1 History 2 In literature 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links
Pan-Scandinavianism as a modern movement originated in the
19th-century. The Pan-Scandinavian movement paralleled the
unification movements of
Germany and Italy. As opposed to the German and Italian counterparts, the Scandinavian state-building project was not successful and is no longer pursued. It was at its height in the mid- 19th century
19th century and supported the idea of Scandinavian unity. It was spurred on by philological and archaelogical discoveries of the 18th century
18th century and 19th centuries, the rise of Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism (and Pan-Slavism) and a general fear of Russian expansionism. The movement was initiated by Danish and Swedish university students in the 1840s, with a base in Scania. In the beginning, the political establishments in the two countries, including the absolute monarch Christian VIII
Christian VIII and Charles XIV
Charles XIV with his "one man government", were suspicious of the movement.[dead link] The movement was a significant force from 1846 to 1864, however the movement eventually dwindled and only had strong support among the Swedish-speaking population of Finland. The collapse of Pan-Scandinavianism came in 1864 when the Second Schleswig-Holstein War broke out. King Charles XV
Charles XV who was the King of Sweden-Norway
Sweden-Norway from 1859 until his death in 1872 who in spite of championing Pan-Scandinivianism failed to help Denmark
Denmark in the war. Author Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen became an adherent of Scandinavism after a visit to Sweden
Sweden in 1837, and committed himself to writing a poem that would convey the relatedness of Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians. It was in July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen
Funen in Denmark, that Andersen first wrote the text of his poem, Jeg er en Skandinav ("I am a Scandinavian"). Andersen composed the poem to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have gradually grown together", as part of a Scandinavian national anthem. Composer Otto Lindblad
Otto Lindblad set the poem to music, and the composition was published in January 1840. Its popularity peaked in 1845, after which it was seldom sung. Despite the movement severely dwindling there was a resurgence of Pan-Scandinavian sentiment in the latter part of the 20th century. In literature
Sherlock Holmes story A Scandal in Bohemia
A Scandal in Bohemia mentions a fictional "King of Scandinavia" whose daughter is about to marry the (also fictional) King of Bohemia, a major protagonist in the story.
Viking revival Nordic student meeting Pan-nationalism
^ a b c d e "Pan-Scandanavianism". Encyclopedia Britannica.
^ a b "Pan-Scandinavianism". (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved April 29, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
^ The Literary
Scandinavism Archived 2007-06-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007. ^ a b Ola Tunander
Ola Tunander (1999). "Nordic cooperation", UDA085ENG. In Nytt fra Norge, ODIN – Information from the government and the ministries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. See also Tunander, Ola (1999). "Norway, Sweden
Sweden and Nordic cooperation". In The European North – Hard, soft and civic security. Eds. Lassi Heininen and Gunnar Lassinantti. The Olof Palme International Center/Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, 1999. pp. 39–48. ISBN 951-634-690-1. ^ J. P. T Bury. "The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 10". ^ a b The Students Archived 2007-08-13 at the Wayback Machine.. Øresundstid, 2003. Retrieved 6 May 2007. ^ "Charles XV". Encyclopedia Britannica. ^ "About Pan-Scandinavianism. Reference Points in the 19th Century (1815-1864)". academia.edu. ^ a b c d "I am a Scandinavian". Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen and Music. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
'Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: Pan-Scandinavianism and Nationalism' by Mary Hilson
'Pan-Scandinavianism. Reference Points in the 19th Century (1815-1864)' by Mircea-Cristian Ghenghea
The Helsinki Treaty of 1962 Nicknamed as constitution of the Nordic Countries.
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^ "Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: Pan-Scandinavianism and Nationalism". University of Ports