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Scandinavia[a] (/ˌskændɪˈneɪviə/ SKAN-dih-NAY-vee-ə) is a region in Northern Europe, characterized by common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.[2] The term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, but in English usage, it also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
or to the broader region which includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland.[1] This broader region is usually known locally as the Nordic countries.[3] The remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
are usually not seen as a part of Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark. The Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
may be included.[4]

Contents

1 Toponymy 2 Terminology and use

2.1 Societal and tourism promotional organizations

3 Use of "Nordic countries" vs. "Scandinavia"

3.1 Pliny the Elder's descriptions 3.2 Germanic reconstruction 3.3 Sami etymology 3.4 Other etymologies

4 Geography 5 Languages in Scandinavia

5.1 North Germanic languages 5.2 Finnish 5.3 Sami languages

6 History

6.1 Scandinavian unions

7 Political 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Toponymy The name Scandinavia
Scandinavia
originally referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement.[5] The majority of the population of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are descended from several North Germanic tribes who originally inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse. Icelanders
Icelanders
and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore often seen as Scandinavian. Finland
Finland
is mainly populated by Finns, with a minority of approximately 5%[citation needed] of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people
Sami people
live in the extreme north of Scandinavia. The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are closely related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are entirely unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German, Yiddish
Yiddish
and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. Terminology and use

Satellite photo of the Scandinavian Peninsula, March 2002

"Scandinavia" refers to Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden.[6] Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands, Finland
Finland
and Iceland,[4][7][8][9][10] though that broader region is usually known by the countries concerned as Norden (Finnish: Pohjoismaat, Icelandic: Norðurlöndin, Faroese: Norðurlond), or the Nordic countries.[3]

Scandinavia
Scandinavia
originally referred vaguely to Scania, a formerly Danish region that became Swedish in the 17th century

   Scandinavia
Scandinavia
according to the local definition   The extended usage in English which includes Iceland
Iceland
and the Faroe Islands, the Åland Islands
Åland Islands
and Finland.

The use of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as a convenient general term for Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
is fairly recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism.[5] Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar mainly to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania
Scania
and the southern region of the peninsula.[5] As a political term, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s.[5] The popular usage of the term in Sweden, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, and with this feeling I wrote the poem immediately after my return: 'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".[11] The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is Finland, based largely on the fact that most of modern-day Finland
Finland
was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland
Finland
with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish[12] and the Russian,[13][14] as described by the University of Jyväskylä
University of Jyväskylä
based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History.[15][16] Societal and tourism promotional organizations Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in the United States (such as The American-Scandinavian Foundation, established in 1910 by the Danish American
Danish American
industrialist Niels Poulsen) serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
in New York City and the United States".[17] The official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.[18] The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America.[19] Use of "Nordic countries" vs. "Scandinavia" Further information on this terminology: Nordic countries While the term "Scandinavia" is commonly used for Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland
Finland
and Iceland, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and the Åland Islands).[20] Scandinavia
Scandinavia
can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
refers to Scandinavia, Finland
Finland
and Karelia, excluding Denmark
Denmark
and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield (Baltic Shield). In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of:

  Denmark
Denmark
(constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system)   Norway
Norway
(constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system)   Sweden
Sweden
(constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system)

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
also consist of:

  Finland
Finland
(parliamentary republic)   Iceland
Iceland
(parliamentary republic)   Åland Islands
Åland Islands
(an autonomous province of Finland
Finland
since 1920)   Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
(an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1948)   Greenland
Greenland
(an autonomous country within the Danish Realm, self-governed since 1979)  Svalbard, which is under Norwegian sovereignty, is not considered part of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
as a cultural-historical region, but as a part of the Kingdom of Norway
Norway
(since 1925) it is part of the Nordic countries (Norden).

Whereas the term "Scandinavia" is relatively straightforward as traditionally relating to the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
there exists some ambiguity as regards the ethnic aspect of the concept in the modern era. Traditionally, the term refers specifically to the majority peoples of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, their states, their Germanic languages and their culture. In the modern era, the term will often include minority peoples such as the Sami and Meänkieli speakers in a political and to some extent cultural sense as they are citizens of Scandinavian countries and speak Scandinavian languages either as their first or second language. However, Scandinavian is still also seen as an ethnic term for the Germanic majority peoples of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and as such the inclusion of Sami and Finnish speakers can be seen as controversial within these groups.

The original areas inhabited (during the Bronze Age) by the peoples since known as Scandinavians included what is now Northern Germany (particularly Schleswig-Holstein), all of Denmark, southern Sweden
Sweden
and the southern coast of Norway
Norway
while namesake Scania
Scania
found itself in the centre

Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and Scania
Scania
(Skåne, the southernmost province of Sweden) are thought to go back to the proto-Germanic compound *Skaðin-awjō, which appears later in Old English
Old English
as Scedenig and in Old Norse
Old Norse
as Skáney.[21] The earliest identified source for the name Scandinavia is Pliny the Elder's Natural History, dated to the first century A.D. Various references to the region can also be found in Pytheas, Pomponius Mela, Tacitus, Ptolemy, Procopius
Procopius
and Jordanes, usually in the form of Scandza. It is believed that the name used by Pliny may be of West Germanic origin, originally denoting Scania.[22] According to some scholars, the Germanic stem can be reconstructed as *skaðan- and meaning "danger" or "damage" (English: "scathing", German: Schaden, Dutch: schade).[23] The second segment of the name has been reconstructed as *awjō, meaning "land on the water" or "island". The name Scandinavia
Scandinavia
would then mean "dangerous island", which is considered to refer to the treacherous sandbanks surrounding Scania.[23] Skanör in Scania, with its long Falsterbo reef, has the same stem (skan) combined with -ör, which means "sandbanks". In the reconstructed Germanic root *Skaðin-awjō (the edh represented in Latin by t or d), the first segment is sometimes considered more uncertain than the second segment. The American Heritage Dictionary[24] derives the second segment from proto-Indo-European *akwa-, "water", in the sense of "watery land". The Old Norse
Old Norse
goddess name Skaði, along with Sca(n)dinavia and Skáney, may be related to Gothic skadus, Old English
Old English
sceadu, Old Saxon scado and Old High German
Old High German
scato (meaning "shadow"). Scholar John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests that the goddess Skaði
Skaði
may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
or associated with the underworld.[25] Pliny the Elder's descriptions Pliny's descriptions of Scatinavia and surrounding areas are not always easy to decipher. Writing in the capacity of a Roman admiral, he introduces the northern region by declaring to his Roman readers that there are 23 islands "Romanis armis cognitae" ("known to Roman arms") in this area. According to Pliny, the "clarissima" ("most famous") of the region's islands is Scatinavia, of unknown size. There live the Hilleviones. The belief that Scandinavia
Scandinavia
was an island became widespread among classical authors during the first century and dominated descriptions of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in classical texts during the centuries that followed. Pliny begins his description of the route to Scatinavia by referring to the mountain of Saevo (mons Saevo ibi), the Codanus Bay (Codanus sinus) and the Cimbrian promontory.[26] The geographical features have been identified in various ways. By some scholars, "Saevo" is thought to be the mountainous Norwegian coast at the entrance to Skagerrak
Skagerrak
and the Cimbrian peninsula is thought to be Skagen, the north tip of Jutland, Denmark. As described, Saevo and Scatinavia can also be the same place. Pliny mentions Scandinavia
Scandinavia
one more time: in Book
Book
VIII he says that the animal called achlis (given in the accusative, achlin, which is not Latin) was born on the island of Scandinavia.[27] The animal grazes, has a big upper lip and some mythical attributes. The name "Scandia", later used as a synonym for Scandinavia, also appears in Pliny's Naturalis Historia (Natural History), but is used for a group of Northern European islands which he locates north of Britannia. "Scandia" thus does not appear to be denoting the island Scadinavia in Pliny's text. The idea that "Scadinavia" may have been one of the "Scandiae" islands was instead introduced by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(c. 90 – c. 168 AD), a mathematician, geographer and astrologer of Roman Egypt. He used the name "Skandia" for the biggest, most easterly of the three "Scandiai" islands, which according to him were all located east of Jutland.[23] Neither Pliny's nor Ptolemy's lists of Scandinavian tribes include the Suiones
Suiones
mentioned by Tacitus. Some early Swedish scholars of the Swedish Hyperborean
Hyperborean
school[28] and of the 19th-century romantic nationalism period proceeded to synthesize the different versions by inserting references to the Suiones, arguing that they must have been referred to in the original texts and obscured over time by spelling mistakes or various alterations.[29][30] Germanic reconstruction The Latin names in Pliny's text gave rise to different forms in medieval Germanic texts. In Jordanes' history of the Goths
Goths
(AD 551), the form Scandza
Scandza
is the name used for their original home, separated by sea from the land of Europe
Europe
(chapter 1, 4).[31] Where Jordanes meant to locate this quasi-legendary island is still a hotly debated issue, both in scholarly discussions and in the nationalistic discourse of various European countries.[32][33] The form Scadinavia as the original home of the Langobards appears in Paulus Diaconus' Historia Langobardorum,[34] but in other versions of Historia Langobardorum appear the forms Scadan, Scandanan, Scadanan and Scatenauge.[35] Frankish sources used Sconaowe and Aethelweard, an Anglo-Saxon historian, used Scani.[36][37] In Beowulf, the forms Scedenige and Scedeland are used while the Alfredian translation of Orosius and Wulfstan's travel accounts used the Old English Sconeg.[37] Sami etymology

Kautokeino, the main Sami municipality in Norway

The earliest Sami yoik texts written down refer to the world as Skadesi-suolo (north Sami) and Skađsuâl (east Sami), meaning "Skaði's island". Svennung considers the Sami name to have been introduced as a loan word from the North Germanic languages;[38] "Skaði" is the giant stepmother of Freyr
Freyr
and Freyja
Freyja
in Norse mythology. It has been suggested that Skaði
Skaði
to some extent is modeled on a Sami woman. The name for Skade's father Thjazi
Thjazi
is known in Sami as Čáhci, "the waterman"; and her son with Odin, Saeming, can be interpreted as a descendant of Saam the Sami population.[39][40] Older joik texts give evidence of the old Sami belief about living on an island and state that the wolf is known as suolu gievra, meaning "the strong one on the island". The Sami place name Sulliidčielbma means "the island's threshold" and Suoločielgi means "the island's back". In recent substrate studies, Sami linguists have examined the initial cluster sk- in words used in Sami and concluded that sk- is a phonotactic structure of alien origin.[41] Other etymologies Another possibility is that all or part of the segments of the name came from the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
people inhabiting the region.[42] In modernity, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is a peninsula, but between approximately 10,300 and 9,500 years ago the southern part of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
was an island separated from the northern peninsula, with water exiting the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
through the area where Stockholm
Stockholm
is now located.[43] Some Basque scholars have presented the idea that the segment sk that appears in *Skaðinawjō is connected to the name for the Euzko peoples, akin to Basques, that populated Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Europe. According to some of these intellects, Scandinavian people share particular genetic markers with the Basque people.[42] Geography

Galdhøpiggen
Galdhøpiggen
is the highest point in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and is a part of the Scandinavian Mountains

See also: Geography of Denmark, Geography of Finland, Geography of Iceland, Geography of Norway, and Geography of Sweden The geography of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is extremely varied. Notable are the Norwegian fjords, the Scandinavian Mountains, the flat, low areas in Denmark
Denmark
and the archipelagos of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway. Sweden
Sweden
has many lakes and moraines, legacies of the ice age, which ended about ten millennia ago. The southern and by far most populous regions of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
have a temperate climate. Scandinavia
Scandinavia
extends north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, but has relatively mild weather for its latitude due to the Gulf Stream. Many of the Scandinavian mountains have an alpine tundra climate. The climate varies from north to south and from west to east: a marine west coast climate (Cfb) typical of western Europe
Europe
dominates in Denmark, southernmost part of Sweden
Sweden
and along the west coast of Norway
Norway
reaching north to 65°N, with orographic lift giving more mm/year precipitation (<5000 mm) in some areas in western Norway. The central part – from Oslo
Oslo
to Stockholm
Stockholm
– has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast. A small area along the northern coast east of the North Cape has tundra climate (Et) as a result of a lack of summer warmth. The Scandinavian Mountains
Scandinavian Mountains
block the mild and moist air coming from the southwest, thus northern Sweden
Sweden
and the Finnmarksvidda
Finnmarksvidda
plateau in Norway
Norway
receive little precipitation and have cold winters. Large areas in the Scandinavian mountains have alpine tundra climate. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is 38.0 °C in Målilla
Målilla
(Sweden).[44] The coldest temperature ever recorded is −52.6 °C in Vuoggatjålme (Sweden).[45] The coldest month was February 1985 in Vittangi (Sweden) with a mean of −27.2 °C.[45] Southwesterly winds further warmed by foehn wind can give warm temperatures in narrow Norwegian fjords in winter. Tafjord
Tafjord
has recorded 17.9 °C in January and Sunndal
Sunndal
18.9 °C in February. Languages in Scandinavia Main articles: North Germanic languages, Sami languages, Finnic languages, and Scandoromani Two language groups have coexisted on the Scandinavian peninsula
Scandinavian peninsula
since prehistory—the North Germanic languages
North Germanic languages
(Scandinavian languages) and the Sami languages.[46] Due to later migrations, Finnish, Yiddish
Yiddish
and Romani have also been spoken for over a hundred years. Denmark
Denmark
also has a minority of German-speakers. More recent migrations has added even more languages. Apart from Sami and the languages of minority groups speaking a variant of the majority language of a neighboring state, the following minority languages in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Yiddish, Romani Chib, Romanes and Romani. North Germanic languages Main article: North Germanic languages

Continental Scandinavian languages:   Danish   Norwegian   Swedish Insular Scandinavian languages:   Faroese   Icelandic

The North Germanic languages
North Germanic languages
of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are traditionally divided into an East Scandinavian
East Scandinavian
branch (Danish and Swedish) and a West Scandinavian branch (Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese),[47][48] but because of changes appearing in the languages since 1600 the East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian
West Scandinavian
branches are now usually reconfigured into Insular Scandinavian (ö-nordisk/øy-nordisk) featuring Icelandic and Faroese[49] and Continental Scandinavian (Skandinavisk), comprising Danish, Norwegian and Swedish.[50] The modern division is based on the degree of mutual comprehensibility between the languages in the two branches.[51] The populations of the Scandinavian countries, with common Scandinavian roots in language, can—at least with some training—understand each other's standard languages as they appear in print and are heard on radio and television. The reason Danish, Swedish and the two official written versions of Norwegian (Nynorsk and Bokmål) are traditionally viewed as different languages, rather than dialects of one common language, is that each is a well-established standard language in its respective country. Danish, Swedish and Norwegian have since medieval times been influenced to varying degrees by Middle Low German
Middle Low German
and standard German. A substantial amount of that influence was a by-product of the economic activity generated by the Hanseatic League. Norwegians are accustomed to variation and may perceive Danish and Swedish only as slightly more distant dialects. This is because they have two official written standards, in addition to the habit of strongly holding on to local dialects. The people of Stockholm, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark
Denmark
have the greatest difficulty in understanding other Scandinavian languages.[52] In the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Iceland, learning Danish is mandatory. This causes Faroese people
Faroese people
as well as Icelandic people to become bilingual in two very distinct North Germanic languages, making it relatively easy for them to understand the other two Mainland Scandinavian languages.[53][54] Although Iceland
Iceland
was under the political control of Denmark
Denmark
until a much later date (1918), very little influence and borrowing from Danish has occurred in the Icelandic language.[55] Icelandic remained the preferred language among the ruling classes in Iceland. Danish was not used for official communications, most of the royal officials were of Icelandic descent and the language of the church and law courts remained Icelandic.[56] Finnish The Scandinavian languages are (as a language family) unrelated to Finnish, Estonian and Sami languages, which as Uralic languages
Uralic languages
are distantly related to Hungarian. Owing to the close proximity, there is still a great deal of borrowing from the Swedish and Norwegian languages in the Finnish and Sami languages.[57] The long history of linguistic influence of Swedish on Finnish is also due to the fact that Finnish, the language of the majority in Finland, was treated as a minority language while Finland
Finland
was part of Sweden. Finnish-speakers had to learn Swedish in order to advance to higher positions.[58] Swedish spoken in today's Finland
Finland
includes a lot of words that are borrowed from Finnish, whereas the written language remains closer to that of Sweden. Finland
Finland
is officially bilingual, with Finnish and Swedish having mostly the same status at national level. Finland's majority population are Finns, whose mother tongue is either Finnish (approximately 95%), Swedish or both. The Swedish speaking minority lives mainly on the coast from the city of Porvoo, in the Gulf of Finland, to the city of Kokkola, up in the Bothnian Bay. The Åland Islands, an autonomous province of Finland, situated in the Baltic Sea between Finland
Finland
and Sweden, is entirely Swedish speaking. Children are taught the other official language at school and for Swedish-speakers this is Finnish (usually from the 3rd grade) while for Finnish-speakers it is Swedish (usually from the 3rd, 5th or 7th grade). [someone please edit the above two paragraphs, as they are clearly lifted off some 1970's textbook, and contain numerous inaccuracies and falsehoods] Finnish speakers constitute a language minority in Sweden
Sweden
and Norway. There are also languages derived from Finnish, having evolved separately, known as Meänkieli in Sweden
Sweden
and Kven in Norway. Sami languages

Historically verified distribution of the Sami languages
Sami languages
(legend)

The Sami languages
Sami languages
are indigenous minority languages in Scandinavia.[59] They belong to their own branch of the Uralic language family and are unrelated to the North Germanic languages other than by limited grammatical (particularly lexical) characteristics resulting from prolonged contact.[57] Sami is divided into several languages or dialects.[60] Consonant gradation is a feature in both Finnish and northern Sami dialects, but it is not present in south Sami, which is considered to have a different language history. According to the Sami Information Centre of the Sami Parliament in Sweden, southern Sami may have originated in an earlier migration from the south into the Scandinavian peninsula.[57] History For a more in-depth look at the history of the region, see History of Scandinavia.

The Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
(c. 1400)

The greatest extent of the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
(1561–1721)

Scandinavism—a Norwegian, a Dane and a Swede; and this image is considered emblematic of Scandinavism
Scandinavism
and is widely used in Scandinavian school books

During a period of Christianization
Christianization
and state formation in the 10th–13th centuries, numerous Germanic petty kingdoms and chiefdoms were unified into three kingdoms:

Denmark, forged from the Lands of Denmark
Denmark
(including Jutland, Zealand and Scania
Scania
(Skåneland) on the Scandinavian Peninsula)[61] Sweden, forged from the Lands of Sweden
Sweden
on the Scandinavian Peninsula (excluding the provinces Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland
Jämtland
and Idre and Särna, Halland, Blekinge
Blekinge
and Scania
Scania
of modern-day Sweden, but including most of modern Finland) Norway
Norway
(including Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jämtland
Jämtland
and Idre and Särna on the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
and its island colonies Iceland, Greenland, Faroe Islands, Shetland, Orkney, Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the Hebrides)

The three Scandinavian kingdoms joined in 1387 in the Kalmar Union under Queen Margaret I of Denmark. Sweden
Sweden
left the union in 1523 under King Gustav Vasa. In the aftermath of Sweden's secession from the Kalmar Union, civil war broke out in Denmark
Denmark
and Norway—the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
followed. When things had settled, the Norwegian Privy Council was abolished—it assembled for the last time in 1537. A personal union, entered into by the kingdoms of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
in 1536, lasted until 1814. Three sovereign successor states have subsequently emerged from this unequal union: Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Iceland. The borders between the three countries got the shape they have had since in the middle of the seventeenth century: In the 1645 Treaty of Brömsebro, Denmark– Norway
Norway
ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen
Härjedalen
and Idre and Särna, as well as the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel (in Estonia) to Sweden. The Treaty of Roskilde, signed in 1658, forced Denmark– Norway
Norway
to cede the Danish provinces Scania, Blekinge, Halland, Bornholm
Bornholm
and the Norwegian provinces of Båhuslen and Trøndelag
Trøndelag
to Sweden. The 1660 Treaty of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
forced Sweden
Sweden
to return Bornholm
Bornholm
and Trøndelag
Trøndelag
to Denmark–Norway, and to give up its recent claims to the island Funen.[62] In the east, Finland, was a fully incorporated part of Sweden
Sweden
since medieval times until the Napoleonic wars, when it was ceded to Russia. Despite many wars over the years since the formation of the three kingdoms, Scandinavia
Scandinavia
been politically and culturally close. Scandinavian unions Denmark– Norway
Norway
as a historiographical name refers to the former political union consisting of the kingdoms of Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, including the Norwegian dependencies of Iceland, Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands. The corresponding adjective and demonym is Dano-Norwegian. During Danish rule, Norway
Norway
kept its separate laws, coinage and army as well as some institutions such as a royal chancellor. Norway's old royal line had died out with the death of Olav IV[63] in 1387, but Norway's remaining a hereditary kingdom became an important factor for the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
dynasty of Denmark– Norway
Norway
in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. The Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
(14 January 1814) formally dissolved the Dano-Norwegian union and ceded the territory of Norway
Norway
proper to the King of Sweden, but Denmark
Denmark
retained Norway's overseas possessions. However, widespread Norwegian resistance to the prospect of a union with Sweden
Sweden
induced the governor of Norway, crown prince Christian Frederick (later Christian VIII of Denmark), to call a constituent assembly at Eidsvoll
Eidsvoll
in April 1814. The assembly drew up a liberal constitution and elected Christian Frederick to the throne of Norway. Following a Swedish invasion during the summer, the peace conditions of the Convention of Moss
Convention of Moss
(14 August 1814) specified that king Christian Frederik had to resign, but Norway
Norway
would keep its independence and its constitution within a personal union with Sweden. Christian Frederik formally abdicated on 10 August 1814 and returned to Denmark. The Norwegian parliament Storting
Storting
elected king Charles XIII of Sweden
Sweden
as king of Norway
Norway
on 4 November. The Storting
Storting
dissolved the union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
in 1905, after which the Norwegians elected Prince Charles of Denmark
Denmark
as king of Norway: he reigned as Haakon VII. Political Main article: Scandinavism See also: Politics of Denmark, Politics of Finland, Politics of Iceland, Politics of Norway, and Politics of Sweden The influence of Scandinavism
Scandinavism
as a Scandinavist political movement was in the middle of the nineteenth century between the First Schleswig War (1848–1850) and the Second Schleswig War
Second Schleswig War
(1864). The Swedish king also proposed a unification of Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
into a single united kingdom. The background for the proposal was the tumultuous events during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in the beginning of the century. This war resulted in Finland
Finland
(formerly the eastern third of Sweden) becoming the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
in 1809 and Norway
Norway
(de jure in union with Denmark
Denmark
since 1387, although de facto treated as a province) becoming independent in 1814, but thereafter swiftly forced to accept a personal union with Sweden. The dependent territories Iceland, the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and Greenland, historically part of Norway, remained with Denmark
Denmark
in accordance with the Treaty of Kiel. Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
were thus united under the Swedish monarch, but Finland's inclusion in the Russian Empire excluded any possibility for a political union between Finland
Finland
and any of the other Nordic countries. The end of the Scandinavian political movement came when Denmark
Denmark
was denied the military support promised from Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
to annex the (Danish) Duchy of Schleswig, which together with the (German) Duchy of Holstein
Holstein
had been in personal union with Denmark. The Second war of Schleswig
Schleswig
followed in 1864, a brief but disastrous war between Denmark
Denmark
and Prussia
Prussia
(supported by Austria). Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
was conquered by Prussia
Prussia
and after Prussia's success in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
a Prussian-led German Empire
German Empire
was created and a new power-balance of the Baltic sea countries
Baltic sea countries
was established. Scandinavian Monetary Union, established in 1873, lasted until World War I. See also

Baltic region Baltoscandia Fennoscandia Kvenland Nordic Council

Nordic countries Nordic Cross Flag Scandinavian colonialism Scandinavian family name etymology Scandinavian Peninsula

Scandza Vikings

Notes

^ Danish, Swedish and archaic (Dano-)Norwegian: Skandinavien, Norwegian, Faroese and Finnish: Skandinavia, Icelandic: Skandinavía, Sami: Skadesi-suolu/Skađsuâl

References

^ a b "Definition of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 23 December 2016. A large peninsula in north-western Europe, occupied by Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
… A cultural region consisting of the countries of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Denmark
and sometimes also of Iceland, Finland, and the Faroe Islands  ^ John Harrison, Michael Hoyler, Megaregions: Globalization's New Urban Form? (p. 152), Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015 ^ a b "About Nordic co-operation". Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers & Nordic Council. 1 October 2007. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the Faroe Islands, Greenland
Greenland
and Åland work together in the official Nordic co-operation.  ^ a b "Scandinavia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. Scandinavia, historically Scandia, part of northern Europe, generally held to consist of the two countries of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, with the addition of Denmark. Some authorities argue for the inclusion of Finland
Finland
on geologic and economic grounds and of Iceland
Iceland
and the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
on the grounds that their inhabitants speak Scandinavian languages related to those of Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
and also have similar cultures.  ^ a b c d Østergård, Uffe (1997). "The Geopolitics of Nordic Identity – From Composite States to Nation States". The Cultural Construction of Norden. Øystein Sørensen and Bo Stråth (eds.), Oslo: Scandinavian University Press 1997, 25–71. Also published online at Danish Institute for International Studies Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. For the history of cultural Scandinavism, see Oresundstid's articles The Literary Scandinavism
Scandinavism
and The Roots of Scandinavism. Retrieved 19 January 2007. ^ "Scandinavia". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 1997–2007. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2007. Scandinavia
Scandinavia
(ancient Scandia), name applied collectively to three countries of northern Europe—Norway, Sweden
Sweden
(which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula) and Denmark.  ^ "Scandinavia". The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008. Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, Sweden—sometimes also considered to include Iceland, the Faeroe Islands, & Finland.  ^ Lonely Planet Scandinavian Europe. 2009.  ^ The Rough Guide to Scandinavia. 2008.  ^ "Official Site of Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America". 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2008.  ^ Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
and Music – I am a Scandinavian. The Royal Library of Denmark, the National Library and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
University Library. Retrieved 17 January 2007. Archived 13 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Finland
Finland
and the Swedish Empire". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006. ^ "Introduction: Reflections on Political Thought in Finland." Editorial. Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History, 1997, Volume 1, University of Jyväskylä, pp. 6–7: "[T]he populist opposition both to Sweden
Sweden
as a former imperial country and especially to Swedish as the language of the narrow Finnish establishment has also been strong, especially in the inter-war years. [...] Finland
Finland
as a unitary and homogeneous nation-state was constructed [...] in opposition to the imperial models of Sweden
Sweden
and Russia." ^ "The Rise of Finnish Nationalism". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 November 2006: "The eighteenth century had witnessed the appearance of [...] a sense of national identity for the Finnish people, [...] an expression of the Finns' growing doubts about Swedish rule [...] The ethnic self-consciousness of Finnish speakers was given a considerable boost by the Russian conquest of Finland
Finland
in 1809, because ending the connection with Sweden
Sweden
forced Finns
Finns
to define themselves with respect to the Russians." ^ Editors and Board, Redescriptions, Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History ^ Olwig, Kenneth R. "Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage, and the Culture of Natural Heritage—Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony". International Journal of Heritage Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2005, pp. 3–7. ^ About The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Official site. Retrieved 2 February 2007. ^ Scandinavian Tourist Board. Official site. Archived 17 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. Official Website. Retrieved 2 February 2007. ^ Saetre, Elvind (1 October 2007). "About Nordic co-operation". Nordic Council of Ministers & Nordic Council. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2008. The Nordic countries consist of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, the Åland Islands, Iceland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden.  ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund in (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. PhD dissertation, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English), University of Cambridge, 1999. ^ Haugen, Einar (1976). The Scandinavian Languages: An Introduction to Their History. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1976. ^ a b c Knut Helle (2003). The Cambridge History of Scandinavia: Prehistory to 1520. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-47299-9.  ^ "Island". Bartleby, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000. ^ John McKinnell (2005). Meeting the other in Norse myth and legend. Ds Brewer. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-84384-042-8.  ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book
Book
IV, chapter XXXIX. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ Pliny the Elder. Naturalis Historia. Book
Book
VIII, chapter XVII. Ed. Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff. Online version at Persus. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ Oskar Bandle (2002). The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Mouton De Gruyter. p. 358. ISBN 978-3-11-014876-3.  ^ Malone, Kemp (1924). "Ptolemy's Skandia". The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 45, No. 4. (1924), pp. 362–70. ^ Stadius, Peter (2001). "Southern Perspectives on the North: Legends, Stereotypes, Images and Models". BaltSeaNet Working Paper 3, The Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
Area Studies, Gdansk/Berlin, 2001. Online version retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ Jordanes
Jordanes
(translated by Charles C. Mierow), The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, 22 April 1997 ^ Hoppenbrouwers, Peter (2005). Medieval Peoples Imagined. Working Paper No. 3, Department of European Studies,University of Amsterdam, ISSN 1871-1693, p. 8: "A second core area was the quasi-legendary 'Isle of Scanza', the vague indication of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in classical ethnography, and a veritable 'hive of races and a womb of peoples' according to Jordanes' Gothic History. Not only the Goths
Goths
were considered to have originated there, but also the Dacians/Danes, the Lombards, and the Burgundians—claims that are still subject to debate." ^ Goffart, Walter (2005), "Jordanes’s Getica and the disputed authenticity of Gothic origins from Scandinavia". Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies 80, 379–98 ^ Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, Bibliotheca Ausustana ^ History of the Langobards, Northvegr Foundation Archived 6 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Erik Björkman (1973). Studien zur englischen Philologie. Max Niemeyer. p. 99. ISBN 978-3-500-28470-5.  ^ a b Richard North (1997). Heathen gods in Old English
Old English
literature. Cambridge University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-521-55183-0.  ^ Svennung, J. (1963). Scandinavia
Scandinavia
und Scandia. Lateinisch-nordische Namenstudien. Almqvist & Wiksell/Harrassowitz, 1963, pp. 54–56. ^ Mundel, E. (2000). "Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse
Old Norse
myths" Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture – reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse
Old Norse
myths University of Bergen, 11th Saga Conference Sydney 2000 ^ Steinsland, Gro (1991). Det hellige bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi. En analyse av hierogami-myten i Skírnismál, Ynglingatal, Háleygjatal og Hyndluljóð. Oslo: Solum, 1991. (In Norwegian). ^ Aikio, A. (2004). "An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami". In Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag. Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki 63, Eds. Irma Hyvärinen / Petri Kallio / Jarmo Korhonen, Helsinki, pp. 5–34 (p. 14: "On the basis of Scandinavian loanwords it can be inferred that both sk- and -ʃ- were adopted in the west during the early separate development of the Saami languages, but never spread to Kola Saami. These areal features thus emerged in a phase when Proto-Saami began to diverge into dialects anticipating the modern Saami languages.") ^ a b J. F. Del Giorgio (24 May 2006). The Oldest Europeans: Who Are We? Where Do We Come From? What Made European Women Different?. A J Place. ISBN 978-980-6898-00-4.  ^ Uścinowicz, Szymon (2003). "How the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was changing" Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Marine Geology Branch, Polish Geological Institute, 9 June 2003. Retrieved 13 January 2008. ^ Högsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige Archived 26 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Lägsta uppmätta temperatur i Sverige Archived 28 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dirmid R. F. Collis (1990). Arctic
Arctic
languages: an awakening. Unipub. p. 440. ISBN 978-92-3-102661-4.  ^ Aschehoug og Gyldendals store norske leksikon: Nar – Pd. 1999. ISBN 978-82-573-0703-5.  ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International ^ Jónsson, Jóhannes Gísli and Thórhallur Eythórsson (2004). "Variation in subject case marking in Insular Scandinavian". Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2005), 28: 223–245 Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 November 2007. ^ Bernd Heine; Tania Kuteva (2006). The changing languages of Europe. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-929734-4.  ^ Iben Stampe Sletten; Nordisk Ministerråd (2005). Nordens sprog med rødder og fødder. p. 2. ISBN 978-92-893-1041-3.  ^ "Urban misunderstandings", Nordic Council
Nordic Council
and the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers, Copenhagen. ^ Faroese and Norwegians best at understanding Nordic neighbours, Nordisk Sprogråd, Nordic Council, 13 January 2005. ^ Aðalnámskrá grunnskóla: Erlend tungumál, ISMennt, EAN, 1999. ^ Holmarsdottir, H. B. (2001). "Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community". International Review of Education/ Internationale Zeitschrift fr Erziehungswissenschaft/ Revue inter. 47 (3/4): 379. Bibcode:2001IREdu..47..379H. doi:10.1023/A:1017918213388.  ^ Hálfdanarson, Guðmundur. Icelandic Nationalism: A Non-Violent Paradigm? Archived 1 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. In Nations and Nationalities in Historical Perspective. Pisa: Edizioni Plus, 2001, p. 3. ^ a b c Inez Svonni Fjällström (2006). "A language with deep roots" Archived 5 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine..Sápmi: Language history, 14 November 2006. Samiskt Informationscentrum Sametinget: "The Scandinavian languages are Northern Germanic languages. [...] Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric language family. Finnish, Estonian, Livonian and Hungarian belong to the same language family and are consequently related to each other." ^ Suzanne Romaine (1995). Bilingualism. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 323. ISBN 978-0-631-19539-9.  ^ Oskar Bandle (March 2005). The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2115. ISBN 978-3-11-017149-5.  ^ www.eng.samer .se
.se
– The Sami dialects Archived 20 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Sapmi: The Sami dialects ^ Oskar Bandle (2002). The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Mouton De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-014876-3.  ^ "Treaty of Copenhagen" (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 9 November 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. ^ The Monarchy: Historical Background[permanent dead link]. The Royal House of Norway. Official site. Retrieved 9 November 2006.[dead link]

External links

Look up scandinavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Scandinavia
Scandinavia
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Scandinavian Civilization.

"Scandinavia: Official Website of the Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America". Scandinavian Tourist Boards in North America, Globescope Internet Services, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2008.  Nordic Council
Nordic Council
– Official site for co-operation in the Nordic region Nordregio – Site established by the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers vifanord – a digital library that provides scientific information on the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as the Baltic region
Baltic region
as a whole

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
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islands

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North Africa

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Nile Valley

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West Africa

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Southern Africa

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Rhodesia

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Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

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v t e

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Ural

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Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

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North

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Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

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East

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Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
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Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

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Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

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Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

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East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

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West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

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Acadian Peninsula

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Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

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Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

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Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

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Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

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Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

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Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

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Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
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Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
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Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII
Haakon VII
Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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