HOME
The Info List - Scaled Composites





As of Nov. 1, 2015 Ben Diachun, president Formerly Kevin Mickey, president Burt Rutan, founder

Products Air vehicle design, tooling, and manufacturing, specialty composite structure design, analysis and fabrication and developmental flight test

Revenue $20-30 million

Number of employees

over 200

Parent Northrop Grumman

Website scaled.com

Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
(often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
and currently owned by Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States. Founded to develop experimental aircraft, the company now focuses on designing and developing concept craft and prototype fabrication processes for aircraft and other vehicles. It is known for unconventional designs, for its use of non-metal, composite materials, and for winning the Ansari X Prize with its experimental spacecraft SpaceShipOne.

Contents

1 Company history

1.1 Early projects 1.2 SpaceShipOne 1.3 Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft 1.4 Rutan Aircraft Factory
Rutan Aircraft Factory
aircraft 1.5 Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
aircraft 1.6 Other aircraft projects

2 Non-aircraft work 3 Accidents and incidents 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Company history[edit] Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
was established in 1982 and purchased by the Beech Aircraft Corporation in 1985, as a result of the collaboration on the Starship project. In 1988, Beech's parent company, Raytheon, sold Scaled back to Rutan, who then sold it to Wyman-Gordon. After Wyman-Gordon
Wyman-Gordon
was acquired by Precision Castparts Corp., Rutan and ten investors re-acquired the company as Scaled Composites, LLC. Northrop Grumman, a major shareholder in the company with a 40% stake, said it would acquire the company outright on July 20, 2007. Both companies said Northrop Grumman's acquisition would not affect Scaled Composites' strategy or involve replacing Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
as senior manager.[1][2] The acquisition by Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
was completed on August 24, 2007.[3] Rutan retired in April 2011.[4] Early projects[edit] Before forming Scaled Composites, Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
had designed several aircraft for amateur builders, including the VariEze, often considered one of general aviation's most innovative designs.[citation needed] He also designed the Beechcraft
Beechcraft
Starship, which was, however, a commercial failure. These aircraft were distinctive because of their canard configuration, winglets and pusher propellers. Before SpaceShipOne, Rutan was best known for his Voyager aircraft, which his brother, Dick Rutan, and Jeana Yeager
Jeana Yeager
flew around the world without refueling in 1986. In 2005, the single-jet Global Flyer was flown by billionaire adventurer Steve Fossett
Steve Fossett
on the first solo non-stop, non-refueled flight around the world, and later in the longest flight in history: 41,467.53 km (25,766.73 mi). Although their role was not widely publicized, Rutan and John Roncz, who had provided aerodynamics support to a number of previous Rutan projects including Starship, helped design, and Scaled manufactured, the double slotted wing mast for the Stars & Stripes catamaran for Dennis Conner's entry in the 1988 America's Cup.[5] SpaceShipOne[edit] Main article: Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
SpaceShipOne

The White Knight carries SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
on Flight 16P September 29, 2004

(L to R) Marion Blakely, FAA - Chief. Commercial Astronaut- Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill - Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson - Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan - William Brian Binnie
Brian Binnie
& Paul Gardner Allen reflect on a misson accomplished (October 4, 2004)

The company announced in April 2003 that it was working on a privately funded spacecraft, in an attempt to win the Ansari X PRIZE
Ansari X PRIZE
for the first private, manned spaceflight. This experimental rocket-powered spacecraft was given the name SpaceShipOne. On December 17, 2003, they announced SpaceShipOne's first supersonic flight, the first flight of its kind by a privately funded aircraft. SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
successfully made this flight, reaching 68,000 feet (21,000 m) and 930 mph (Mach 1.2). The craft was taken aloft by the White Knight carrier aircraft. On the same day, Paul Allen, one of the founders of Microsoft, confirmed publicly the rumors that he was the angel investor behind the SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
venture. On April 1, 2004, the U.S. Department of Transportation
U.S. Department of Transportation
issued the company what it called the world's first license for a sub-orbital manned rocket flight.[6] The license was approved by the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, which has backed licenses for more than 150 commercial launches of unmanned launch vehicles in its 20 years, but never a license for manned flight on a sub-orbital trajectory. The Mojave Airport, operating part-time as Mojave Spaceport, is the launch point for SpaceShipOne. SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
performed the first privately funded human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. Flight 16P on September 29, 2004 and Flight 17P on October 4, 2004 won the X-Prize for Scaled Composites and SpaceShipOne. Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft[edit] Main article: Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
Stratolaunch

Wingspan comparison of the Stratolaunch carrier with other large airplanes

Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
Model 351 (nicknamed the "Roc"), is being built for Stratolaunch Systems
Stratolaunch Systems
to provide a platform from which air-launch space missions can be staged.[7] With a wingspan of 117 m (385 ft), the design has the longest wingspan of any airplane to date (July 2015).[8] In August 2015, Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
president Kevin Mickey stated the company has so far assembled "roughly 200,000 pounds of composite structure" for the vehicle and if put on a football field, "its wingtips would extend beyond the goalposts by 15 feet on each side."[9] Each of the twin fuselages of the aircraft is 238 feet (73 m) long and will be supported by 12 main landing gear wheels and two nose gear wheels. It will require 12,000 feet of runway to lift-off.[10] Rutan Aircraft Factory
Rutan Aircraft Factory
aircraft[edit]

Rutan Aircraft's first - Model 32 VariViggen (1972)

Rutan Model 61 Long-EZ

Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
created Rutan Aircraft Factory
Rutan Aircraft Factory
to market a commercial variation of his Model "VariViggen" prototype" he began building in his garage in 1968 which he called The Model 32, also known as the VariViggen SP. This model which utilized a slightly longer fuselage, larger span and winglets in order to increase efficiency. The Rutan Aircraft Factory sold over 600 plan sets for the VariViggen to homebuilders, and eventually about 20 of the aircraft were built. Following the crash of one in New Brunswick, Canada
Canada
in September 2006 due to wing tank fuel contamination,[11] fewer than five are currently still flying. The prototype aircraft, N27VV, was donated to the EAA AirVenture Museum in 1988.

Model 27 VariViggen (1972) Model 31 VariEze (1975) Model 32 VariViggen SP (1973) Model 33 VariEze (1976) Model 35 AD-1 (1979) Model 40/74 Defiant (1978) Model 54 Quickie (1978) Model 61 Long-EZ (1979) NASA AD-1
NASA AD-1
(1979) Model 68 AMSOIL Racer (1981) Model 73 NGT: Three-fifths scale model of Fairchild T-46 trainer (1981) Model 72 Grizzly (1982) Model 76 Voyager: First aircraft to circumnavigate the Earth non-refueled, non-stop (1986) Model 77 Solitaire (1982) Model 81 Catbird (1988) five-seat single-engine aircraft Model 202 Boomerang: (1996) Asymmetric 5 seat aircraft

Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
aircraft[edit]

Model 76 Voyager

Beechcraft
Beechcraft
2000 Starship, based upon the Model 115

Model 115 Starship: 85% scale prototype, went into production as the Beechcraft
Beechcraft
Model 2000 Starship (1982) B-2 Spirit: Scale model pole-mounted B-2 for radar cross-section tests[citation needed] Model 133 ATTT (1987) tandem-wing STOL transport Model 143 Triumph: Built for Beechcraft
Beechcraft
(1988) IAI Searcher: longer-winged version of Pioneer UAV (1988)[12][citation needed] Model TRA324 Scarab: Developed for Teledyne Ryan, now Northrop Grumman (1988) DC-X: Constructed the structural aeroshell and control surfaces under contract to McDonnell Douglas Model 151 ARES (1990) Orbital Sciences
Orbital Sciences
Pegasus rocket: Wings, fins for air launch rocket (1990) Model 158 Pond Racer: Built for air racer Bob Pond (1990) Bell Eagle Eye: Tilt-rotor demonstrator aircraft for Bell Helicopter (1993) Model 205, first preliminary design for airlaunch of a booster rocket heavier than 500,000 pounds (230,000 kg) (1991)[13] Model 206, second preliminary design for heavy airlaunch (1991)[13] Model 247 Vantage: Developed for VisionAire
VisionAire
(1996) Model 271 V-Jet II: Developed for Williams International (1997)[citation needed] Model 276 NASA X-38: fuselage of drop test vehicle (1998) Model 281 Proteus (1998) Roton ATV (1999) Model 287 NASA ERAST: R/C model for proof of concept of 85,000 ft (26,000 m) UAV Model 309 Adam M-309: Prototype
Prototype
for the Adam A500
Adam A500
(2000) Model 326 Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
X-47A (2001) Model 302 Toyota TAA-1
Toyota TAA-1
(2002) Tier One (2003)

Model 316 SpaceShipOne: The first privately built spacecraft. Model 318 White Knight: The launch vehicle for SpaceShipOne.

Model 311 Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer: Same mission as Voyager, except a solo flight using a jet engine (2004) Tier 1b
Tier 1b
(2008)

Model 339 SpaceShipTwo:[14] The successor to SpaceShipOne Model 348 WhiteKnightTwo:[14] The successor to White Knight

Stratolaunch carrier aircraft
Stratolaunch carrier aircraft
(Model 351), world's largest wingspan aircraft[15] Model 367 BiPod (2011) A hybrid electric roadable aircraft. USAF Hunter-Killer
USAF Hunter-Killer
project (2007?) in cooperation with Northrop Grumman

Model 395: Proposed unmanned version of Model 281, equipped with armament Model 396: Smaller version of the RQ-4 Global Hawk, equipped with armament

SpaceShipThree: The name of the proposed next iteration of Scaled Composites' manned spacecraft series.[16] LauncherOne: The orbital launch vehicle now under development for Virgin Galactic,[17] based on the technology from the SpaceShip series of Scaled Composites.[18]

Other aircraft projects[edit]

US flight based testing and evaluation of the GippsAero
GippsAero
GA8 Airvan manufactured by GippsAero
GippsAero
of Victoria, Australia, including flight evaluation of the external belly cargo pod.[citation needed]

Non-aircraft work[edit]

Stars & Stripes: The catamaran that formed Dennis Conner's American entry for the America's Cup
America's Cup
yacht race (1988) Power Augmented Ram Landing Craft (PARLC): For the U.S. Navy. General Motors Ultralite (1992)

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On July 26, 2007, an explosion occurred during testing of SpaceShipTwo's systems, killing three employees and injuring three more.[19] On October 31, 2014, the SpaceShipTwo
SpaceShipTwo
VSS Enterprise
VSS Enterprise
broke apart during an in-flight powered test. The incident killed one pilot and severely injured the other, resulting in the total loss of the vehicle; both pilots were Scaled employees.[20][21] On July 28, 2015, the NTSB
NTSB
released the final report on its investigation of the incident, concluding that for an unknown reason the pilot had released the "Feather" of SpaceShipTwo
SpaceShipTwo
prematurely, leading directly to the craft's disintegration.[22]

See also[edit]

NewSpace

References[edit]

^ "MP-RTIP: Rutan To Get First Crack At Flight Test". UVOnline.com. Shephard Group. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2006.  ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(July 20, 2007). "Northrop to Own SpaceShipOne Builder". Forbes. Retrieved July 27, 2007. [dead link] ^ " Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
Completes Acquisition of Scaled Composites, LLC". Archived from the original on July 7, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2007.  ^ " Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
Announces Retirement Plans" (PDF). Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ America's Cup
America's Cup
1988 ^ " SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
gets federal go-ahead". msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved December 9, 2009.  ^ "Stratolaunch and Orbital – The Height of Air Launch". Retrieved August 10, 2015.  ^ "World's biggest plane Stratolaunch Carrier Aircraft to launch in 2016 - Daily Mail Online". Mail Online. Retrieved August 10, 2015.  ^ Mariella Moon. "Largest plane in the world to perform test flights in 2016". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved August 10, 2015.  ^ "SEE IT: World's largest plane under construction in Calif". NY Daily News. Retrieved August 10, 2015.  ^ Aviation Investigation Report, CA: Transportation Safety Board, 2006, A06A0092  ^ " Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
- Company History The English knowledge database". science-train.com. Retrieved 2018-02-21.  ^ a b Belfiore, Michael (2012-01-23). " Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
on Designing the World's Largest Aircraft". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2012-01-20. In 1991, to address a requirement to launch a booster heavier than 500,000 pounds, [Rutan] did the Model 205 and 206 preliminary designs.  ^ a b Linehan, Dan. SpaceShipOne: An Illustrated History. Zenith Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7603-3188-0. ^ Belfiore, Michael (January 5, 2012). "Stratolaunch: world's biggest airplane to launch spaceships". Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2012. The mothership is currently known only by its Scaled model number: M351 ...[with design] planned for completion by late summer of next year ... [and to] begin flight testing in late 2015 in Mojave, with rocket test launches from the airplane to begin at Cape Canaveral in late 2016.  ^ "seradata.com - /hyperbola/". Retrieved August 10, 2015.  ^ " Virgin Galactic
Virgin Galactic
relaunches its smallsat launch business". NewSpace Journal. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-11.  ^ EXCLUSIVE: Virgin Galactic
Virgin Galactic
unveils LauncherOne
LauncherOne
name!, Rob Coppinger, Flightglobal Hyperbola, December 9, 2008 ^ "Fatal explosion at Mojave Airport".  ^ Mojave Air and Space Port
Mojave Air and Space Port
press conference on Friday 31 October 2014 at 2:00pm PDT -- involving: the Spaceport, Scaled, Virgin Galactic, County Fire Department, Sheriff's Department ^ "Statement from Virgin Galactic
Virgin Galactic
31.10.14". www.virgingalactic.com. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.  ^ "The Space Review: A failure of foresight and oversight". Retrieved August 10, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scaled Composites.

Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
website Stargazer - The Ultimate Online Resource on Every Known Rutan Project Aerofiles data on various Rutan/Scaled projects "Patents owned by Scaled Composites". US Patent & Trademark Office. Retrieved December 6, 2005.  SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
Motor Bulkhead Case Study

v t e

Scaled Composites

Spaceflight program

Tier One

SpaceShipOne White Knight One

Tier 1b

SpaceShipTwo

VSS Enterprise† VSS Unity

RocketMotorTwo White Knight Two

VMS Eve VMS Spirit of Steve Fossett

Tier 2

SpaceShipThree

Stratolaunch Roc

Ansari X Prize
Ansari X Prize
flights

Tier One

11P 13P 14P 15P 16P 17P

The Spaceship Company Mojave Aerospace
Aerospace
Ventures

Notable people

Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
(founder) Ben Diachun (president) Kevin Mickey (former president) Doug Shane
Doug Shane
(former president) Michael Alsbury† (test pilot) Brian Binnie
Brian Binnie
(test pilot) Mike Melvill
Mike Melvill
(test pilot) Peter Siebold
Peter Siebold
(test pilot)

Aircraft (main designs)

VariEze Long-EZ Boomerang Pond Racer Proteus Model 401

Aircraft (as subcontractor)

Adam A500 Bell Eagle Eye General Motors Ultralite Toyota TAA-1 Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer Williams V-Jet II X-47A Pegasus

Rocketcraft (as subcontractor)

McDonnell Douglas DC-X Rotary Rocket

Technology demonstrators

ARES ATTT BiPod Catbird Triumph Model 395 (unmanned) Model 396 (unmanned)

v t e

The Spaceship Company

Virgin Galactic

Related companies

Virgin Galactic
Virgin Galactic
(Virgin Group) Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
(Northrop Grumman) Mojave Aerospace
Aerospace
Ventures (Vulcan Aerospace)

Notable people

Richard Branson Burt Rutan
Burt Rutan
(founders) Doug Shane
Doug Shane
(president) Michael Alsbury† Brian Binnie Keith Colmer Michael Masucci Clint Nichols Peter Siebold Mark Stucky

Background

Ansari X Prize Scaled Composites
Scaled Composites
Tier One

SpaceShipOne White Knight One

Programs / Ships

Tier 1b

SpaceShipTwo

VSS Enterprise†

2014 crash

VSS Unity

White Knight Two

VMS Eve VMS Spirit of Steve Fossett

RocketMotorTwo

Tier 2

SpaceShipThree

Related topics

Mojave Spaceport Kármán line Space tourism

Companies

Sub-orbital spaceflight

Spaceplane

v t e

Space tourism

Companies

Active

Bigelow Aerospace Blue Origin Airbus D&S Mojave Aerospace
Aerospace
Ventures Orbital Technologies Sierra Nevada Corporation Space Adventures The Spaceship Company SpaceX Virgin Galactic

Closed

Armadillo Aerospace Golden Spike Company RocketShip Tours Space Island Group (Space Island Project) XCOR Aerospace

Organizations

ARCA Association of Autonomous Astronauts Astronaute Club Européen Commercial Spaceflight Federation Copenhagen Suborbitals Space Frontier Foundation Space Tourism Society

Spacecraft

Current

Soyuz

Future

BFR spaceship CST-100 Starliner Dragon 2 New Glenn New Shepard SpaceShipTwo

Living in space

Commercialization of space Effect of spaceflight on the human body Health threat from cosmic rays Space colonization Space habitat Space medicine Space station Suborbital spaceplane

Space competitions

America's Space Prize Ansari X Prize Google Lunar X Prize Space elevator competitions

Space tourists

Dennis Tito Mark Shuttleworth Gregory Olsen Anousheh Ansari Charles Simonyi Richard Garriott Guy Laliberté

Tourism on the Moon

Coordinates: 35°03′23″N 118°09′41″W / 35.056488°N 118.161370°W / 35.056488;

.