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Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(German: Sachsen-Anhalt, pronounced [ˌzaksn̩ ˈʔanhalt])[5] is a landlocked federal state of Germany
Germany
surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
and Thuringia. Its capital is Magdeburg
Magdeburg
and its largest city is Halle (Saale). Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres (7,894.9 sq mi)[6] and has a population of 2.23 million. It is the 8th largest state in Germany
Germany
by area and the 10th largest by population. The state of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
grew out of the former Prussian Province of Saxony
Saxony
and Free State of Anhalt
Free State of Anhalt
during Prussia's dissolution after World War II. In 1945 the US army administration and, subsequently, the Soviet army administration organised the former province's territory into the new state. The state became a part of the newly established German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
in 1947, but in 1952 the state was dissolved and its territory divided into the East German districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with the exception of the city of Torgau, which joined the district of Leipzig. After German reunification
German reunification
in 1990, the state was re-established, leaving out Torgau. Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
should not be confused with Saxony
Saxony
or Lower Saxony, the names of two other German states.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Administrative subdivisions

2.1 Largest cities

3 History 4 Demographics

4.1 Religion

5 Politics

5.1 List of minister presidents 5.2 Landtag 5.3 13 March 2016 state election

6 Economy

6.1 Development of the economy 6.2 Structure of the economy 6.3 World Heritage Sites

7 Anthem 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit] See also: List of places in Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
is one of 16 Bundesländer (see German: Bundesland) of Germany. It is located in the western part of eastern Germany. By size, it is the 8th largest state in Germany
Germany
and by population it is the 10th largest. It borders four other Bundesländer: Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
to the north-west, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
to the north-east, Saxony
Saxony
to the south-east and Thuringia to the south-west. In the north, the Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
landscape is dominated by the flat expanse of the (North German Plain). The old Hanseatic towns Salzwedel, Gardelegen, Stendal
Stendal
and Tangermünde
Tangermünde
are located in the sparsely populated Altmark. The Colbitz-Letzlingen Heath and the Drömling
Drömling
near Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg
mark the transition between the Altmark region and the Elbe-Börde-Heath region with its fertile, sparsely wooded Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Börde. Notable towns in the Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Börde
Börde
are Haldensleben, Oschersleben (Bode), Wanzleben, Schönebeck (Elbe), Aschersleben
Aschersleben
and the capital Magdeburg, from which the Börde
Börde
derives its name. The Harz mountains
Harz mountains
are located in the south-west, comprising the Harz National Park, the Harz Foreland and Mansfeld Land. The highest mountain of the Harz (and of Northern Germany) is Brocken, with an elevation of 1,141 meters (3,735 ft). In this area, one can find the towns of Halberstadt, Wernigerode, Thale, Eisleben
Eisleben
and Quedlinburg. The wine-growing area Saale- Unstrut
Unstrut
and the towns of Zeitz, Naumburg (Saale), Weißenfels
Weißenfels
and Freyburg (Unstrut)
Freyburg (Unstrut)
are located on the rivers Saale
Saale
and Unstrut
Unstrut
in the south of the state. The metropolitan area of Halle (Saale)
Halle (Saale)
forms an agglomeration with Leipzig
Leipzig
in Saxony. This area is known for its highly developed chemical industry (the Chemiedreieck - chemical triangle), with major production plants at Leuna, Schkopau
Schkopau
(Buna-Werke) and Bitterfeld. Finally, in the east, Dessau-Roßlau
Dessau-Roßlau
and Wittenberg
Wittenberg
are situated on the Elbe (as is the capital Magdeburg) in the Anhalt-Wittenberg region. Administrative subdivisions[edit]

View over Magdeburg, capital of Saxony-Anhalt

Saxony-Anhalt's most populous city, Halle (Saale), is the seat of the state's largest university.

The capital of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
is Magdeburg. It is the second-largest city in the state, closely after Halle. From 1994 to 2003, the state was divided into three regions (Regierungsbezirke), Dessau, Halle and Magdeburg
Magdeburg
and, below the regional level, 21 districts (Landkreise). Since 2004, however, this system has been replaced by 11 rural districts and three urban districts.[7]

The counties are:

Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Anhalt-Bitterfeld Börde Burgenlandkreis Harz Jerichower Land Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis Salzlandkreis Stendal Wittenberg

The independent cities are:

Dessau-Roßlau Halle (Saale) Magdeburg

Largest cities[edit] The largest cities in Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
according to a 31 December 2014 estimate:[8]

Rank City Population

1 Halle (Saale) 232,470

2 Magdeburg 232,306

3 Dessau-Roßlau 83,061

4 Lutherstadt Wittenberg 46,621

5 Bitterfeld-Wolfen 40,779

6 Halberstadt 40,440

7 Stendal 40,079

8 Weißenfels 39,918

9 Bernburg 33,633

10 Merseburg 33,317

Halle is the largest city in Saxony-Anhalt

Magdeburg
Magdeburg
with its famous cathedral

View over Dessau

Inside the old town of Wittenberg, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Halberstadt
Halberstadt
with its churches

The Cathedral of Naumburg

Castle in Wernigerode

History[edit] Main article: History of Saxony-Anhalt

Coat-of-arms of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
between 1946 and 1952.

In April 1945 the US Army
US Army
took control of most of the western and northern area of the future Saxony-Anhalt. The U.S. Group Control Council, Germany
Germany
(a precursor of the OMGUS) appointed the first non-Nazi officials in leading positions in the area. So Erhard Hübener, put on leave by the Nazis, was reappointed Landeshauptmann (state governor). By early July the US Army
US Army
withdrew from the former Prussian Province of Saxony
Saxony
to make way for the Red Army
Red Army
to take it as part of the Soviet occupation zone, as agreed by the London Protocol in 1944. On 9 July the Soviet SVAG ordered the merger of the Free State of Anhalt, Halle-Merseburg, the governorate of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(in its then borders), Allstedt
Allstedt
(before Thuringia) and some Brunswickian eastern exclaves and salients ( Calvörde
Calvörde
and the eastern part of the former Blankenburg district[9]) with the Province of Saxony.[10] The previously Saxon Erfurt governorate had become a part of Thuringia. Anhalt takes its name from Anhalt Castle
Anhalt Castle
near Harzgerode; the origin of the name of the castle remains unknown. The SVAG appointed Hübener as president of the provincial Saxon administration, a newly created function. The administration was seated in Halle an der Saale, which became the capital, also of later Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
until 1952. On 3 September 1945 the new administration enacted by Soviet-inspired ordinance the mass expropriations, mostly hitting holders of large real estates, often of noble descent. On the occasion of the first (and one and only) election in the Soviet zone, allowing parties truly to compete for seats in provincial and state parliaments, on 20 October 1946, the Province of Saxony
Saxony
was renamed as the Province of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(German: Provinz Sachsen-Anhalt), taking the prior merger into account.[10] On 3 December 1946 the members of the new provincial parliament elected Hübener the first minister-president of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
with the votes of CDU and Liberal Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(LDPD). Thus he became the only governor in the Soviet zone, who was not a member of the communist Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Germany
(SED). He was an inconvenient governor for the Soviet rulers. After the official Allied decision to dissolve the Free State of Prussia, which had remained in limbo since the Prussian coup of 1932, its former provinces, in as far as they still existed, achieved statehood, thus the province emerged into the State of Saxony-Anhalt on 6 October 1947.[10] It became part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) in 1949. From 1952 to 1990 the East German states were dissolved and Saxony-Anhalt's territory was divided into the East German districts of Halle and Magdeburg
Magdeburg
except territory around Torgau
Torgau
was in Leipzig. In 1990, in the course of German reunification, the districts were reintegrated as a state. But, territory around Torgau
Torgau
did not return to the state and joined Saxony. Now, Torgau
Torgau
is the centre of Nordsachsen
Nordsachsen
district (since 2008). In 2015 the skeletal remains of an ancient inhabitant of Karsdorf dated from the Early Neolithic (7200 BP) were analysed; he turned out to belong to the paternal T1a-M70 lineage and maternal lineage H1.[11][12] Demographics[edit] Since German reunification
German reunification
there has been a continuous downward trend in the population of Saxony-Anhalt. This is partly due to outward migration and partly because the death rate exceeds the birth rate. Although the birth rate has been steady since 1994, the net reproduction rate is only approximately 70%. However, the total fertility rate reached 1.50 in 2014, the highest value since 1990.

Demographic history of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
since 1990[13]

Year Population Change

1990 2,873,957

1995 2,738,928 −135,029

2000 2,615,375 −123,553

2005 2,469,716 −145,659

2010 2,335,006 −134,710

The percentage of foreigners in the population of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
is 1.9 percent, the lowest of all the federal states of Germany.[14] Religion[edit]

Religion in Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
- 2016

religion

percent

EKD Protestants

12.7%

Roman Catholics

3.5%

Non religious

81.8%

Other religion

2%

The region has historically been associated with the Lutheran faith, but under Communist rule, church membership was strongly discouraged and much of the population disassociated itself from any religious body. Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
contains many sites tied to Martin Luther's life, including Lutherstadt Eisleben
Eisleben
and Lutherstadt Wittenberg. In 2016, the majority of citizens in Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
were irreligious and more were leaving the churches than entering them[15] - in fact, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
is the most irreligious state in Germany. 16.2% of the Saxon-Anhaltish adhered to the major denominations of Christianity (12.7% were members of the Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
and 3.5% were Catholics),[16] 2% were members of other religions[15] (mostly Islam, Judaism, the New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church
and Mandeism). 81.8% of the citizens of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
were religiously unaffiliated.[15][16] Politics[edit] List of minister presidents[edit] Main article: List of Ministers-President of Saxony-Anhalt Landtag[edit] Main article: Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt 13 March 2016 state election[edit] See also: Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
state election, 2016

Leading party in each electoral district-black represents the Christian Democratic Union, blue the Alternative for Germany
Germany
and red The Left

e • d Summary of the 13 March 2016 Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
elections results < 2011    Next >

Party Popular vote Seats

Votes % +/– Seats +/–

Christian Democratic Union Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU 334,123 29.8 2.7 30 6

Alternative for Germany Alternative für Deutschland – AfD 271,832 24.2 24.2 24 24

The Left Die Linke 183,296 16.3 7.4 17 12

Social Democratic Party of Germany Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD 119,377 10.6 10.9 11 15

Alliance '90/The Greens Bündnis 90/Die Grünen 58,226 5.2 1.9 5 4

Free Democratic Party Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP 54,525 4.9 1.1 – –

Free Voters Saxony-Anhalt Freie Wähler 24,287 2.2 0.7 – –

National Democratic Party of Germany Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD 21,211 1.9 2.7 – –

Animal Protection Party Tierschutzpartei 16,613 1.5 0.1 – –

Alliance for Human Rights, Animal and Nature Protection (de) Tierschutzallianz 11,629 1.0 1.0 – –

Alliance for Progress and Renewal Allianz für Fortschritt und Aufbruch – ALFA 10,471 0.9 0.9 – –

Other parties – 1.5 2.3 – –

Valid votes 1,122,814 97.8% 0.2

Invalid votes 24,671 2.2% 0.2

Totals and voter turnout 1,147,485

87 18

Electorate 1,878,095 100.00 —

Source: Landeswahlleiterin[17]

Minister-president
Minister-president
Reiner Haseloff
Reiner Haseloff
(CDU) retained his position in a coalition with former partner SPD and the Greens. Economy[edit] Development of the economy[edit] Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
was part of the communist German Democratic Republic. After the breakdown of communism and the German reunification
German reunification
in 1990, the collapse of non competitive former GDR industries temporarily caused severe economic problems. In 2000, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
had the highest unemployment rate of all German states, at 20.2%.[18] However, the process of economic transformation towards a modern market economy seems to be completed. Massive investments in modern infrastructure have taken place since 1990, and the remaining and newly created businesses are highly competitive. For example, the industry has doubled its share of international revenue from 13 percent in 1995 to 26 percent in 2008.[19] Meanwhile, the unemployment rate has fallen considerably.[20] By 2010 the GDP of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
was almost two and a half times higher than it was in 1991.[21] Even though part of this recovery was induced by the quite good performance of the Germany
Germany
economy, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
did not only follow the national trend, but clearly outperformed other German states. For example, it got ahead of three German states in terms of unemployment (10.8%, as of September 2011): the German capital and city-state of Berlin
Berlin
(12.7%), the city-state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (11.3%) and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
(11%).[22] Structure of the economy[edit]

The chemical industry is quite important, with almost 25,500 employees across 214 plants in 2010.[23] One of the biggest chemical producing areas can be found around the city of Bitterfeld-Wolfen. Because of the chemical industry, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
attracts more foreign direct investments than any other state in eastern Germany. The state is the location of numerous wind farms producing wind-turbine energy. Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
is also famous for its good soil. Hence, the food industry has an important role with almost 19,500 employees across 190 plants in 2010.[23] Some of the best known products are Baumkuchen from Salzwedel
Salzwedel
and Halloren chocolate globes from Germany’s oldest chocolate factory in Halle.

World Heritage Sites[edit] See also: List of World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in Europe § Germany Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
has the most World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
of all states in Germany.

Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg

Luther Memorials in Wittenberg

Luther Memorials in Eisleben

Bauhaus Dessau

Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm

Anthem[edit]

Lied für Sachsen-Anhalt ("Song for Saxony-Anhalt") Motto: Land of the Early Risers

See also[edit]

Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
portal

Outline of Germany

References[edit]

^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden – Stand: 31.12.2015" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt (in German).  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.  ^ "State population". Portal
Portal
of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ "Area and Population". Portal
Portal
of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ PONS Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Englisch, 2011 ^ http://www.stala.sachsen-anhalt.de/gk/fms/fms111.htm ^ District reform law Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 11 November 2005 (in German) ^ http://www.statistik.sachsen-anhalt.de/download/stat_berichte/6A102_hj_2013_01.pdf ^ The latter, however, a salient originally not assigned as part of the Soviet zone, was unilaterally handed over by the Britons only on 22 July. ^ a b c "1945–1949", on: Gedenkkultur Dessau-Roßlau. Retrieved on 16 August 2011. ^ Our Far Forebears (Y-DNA haplogroups ) ^ Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe ^ Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt (2014-07-17). "Deutsche und Ausländer seit 1990". Stala.sachsen-anhalt.de. Retrieved 2014-08-16.  ^ n-tv, Magdeburger Mathematik - LKA schönt Statistik, 27. November 2007 Archived 16 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c [1] Archived 17 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Statistik der EKD für 31.12.2015" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-10-31.  ^ "Wahl des 7. Landtages von Sachsen-Anhalt am 13. März 2016 – Vorläufiges Ergebnis" (in German). Landeswahlleiterin Sachsen-Anhalt. 13 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.  ^ Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen-Anhalt (2014-01-29). "Statistical Office of the State of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(2010)". Statistik.sachsen-anhalt.de. Retrieved 2014-08-16.  ^ Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Halle- Dessau
Dessau
(2010), p. 14[dead link] ^ "Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Berlin
Berlin
(2011), p. 2" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 2014-08-16.  ^ "(2010)". fDi Atlas. Retrieved 2014-08-16.  ^ "Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Berlin". 2011. p. 2. Retrieved 2014-08-16.  ^ a b fDi Atlas (2010)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saxony-Anhalt.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saxony-Anhalt.

Official governmental portal Official Directory Geographic data related to Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

States of the Federal Republic of Germany

States

   Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(since 1952)    Bavaria
Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
Hesse
(since 1949)    Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(since 1949)    Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(since 1990)    North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(since 1949)    Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
(since 1949)    Saarland
Saarland
(since 1957)    Saxony
Saxony
(since 1990)    Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
(since 1990)    Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
(since 1949)    Thuringia
Thuringia
(since 1990)

City-states

   Berlin
Berlin
(since 1990)   Bremen (since 1949)    Hamburg
Hamburg
(since 1949)

Former states

   South Baden
South Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Baden
Württemberg-Baden
(1949–1952)    Württemberg-Hohenzollern
Württemberg-Hohenzollern
(1949–1952)

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Dessau-Roßlau Halle (Saale) Magdeburg

Rural districts

Altmarkkreis Salzwedel Anhalt-Bitterfeld Börde Burgenlandkreis Harz Jerichower Land Mansfeld-Südharz Saalekreis Salzlandkreis Stendal Wittenberg

Former districts

Anhalt-Zerbst Aschersleben-Staßfurt Bernburg Bitterfeld Bördekreis Burgenlandkreis Halberstadt Köthen Mansfelder Land Merseburg-Querfurt Ohrekreis Quedlinburg Saalkreis Sangerhausen Schönebeck Weißenfels Wernigerode

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122573067 LCCN: n82166972 GND: 4051181-9 SELIBR: 274440 BNF:

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