viveka (1997). Swedish Textile Art: Traditional
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Scania.
Region Skåne - The County council
Scania's Public Recreational Areas - Region Skåne's public forests
Skåne - Business Region Skåne's official website for culture,
heritage and tourism
Länsstyrelsen - County Administration Board
Skåneleden - Public nature trails through Scania
Oresund Region - The regional body of the Oresund Region
Regional Museum - Museum in Kristianstad
Kommunförbundet Skåne - A cooperation between Scania's 33
Skånes hembygdsförbund (in Swedish) - Heritage conservation
Terra Scaniae - History project established for Scanian schools,
financed with subsidies from Skåne Regional Council.
Lands and Provinces of Sweden
Coordinates: 55°48′N 13°37′E / 55.800°N 13.617°E /