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The Free State of Saxony[4] (German: Freistaat Sachsen [ˈfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈzaksn̩]; Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland
Poland
(Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Karlovy Vary, Liberec and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony
Saxony
is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. The history of the state of Saxony
Saxony
spans more than a millennium. It has been a medieval duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom, and twice a republic. The area of the modern state of Saxony
Saxony
should not be confused with Old Saxony, the area inhabited by Saxons. Old Saxony
Old Saxony
corresponds approximately to the modern German states of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and the Westphalian part of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Administration 1.2 Largest cities

2 Economy

2.1 Demographics

3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Duchy of Saxony 3.3 Holy Roman Empire 3.4 Foundation of the second Saxon state 3.5 Saxony
Saxony
in the 19th and 20th centuries

3.5.1 19th century 3.5.2 20th century

4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Languages 4.3 Education

5 Geography 6 Tourism 7 Politics

7.1 2014 state election

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Bibliography

10 External links

Geography[edit] Administration[edit] Saxony
Saxony
is divided into 10 districts:

Map of 10 districts in Saxony
Saxony
(Sachsen).

  1. Bautzen
Bautzen
(BZ)   2. Erzgebirgskreis
Erzgebirgskreis
(ERZ)   3. Görlitz
Görlitz
(GR)   4. Leipzig
Leipzig
(L)   5. Meißen
Meißen
(MEI) (Meissen)   6. Mittelsachsen
Mittelsachsen
(FG)   7. Nordsachsen
Nordsachsen
(TDO)   8. Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
(PIR)   9. Vogtlandkreis
Vogtlandkreis
(V) 10. Zwickau
Zwickau
(Z) In addition there are three cities which have the status of an urban district (German: kreisfreie Städte):

Chemnitz
Chemnitz
(C) Dresden
Dresden
(DD) Leipzig
Leipzig
(L)

Between 1990 and 2008, Saxony
Saxony
was divided into the three regions (Regierungsbezirke) of Chemnitz, Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig. After a reform in 2008, these regions - with some alterations of their respective areas - were called Direktionsbezirke. In 2012, the authorities of these regions were merged into one central authority, the Landesdirektion Sachsen (de). The Erzgebirgskreis
Erzgebirgskreis
district includes the Ore Mountains, and the Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district includes Saxon Switzerland
Saxon Switzerland
and the Eastern Ore Mountains. Largest cities[edit] The largest cities in Saxony
Saxony
according to the 31 December 2015 estimate.[3] To this can be added that Leipzig
Leipzig
forms a metropolitan like region with Halle, known as Ballungsraum Leipzig/Halle.[5] The latter city is located just across the border to Saxony-Anhalt. Leipzig
Leipzig
shares for instance an S-train
S-train
system (known as S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland)[6] and an airport[7] with Halle.

Rank City Population

1 Leipzig 560,472

2 Dresden 543,825

3 Chemnitz 248,645

4 Zwickau 91,123

5 Plauen 65,201

6 Görlitz 55,255

7 Freiberg 41,641

8 Bautzen 39,845

9 Freital 39,734

10 Pirna 38,010

State capital Dresden

View over Leipzig
Leipzig
centre

Chemnitz
Chemnitz
aerial view

Zwickau
Zwickau
main market

Downtown Plauen

Bautzen

Economy[edit] Saxony
Saxony
has, after Saxony
Saxony
Anhalt,[8] the most vibrant economy of the states of the former East Germany
Germany
(GDR). Its economy grew by 1.9% in 2010.[9] Nonetheless, unemployment remains above the German average. The eastern part of Germany, excluding Berlin, qualifies as an "Objective 1" development-region within the European Union, and is eligible to receive investment subsidies of up to 30% until 2013.[citation needed] FutureSAX, a business plan competition and entrepreneurial support organisation, has been in operation since 2002.[citation needed] Microchip makers near Dresden
Dresden
have given the region the nickname "Silicon Saxony". The publishing and porcelain industries of the region are well known, although their contributions to the regional economy are no longer significant. Today the automobile industry, machinery production and services contribute to the economic development of the region. Saxony
Saxony
is also one of the most renowned tourist destinations in Germany
Germany
- especially the cities of Leipzig
Leipzig
and Dresden
Dresden
and their surroundings. New tourist destinations are developing, notably in the lake district of Lausitz.[10] Saxony
Saxony
reported an average unemployment of 8.8% in 2014. By comparison the average in the former GDR was 9.8% and 6.7% for Germany
Germany
overall. The unemployment rate reached 8.2% in May 2015 (6.3% for all of Germany). The Leipzig
Leipzig
area, which until recently was among the regions with the highest unemployment rate, could benefit greatly from investments by Porsche
Porsche
and BMW. With the VW Phaeton
VW Phaeton
factory in Dresden, and many part suppliers, the automobile industry has again become one of the pillars of Saxon industry, as it was in the early 20th century. Zwickau
Zwickau
is another major Volkswagen location. Freiberg, a former mining town, has emerged as a foremost location for solar technology. Dresden
Dresden
and some other regions of Saxony
Saxony
play a leading role in some areas of international biotechnology, such as electronic bioengineering. While these high-technology sectors do not yet offer a large number of jobs, they have stopped or even reversed the brain drain that was occurring until the early 2000s in many parts of Saxony. Regional universities have strengthened their positions by partnering with local industries. Unlike smaller towns, Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig
Leipzig
in the past experienced significant population growth.[11]

Dresden
Dresden
is the hub of Silicon Saxony

Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk
Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk
one of Germany's public broadcasters

Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
is the main hub of DHL and the fifth-busiest airport in Europe in terms of cargo traffic

VNG – Verbundnetz Gas in Leipzig
Leipzig
is the third largest natural gas importer in Germany

Porsche
Porsche
customer center in Leipzig

BMW
BMW
production facility in Leipzig

Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation
in Bautzen

Demographics[edit] The population of Saxony
Saxony
has been declining since 1950, a process which accelerated after German reunification
German reunification
in 1990. In recent years only the cities of Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig
Leipzig
and some towns in their hinterlands have had increases. The following table illustrates the population of Saxony
Saxony
since 1905:

Significant foreign born populations[12]

Nationality Population (2017)

 Syria 17,509

 Russia 9,914

 Vietnam 7,902

 Ukraine 6,358

 Afghanistan 6,123

 China 5,940

 Romania 5,329

 Iraq 5,067

 Czech Republic 4,638

 Hungary 4,621

 India 4,485

 Turkey 4,268

 Pakistan 3,276

 Italy 3,260

Year Inhabitants

1905 4,508,601

1946 5,558,566

1950 5,682,802

1964 5,463,571

1970 5,419,187

1981 5,152,857

1990 4,775,914

1995 4,566,603

2000 4,425.581

Year Inhabitants

2001 4,384,192

2002 4,349,059

2003 4,321,437

2004 4,296,284

2005 4,273,754

2006 4,249,774

2007 4,220,200

2008 4,192,801

2009 4,168,732

Year Inhabitants

2010 4,149,477

2011 4,054,182

2012 4,050,204

2013 4,046,385

The average number of children per woman in Saxony
Saxony
was 1.49 in 2010, the highest of all German states.[13] In 2014, the value reached 1.57. Within Saxony, the highest is the Bautzen
Bautzen
district with 1.77, while Leipzig
Leipzig
is the lowest with 1.49. Dresden's birth rate of 1.58 is the highest of all German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants. History[edit] Main article: History of Saxony Saxony
Saxony
has a long history as a duchy, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire (the Electorate of Saxony), and finally as a kingdom (the Kingdom of Saxony). In 1918, after Germany's defeat in World War I, its monarchy was overthrown and a republican form of government was established under the current name. The state was broken up into smaller units during communist rule (1949–1989), but was re-established on 3 October 1990 on the reunification of East and West Germany. Prehistory[edit] In prehistoric times, the territory of Saxony
Saxony
was the site of some of the largest of the ancient central European monumental temples, dating from the 5th century BC. Notable archaeological sites have been discovered in Dresden
Dresden
and the villages of Eythra and Zwenkau
Zwenkau
near Leipzig. The Slavic and Germanic presence in the territory of today's Saxony
Saxony
is thought to have begun in the 1st century BC. Parts of Saxony
Saxony
were possibly under the control of the Germanic King Marobod during the Roman era. By the late Roman period, several tribes known as the Saxons
Saxons
emerged, from which the subsequent state(s) draw their name. For the origins of the Saxon tribes, see Saxons. Duchy of Saxony[edit] Main article: Duchy of Saxony

Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
(with his wife Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony) is crowned as Duke of Saxony

The first medieval Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
was a late Early Middle Ages "Carolingian stem duchy", which emerged around the start of the 8th century AD and grew to include the greater part of Northern Germany, what are now the modern German states of Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
and Saxony-Anhalt. The Saxons
Saxons
converted to Christianity during this period.[citation needed] While the Saxons
Saxons
were facing pressure from Charlemagne's Franks, they were also facing a westward push by Slavs
Slavs
to the east. The territory of the Free State of Saxony, called White Serbia was, since the 5th century, populated by Slavs
Slavs
before being conquered by Germans e.g. Saxons
Saxons
and Thuringii. A legacy of this period is the Sorb population in Saxony. Eastern parts of present Saxony
Saxony
were ruled by Poland between 1002 and 1032 and by Bohemia
Bohemia
since 1293. Holy Roman Empire[edit] The territory of the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
became part of the Holy Roman Empire by the 10th century, when the dukes of Saxony
Saxony
were also kings (or emperors) of the Holy Roman Empire, comprising the Ottonian, or Saxon, Dynasty. Around this time, the Billungs, a Saxon noble family, received extensive fields in Saxony. The emperor eventually gave them the title of dukes of Saxony. After Duke Magnus died in 1106, causing the extinction of the male line of Billungs, oversight of the duchy was given to Lothar of Supplinburg, who also became emperor for a short time. In 1137, control of Saxony
Saxony
passed to the Guelph dynasty, descendants of Wulfhild Billung, eldest daughter of the last Billung duke, and the daughter of Lothar of Supplinburg. In 1180 large portions west of the Weser were ceded to the Bishops of Cologne, while some central parts between the Weser and the Elbe
Elbe
remained with the Guelphs, becoming later the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The remaining eastern lands, together with the title of Duke of Saxony, passed to an Ascanian dynasty (descended from Eilika Billung, Wulfhild's younger sister) and were divided in 1260 into the two small states of Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
and Saxe-Wittenberg. The former state was also named Lower Saxony, the latter Upper Saxony, thence the later names of the two Imperial Circles Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
and Saxe-Wittenberg. Both claimed the Saxon electoral privilege for themselves, but the Golden Bull of 1356 accepted only Wittenberg's claim, with Lauenburg nevertheless continuing to maintain its claim. In 1422, when the Saxon electoral line of the Ascanians became extinct, the Ascanian Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
tried to reunite the Saxon duchies. However, Sigismund, King of the Romans, had already granted Margrave Frederick IV the Warlike of Meissen
Meissen
(House of Wettin) an expectancy of the Saxon electorate in order to remunerate his military support. On 1 August 1425 Sigismund enfeoffed the Wettinian Frederick as Prince-Elector of Saxony, despite the protests of Eric V. Thus the Saxon territories remained permanently separated. The Electorate of Saxony
Saxony
was then merged with the much bigger Wettinian Margraviate of Meissen, however using the higher-ranking name Electorate of Saxony and even the Ascanian coat-of-arms for the entire monarchy.[14] Thus Saxony
Saxony
came to include Dresden
Dresden
and Meissen. In the 18th and 19th centuries Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
was colloquially called the Duchy of Lauenburg, which in 1876 merged with Prussia
Prussia
as the Duchy of Lauenburg district. Foundation of the second Saxon state[edit]

Late 17th and 18th century electors of Saxony, as depicted on a frieze on the outside wall of Dresden
Dresden
palace

Saxony
Saxony
is home to numerous castles, like the Schloss Moritzburg
Schloss Moritzburg
north of Dresden

Zwinger in Dresden, 1895

Saxony-Wittenberg, in modern Saxony-Anhalt, became subject to the margravate of Meissen, ruled by the Wettin dynasty in 1423. This established a new and powerful state, occupying large portions of the present Free State of Saxony, Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and Bavaria (Coburg and its environs). Although the centre of this state was far to the southeast of the former Saxony, it came to be referred to as Upper Saxony
Upper Saxony
and then simply Saxony, while the former Saxon territories were now known as Lower Saxony. In 1485, Saxony
Saxony
was split. A collateral line of the Wettin princes received what later became Thuringia
Thuringia
and founded several small states there (see Ernestine duchies). The remaining Saxon state became still more powerful and was known in the 18th century for its cultural achievements, although it was politically weaker than Prussia
Prussia
and Austria, states which oppressed Saxony
Saxony
from the north and south, respectively. Between 1697 and 1763, the Electors of Saxony
Electors of Saxony
were also elected Kings of Poland
Poland
in personal union. In 1756, Saxony
Saxony
joined a coalition of Austria, France
France
and Russia against Prussia. Frederick II of Prussia
Prussia
chose to attack preemptively and invaded Saxony
Saxony
in August 1756, precipitating the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War). The Prussians quickly defeated Saxony
Saxony
and incorporated the Saxon army into the Prussian army. At the end of the Seven Years' War, Saxony
Saxony
recovered its independence in the 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg. Saxony
Saxony
in the 19th and 20th centuries[edit] 19th century[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Saxony In 1806, French Emperor Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and established the Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
as a kingdom in exchange for military support. The Elector Frederick Augustus III accordingly became King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Frederick Augustus remained loyal to Napoleon during the wars that swept Europe in the following years; he was taken prisoner and his territories declared forfeit by the allies in 1813, after the defeat of Napoleon. Prussia intended the annexation of Saxony
Saxony
but the opposition of Austria, France, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to this plan resulted in the restoration of Frederick Augustus to his throne at the Congress of Vienna although he was forced to cede the northern part of the kingdom to Prussia.[15] These lands became the Prussian province of Saxony, now incorporated in the modern state of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
except westernmost part around Bad Langensalza
Bad Langensalza
now in the one of Thuringia. Also Lower Lusatia
Lusatia
became part of Province of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and northeastern part of Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
became part of Silesia
Silesia
Province. The remnant of the Kingdom of Saxony
Kingdom of Saxony
was roughly identical with the present federal state, albeit slightly smaller. Meanwhile, in 1815, the southern part of Saxony, now called the "State of Saxony" joined the German Confederation.[16] (This German Confederation should not be confused with the North German Confederation mentioned below.) In the politics of the Confederation, Saxony
Saxony
was overshadowed by Prussia. King Anthony of Saxony
Anthony of Saxony
came to the throne of Saxony
Saxony
in 1827. Shortly thereafter, liberal pressures in Saxony
Saxony
mounted and broke out in revolt during 1830—a year of revolution in Europe.[16] The revolution in Saxony
Saxony
resulted in a constitution for the State of Saxony
Saxony
that served as the basis for its government until 1918.[16] During the 1848–49 constitutionalist revolutions in Germany, Saxony became a hotbed of revolutionaries, with anarchists such as Mikhail Bakunin and democrats including Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
and Gottfried Semper taking part in the May Uprising in Dresden
Dresden
in 1849. (Scenes of Richard Wagner's participation in the May 1849 uprising in Dresden
Dresden
are depicted in the 1983 movie Wagner starring Richard Burton as Richard Wagner.) The May uprising in Dresden
Dresden
forced King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony
Saxony
to concede further reforms to the Saxon government.[16] In 1854 Frederick Augustus II's brother, King John of Saxony, succeeded to the throne. A scholar, King John translated Dante.[16] King John followed a federalistic and pro-Austrian policy throughout the early 1860s until the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War. During that war, Prussian troops overran Saxony
Saxony
without resistance and then invaded Austrian (today's Czech) Bohemia.[17] After the war, Saxony was forced to pay an indemnity and to join the North German Confederation in 1867.[18] Under the terms of the North German Confederation, Prussia
Prussia
took over control of the Saxon postal system, railroads, military and foreign affairs.[18] In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Saxon troops fought together with Prussian and other German troops against France.[18] In 1871, Saxony
Saxony
joined the newly formed German Empire.[18] 20th century[edit]

Dresden
Dresden
in ruins. After World War II, over 90 percent of the city centre was destroyed.

Modern architecture at the University
University
of Leipzig

After King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
abdicated on 13 November 1918, Saxony, remaining a constituent state of Germany
Germany
(Weimar Republic), became the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
under a new constitution enacted on 1 November 1920. In October 1923 the federal government under Chancellor Gustav Stresemann
Gustav Stresemann
overthrew the legally elected SPD-Communist coalition government of Saxony. The state maintained its name and borders during the Nazi era as a Gau, but lost its quasi-autonomous status and its parliamentary democracy. As World War II
World War II
drew to its end, U.S. troops under General George Patton occupied the western part of Saxony
Saxony
in April 1945, while Soviet troops occupied the eastern part. That summer, the entire state was handed over to Soviet forces as agreed in the London Protocol of September 1944. Britain, the USA, and the USSR then negotiated Germany's future at the Potsdam Conference. Under the Potsdam Agreement, all German territory East of the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
was annexed by Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union, and, unlike in the aftermath of World War I, the annexing powers were allowed to expel the inhabitants. During the following three years, Poland
Poland
and Czechoslovakia forcibly expelled German-speaking people from their territories, and some of these expellees came to Saxony. Only a small area of Saxony
Saxony
lying east of the Neisse River and centred around the town of Reichenau (now called Bogatynia), was annexed by Poland. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany
Germany
(SVAG) merged that very small part of the Prussian province of Lower Silesia
Silesia
that remained in Germany
Germany
with Saxony.[citation needed] On 20 October 1946, SVAG organised elections for the Saxon state parliament (Landtag), but many people were arbitrarily excluded from candidacy and suffrage, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
openly supported the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Germany
(SED). The new minister-president Rudolf Friedrichs (SED), had been a member of the SPD until April 1946. He met his Bavarian counterparts in the U.S. zone of occupation in October 1946 and May 1947, but died suddenly in mysterious circumstances the following month. He was succeeded by Max Seydewitz, a loyal follower of Joseph Stalin.[citation needed] The German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany), including Saxony, was established in 1949 out of the Soviet zone of Occupied Germany, becoming a constitutionally socialist state, part of COMECON
COMECON
and the Warsaw Pact, under the leadership of the SED. In 1952 the government abolished the Free State of Saxony, and divided its territory into three Bezirke: Leipzig, Dresden, and Karl-Marx-Stadt (formerly and currently Chemnitz). Also areas around Hoyerswerda
Hoyerswerda
was part of Cottbus one. The Free State of Saxony
Saxony
was reconstituted with slightly altered borders in 1990, following German reunification. Besides the formerly Silesian area of Saxony, which was mostly included in the territory of the new Saxony, the free state gained further areas north of Leipzig that had belonged to Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
since 1952. Culture[edit] Religion[edit]

Religion in Saxony
Saxony
- 2011

religion

percent

EKD Protestants

21.4%

Roman Catholics

3.8%

Evangelische Freikirchen

0.9%

Orthodox churches

0.3%

Other religions

1.0%

Unaffiliated

72.6%

Since the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, Saxony
Saxony
has historically been predominantly Lutheran
Lutheran
Protestant. Its rulers were traditionally Lutheran, although—beginning with Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong
who was required to convert to Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
in 1697 in order to become King of Poland—its monarchs were exclusively Roman Catholic. In 1925, 90.3% of the Saxon population was Protestant, 3.6% was Roman Catholic, 0.4% was Jewish
Jewish
and 5.7% was placed in other religious categories.[19] After World War II
World War II
Saxony
Saxony
was incorporated into East Germany
Germany
which pursued a policy of state atheism. After 45 years of Communist rule, the majority of the population has become unaffiliated. As of 2011, the Evangelical Church in Germany represented the largest faith in the state, adhered to by 21.4% of the population. Members of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church formed a minority of 3.8%. About 0.9% of the Saxons
Saxons
belonged to an Evangelical free church (Evangelische Freikirche, i.e. various Protestants outside the EKD), 0.3% to Orthodox churches and 1% to other religious communities, while 72.6% did not belong to any public-law religious society.[20] Languages[edit]

Boundary sign of Bautzen
Bautzen
/ Budyšin in German and Upper Sorbian; many place names in eastern Saxony
Saxony
are derived from Sorbian.

The most common patois spoken in Saxony
Saxony
are combined in the group of "Thuringian and Upper Saxon dialects". Due to the inexact use of the term "Saxon dialects" in colloquial language, the Upper Saxon attribute has been added to distinguish it from Old Saxon
Old Saxon
and Low Saxon. Other German dialects spoken in Saxony
Saxony
are the dialects of the Erzgebirge
Erzgebirge
(Ore Mountains), which have been affected by Upper Saxon dialects, and the dialects of the Vogtland, which are more affected by the East Franconian languages. Upper Sorbian (a Slavic language) is still actively spoken in the parts of Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
that are inhabited by the Sorbian minority. The Germans in Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
speak distinct dialects of their own (Lusatian dialects). Education[edit] Saxony
Saxony
has four large universities and five Fachhochschulen or Universities of Applied Sciences. The Dresden
Dresden
University
University
of Technology, founded in 1828, is one of Germany's oldest universities and University
University
of Applied Sciences, Zwickau
Zwickau
founded in 1897 With 36,066 students as of 2010, it is the largest university in Saxony
Saxony
and one of the ten largest universities in Germany. It is a member of TU9, a consortium of nine leading German Institutes of Technology. Leipzig University
University
is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university (by consecutive years of existence) in Germany, founded in 1409. Famous alumni include Leibniz, Goethe, Ranke, Nietzsche, Wagner, Angela Merkel, Raila Odinga, Tycho Brahe, and nine Nobel laureates are associated with this university. Geography[edit]

Topography of Saxony

Tourism[edit] Saxony
Saxony
is a well known tourist destination. Dresden
Dresden
and Leipzig
Leipzig
are two of Germany's most visited cities. Areas along the border with the Czech Republic, such as the Lusatian Mountains, Ore Mountains, Saxon Switzerland, and Vogtland, attract significant visitors, largely Germans. Saxony
Saxony
has well-preserved historic towns such as Meissen, Freiberg, Pirna, Bautzen, and Görlitz.

Dresden
Dresden
is one of the most visited cities in Germany
Germany
and Europe.

Dresden
Dresden
Frauenkirche. It now serves as a symbol of reconciliation between former warring enemies.

Leipziger Neuseenland, a huge lake district in Leipzig, one of Germany's most vibrant cities

Bastei
Bastei
bridge in Saxon Switzerland

The Rakotz bridge at Azalea and Rhododendron Park Kromlau

The historical city of Görlitz

Elbe
Elbe
valley with Meißen
Meißen
in the background

Oberwiesenthal, Ore Mountains

Politics[edit]

Michael Kretschmer

A Minister President
Minister President
heads the government of Saxony. Michael Kretschmer serves Minister President
Minister President
since 13 December 2017. See List of Ministers-President of Saxony
Saxony
for a full listing. 2014 state election[edit] Main article: Saxony
Saxony
state election, 2014

e • d Summary of the 31 August 2014 Landtag of Saxony elections results < 2009    Next >

Party Popular vote Seats

Votes % +/– Seats +/–

Christian Democratic Union Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands – CDU 645,344 39.4 0.8 59 1

Left Die Linke 309,568 18.9 1.7 27 2

Social Democratic Party of Germany Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands – SPD 202,374 12.4 2.0 18 4

Alternative for Germany Alternative für Deutschland – AfD 159,547 9.7 9.7 14 14

Alliance '90/The Greens Bündnis 90/Die Grünen 93,852 5.7 0.7 8 1

National Democratic Party of Germany Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands – NPD 81,060 5.0 (4.95) 0.6 0 8

Free Democratic Party Freie Demokratische Partei – FDP 61,847 3.8 6.2 0 14

Other parties 83,776 5.1 1.7 0

Valid votes 1,637,364 98.7 0.5

Invalid votes 22,281 1.3 0.5

Totals and voter turnout 1,659,645 49.2 3.0 126 6

Electorate 3,375,734 100.00 —

Source: Wahlrecht.de

See also[edit]

Germany
Germany
portal

Saxony
Saxony
(wine region)

References[edit]

^ "Aktuelle Einwohnerzahlen nach Gemeinden 2016] (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)" (PDF). Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen (in German). July 2016.  ^ Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg. "Bruttoinlandsprodukt – in jeweiligen Preisen – in Deutschland 1991 bis 2014 nach Bundesländern (WZ 2008) – Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen der Länder VGR dL". Archived from the original on 17 December 2015.  ^ a b "Bevölkerung des Freistaates Sachsen jeweils am Monatsende ausgewählter Berichtsmonate nach Gemeinden" (PDF). 31 December 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2013.  ^ "Free State of Saxony". Britannica. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ http://www.stadtplan.net/sonderkarten/detail.php/?karte=sachsen-anhalt/Ballungsraum-Leipzig-Halle_2388 ^ http://www.s-bahn-mitteldeutschland.de/s_mitteldeutschland/view/index.shtml ^ https://www.leipzig-halle-airport.de/en/ ^ "Die Arbeitsmarkt im Juli 2014" (PDF). IHK Berlin. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ Freistaat Sachsen - Die angeforderte Seite existiert leider nicht. Smwa.sachsen.de. Retrieved on 2013-07-16. ^ "Still Troubled". The Economist. Retrieved 2014-08-25.  ^ "Arbeitslosenquote in Deutschland nach Bundesländern 2013". De.statista.com. Retrieved 2013-07-16.  ^ [1] 31 Dec. 2014 German Statistical Office. Zensus 2014: Bevölkerung am 31. Dezember 2014 ^ "Geburten je Frau im Freistaat Sachsen 1990–2010" (PDF). saschen.de. Retrieved 2014-10-21.  ^ The Ascanian coat-of-arms shows the Ascanian barry of ten, in sable and or, covered by a crancelin of rhombs bendwise in vert. ^ Pollock & Thomas (1952), p. 486 ^ a b c d e Pollock & Thomas (1952), p. 510 ^ Pollock & Thomas (1952), pp. 510–511 ^ a b c d Pollock & Thomas (1952), p. 511 ^ Grundriss der Statistik. II. Gesellschaftsstatistik by Wilhelm Winkler, p. 36 ^ "Zensusdatenbank - Ergebnisse des Zensus 2011". 

Bibliography[edit]

Pollock, James K.; Thomas, Homer (1952). Germany
Germany
in Power and Eclipse. New York, NY: D. Van Nostrand. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saxony.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saxony.

Official governmental portal Geographic data related to Saxony
Saxony
at OpenStreetMap

v t e

States of the Federal Republic of Germany

States

   Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(since 1952)    Bavaria
Bavaria
(since 1949)    Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(since 1990)    Hesse
Hesse
(since 1949)    Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
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Saarland
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Saxony
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Former states

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Württemberg-Hohenzollern
(1949–1952)

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

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Rural districts

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Until 1920

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v t e

Silesia
Silesia
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History

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 201974690 LCCN: n85164514 ISNI: 0000 0004 0555 6964 GND: 4051176-5 BNF: cb11937901

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