Scandinavism, also called Pan-Scandinavianism, Nordism, and
Pan-Nordism, are literary and political movements that support
various degrees of cooperation among the Scandinavian or Nordic
Scandinavism and Nordism are interchangeable terms for the
literary, linguistic and cultural movement that focuses on promoting a
shared Nordic past, a shared cultural heritage, a common Scandinavian
mythology and a common linguistic root in Old Norse, and which led to
the formation of joint periodicals and societies in support of
Scandinavian literature and languages. However, political
Scandinavism and political Nordism are two distinct political
movements which emerged at different times.
1 Political Scandinavism
2 Political Nordism
3 Current situation
4 Scandinavist organizations
5 See also
7 External links
Scandinavian Scientist Conference
Scandinavian Scientist Conference and Nordic student meeting
Scandinavism paralleled the 19th-century unification
Germany and Italy. As opposed to the German and
Italian counterparts, the Scandinavian state-building project was not
successful and is no longer pursued. It was at its height in the
mid-19th century and supported the idea of
Scandinavia as a unified
region or a single nation, based on the common ethnic, linguistic,
political and cultural heritage of the Scandinavian countries Denmark,
Norway and Sweden. (These three countries are referred to as "three
brothers" in the sixth stanza of the national anthem of Norway.)
The movement was initiated by Danish and Swedish university students
in the 1840s, with a base in Scania. In the beginning, the
political establishments in the two countries, including the absolute
Christian VIII and
Charles XIV with his "one man government",
were suspicious of the movement. The police in
kept the proponents of
Scandinavism under close watch.
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen became an adherent of
Scandinavism after a
Sweden in 1837, and committed himself to writing a poem that
would convey the relatedness of Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. It
was in July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen, that Andersen
first wrote the text of his poem, Jeg er en Skandinav ("I am a
Scandinavian"). Andersen composed the poem to capture "the beauty
of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have gradually
grown together", as part of a Scandinavian national anthem.
Otto Lindblad set the poem to music, and the composition was
published in January 1840. Its popularity peaked in 1845, after which
it was seldom sung. Andersen spent two weeks at the Augustenborg
Palace in the autumn of 1844.
When Oscar I became king of
Norway in 1844, the
Denmark improved and the movement started to gain
support in liberal newspapers like Fædrelandet and Aftonbladet, which
saw it as a way to counter the conservative powers that were ascendant
across Europe. During the war between
Prussia in 1848,
Sweden (then in union with Norway) offered support in form of a
Norwegian-Swedish expeditionary force, though the force never saw
combat. The movement never fully recovered after the second
Danish-German war over Schleswig, when the Swedish government refused
to join an alliance against the rising German power on the continent.
In 1872 the town of
New Zealand was founded by Danish,
Norwegian and Swedish settlers. They had named their new town after
the Dannevirke, the extensive
Viking age fortification line which had
a strong emotive symbolic role for 19th-century
Danes and which had
fallen into German hands in 1864 – and for whose defence a
pan-Scandinavian alliance had failed to be formed.
Political Nordism was introduced with the Nordic Association which
started through Swedish initiatives in 1919. The movement also
Iceland and the Danish territories
Faroe Islands and has an ideological base in Nordic economic
co-operation and integration supported by the Nordic Council. It has
been described as "collaborative nationalism". The significance of
Nordic Council began to decrease after
Denmark joined the European
Economic Community in 1973. And after
Finland joined the
European Union (EU) in 1995, the association lost most of its former
Norway chose through referendums in 1972 and 1994
not to join the EU, it has several treaties with the EU and is a part
of Schengen treaty, as is Iceland.
World War II
World War II a decade of Nordic integration created initiatives
and intergovernmental bodies such as the Nordic Passport Union, the
Nordic Council and Scandinavian Airlines System. Nordic cooperation
was however undermined during the
Cold War because
Sweden and Finland
were not members of NATO.
European integration and the accession of
Denmark to the EU, without
Norway and Iceland, has
undermined Nordic integration.
Nordic Resistance Movement
^ a b "Pan-Scandinavianism". (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved April 29, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
^ The political movement of Nordism should not be confused with the
racial ideology of Nordicism, which latter considers the Nordic people
a master race.
^ The Literary
Scandinavism Archived 2007-06-23 at the Wayback
Machine.. Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
^ a b c
Ola Tunander (1999). "Nordic cooperation", UDA085ENG. In Nytt
fra Norge, ODIN – Information from the government and the
ministries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. See also Tunander,
Ola (1999). "Norway,
Sweden and Nordic cooperation". In The European
North – Hard, soft and civic security. Eds. Lassi Heininen and
Gunnar Lassinantti. The Olof Palme International Center/Arctic Centre,
University of Lapland, 1999. pp. 39–48. ISBN 951-634-690-1.
^ a b The Students Archived 2007-08-13 at the Wayback Machine..
Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
^ a b c d "I am a Scandinavian".
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen and Music.
^ Bredsdorff 1975, p. 169
^ Wæver, Ole (1992). "Nordic Nostalgia: Northern Europe after the
Cold War". International Affairs, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Jan., 1992), pp.
The Helsinki Treaty of 1962 Nicknamed as constitution of the Nordic
Greek Megali Idea
Turkish Misak-ı Millî