Scandinavism, also called Scandinavianism,[1] Pan-Scandinavianism,[2] is an ideology that support various degrees of cooperation among the Scandinavian Countries. Scandinavism
and Nordism are interchangeable terms for the literary, linguistic and cultural movement that focuses on promoting a shared Nordic past, a shared cultural heritage, a common Scandinavian mythology
Scandinavian mythology
and a common linguistic root in Old Norse, and which led to the formation of joint periodicals and societies in support of Scandinavian literature and languages.[3][dead link]


1 History 2 In literature 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit] Pan-Scandinavianism as a modern movement originated in the 19th-century.[1] The Pan-Scandinavian movement paralleled the unification movements of Germany
and Italy.[4] As opposed to the German and Italian counterparts, the Scandinavian state-building project was not successful and is no longer pursued.[2][4] It was at its height in the mid- 19th century
19th century
and supported the idea of Scandinavian unity. It was spurred on by philological and archaelogical discoveries of the 18th century
18th century
and 19th centuries, the rise of Pan-Germanism
(and Pan-Slavism[5]) and a general fear of Russian expansionism.[1] The movement was initiated by Danish and Swedish university students in the 1840s, with a base in Scania.[6] In the beginning, the political establishments in the two countries, including the absolute monarch Christian VIII
Christian VIII
and Charles XIV
Charles XIV
with his "one man government", were suspicious of the movement.[6][dead link] The movement was a significant force from 1846 to 1864, however the movement eventually dwindled and only had strong support among the Swedish-speaking population of Finland.[1][7] The collapse of Pan-Scandinavianism came in 1864 when the Second Schleswig-Holstein War broke out. King Charles XV
Charles XV
who was the King of Sweden-Norway
from 1859 until his death in 1872 who in spite of championing Pan-Scandinivianism failed to help Denmark
in the war.[8] Author Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
became an adherent of Scandinavism after a visit to Sweden
in 1837, and committed himself to writing a poem that would convey the relatedness of Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians.[9] It was in July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen
in Denmark, that Andersen first wrote the text of his poem, Jeg er en Skandinav ("I am a Scandinavian").[9] Andersen composed the poem to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have gradually grown together", as part of a Scandinavian national anthem.[9] Composer Otto Lindblad
Otto Lindblad
set the poem to music, and the composition was published in January 1840. Its popularity peaked in 1845, after which it was seldom sung.[9] Despite the movement severely dwindling there was a resurgence of Pan-Scandinavian sentiment in the latter part of the 20th century.[1] In literature[edit]

The Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
story A Scandal in Bohemia
A Scandal in Bohemia
mentions a fictional "King of Scandinavia" whose daughter is about to marry the (also fictional) King of Bohemia, a major protagonist in the story.

See also[edit]

Viking revival Nordic student meeting Pan-nationalism


^ a b c d e "Pan-Scandanavianism". Encyclopedia Britannica.  ^ a b "Pan-Scandinavianism". (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 29, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ The Literary Scandinavism
Archived 2007-06-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007. ^ a b Ola Tunander
Ola Tunander
(1999). "Nordic cooperation", UDA085ENG. In Nytt fra Norge, ODIN – Information from the government and the ministries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. See also Tunander, Ola (1999). "Norway, Sweden
and Nordic cooperation". In The European North – Hard, soft and civic security. Eds. Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. The Olof Palme International Center/Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, 1999. pp. 39–48. ISBN 951-634-690-1. ^ J. P. T Bury. "The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 10".  ^ a b The Students Archived 2007-08-13 at the Wayback Machine.. Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007. ^ "Charles XV". Encyclopedia Britannica.  ^ "About Pan-Scandinavianism. Reference Points in the 19th Century (1815-1864)".  ^ a b c d "I am a Scandinavian". Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
and Music. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 

Further reading[edit]

'Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: Pan-Scandinavianism and Nationalism' by Mary Hilson[1]

'Pan-Scandinavianism. Reference Points in the 19th Century (1815-1864)' by Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea

External links[edit]

The Helsinki Treaty of 1962 Nicknamed as constitution of the Nordic Countries.

v t e

Pan-nationalist concepts


Pan-Africanism Pan-Americanism Pan-Arabism Pan-Asianism Berberism Pan-Celticism Czechoslovakism Pan-Germanism Pan-European nationalism Panhispanism Pan-Iberism Pan-Indianism Pan-Iranism Pan-Latinism Pan-Mongolism Pan-Oceanianism Scandinavism Pan-Serbism Pan-Slavism Rattachism Turanism Pan-Turkism Yugoslavism

Territorial concepts

Greater Albania Greater Bulgaria Greater Catalonia Greater China Greater Croatia Greater Finland Greater Hungary Greater Iran Greater Israel Greater Italy Greater Mexico Greater Morocco Greater Nepal Greater Netherlands Greater Norway Greater Portugal Greater Romania Greater Serbia Greater Somalia Greater Spain Greater Syria Greater Ukraine Greater Yugoslavia Greek Megali Idea Kurdistan Occitania Tamazgha Turkish Misak-ı Millî United Armenia United Ireland United Macedonia Whole Azerbaijan

^ "Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: Pan-Scandinavianism and Nationalism". University of Ports