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Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
(German: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies
Ernestine duchies
of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741. It was raised to a Grand duchy
Grand duchy
in 1815 by resolution of the Vienna Congress. In 1903, it officially changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Saxony (German: Großherzogtum Sachsen), but this name was rarely used. The Grand Duchy came to an end in the German Revolution of 1918–19
German Revolution of 1918–19
with the other monarchies of the German Empire. It was succeeded by the Free State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, which was merged into the new state of Thuringia
Thuringia
two years later. The full grand ducal style was Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Landgrave
Landgrave
in Thuringia, Margrave
Margrave
of Meissen, Princely Count
Princely Count
of Henneberg, Lord
Lord
of Blankenhayn, Neustadt and Tautenburg. The Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
branch is the most genealogically senior extant branch of the House of Wettin
House of Wettin
since 1672.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Religion

3 Constitution and administration 4 Princes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

4.1 Dukes of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
and Saxe-Eisenach, 1741–1809 4.2 Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1809–1815 4.3 Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1815–1918 4.4 Heads of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1918–present

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Manufacturing Industries 5.3 Mining industry 5.4 Trade

6 Education 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit] The Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
consisted of three larger areas, each of which formed a Kreis administratively, plus several exclaves. Neighboring countries were Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Hesse-Kassel (until 1866, when it was incorporated in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau), and all the other Thuringian states (Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Reuss Elder Line, Reuss Junior Line, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen). The northern part of the Weimar
Weimar
district was flat and part of the Thuringian Basin; the southern and eastern parts were situated on the Ilm- Saale
Saale
Plateau and in the Saale
Saale
valley. The northern part of Eisenach
Eisenach
district was hilly (Hörselberge and Hainich
Hainich
hills); the central part with the town of Eisenach
Eisenach
was in the Hörsel
Hörsel
valley; further south were the mountains of the Thuringian Forest, followed by the Werra
Werra
valley, the Kupenrhön mountains and finally, in the far south, the main chain of the Rhön
Rhön
mountains. The district Neustadt was located in hills with altitudes between 200 and 400 meters. The main rivers in the country were:

the Saale
Saale
flowing through Jena
Jena
in the east the Werra
Werra
in Vacha and Eisenach, and its tributaries the Felda and Ulster in the west the Unstrut
Unstrut
in the exclaves Allstedt
Allstedt
and Oldisleben
Oldisleben
in the north the Weisse Elster
Weisse Elster
in Berga in the far east the Ilm, flowing through Ilmenau, Apolda
Apolda
and the capital Weimar
Weimar
in the centre. Acting Prime Minister Goethe
Goethe
once described Weimar
Weimar
as "Athens on the Ilm".

The highest elevation in the grand duchy were the Kickelhahn (861 m above sea level (NN)) near Ilmenau, the Ellenbogen (814 m above sea level (NN)) in the Rhön and the Ettersberg (477 m above sea level (NN)) near Weimar. In 1895, the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
was administratively divided into three districts Kreise:

District Area in square kilometers Residents Cities exclaves

District Weimar 1752.59 191,975 Weimar, Apolda, Jena, Ilmenau, Allstedt, Rastenberg, Buttstädt, Buttelstedt, Neumark, Dornburg, Bürgel, Lobeda, Bad Sulza, Magdala, Bad Berka, Blankenhain, Remda, Kranichfeld
Kranichfeld
and Tannroda Ilmenau, Bösleben, Klein Kröbitz, Allstedt
Allstedt
and Oldisleben

District Eisenach 1214.03 95,226 Eisenach, Creuzburg, Berka/Werra, Ruhla, Vacha, Stadtlengsfeld, Geisa, Ostheim vor der Rhön
Rhön
and Kaltennordheim Seebach, Ostheim vor der Rhön
Rhön
and Zillbach

District Neustadt 628.71 52,016 Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, Auma, Weida, Thuringia
Thuringia
and Berga/Elster Rußdorf, Teichwolframsdorf
Teichwolframsdorf
and Förthen

Furthermore, the districts of Weimar
Weimar
and Eisenach
Eisenach
were each subdivided into two Bezirke. In the case of Weimar, these were: Weimar
Weimar
and Apolda, in the case of Eisenach
Eisenach
they were the Eisenach
Eisenach
and Dermbach. In all, there were 31 cities and 594 municipalities in the Grand Duchy. The Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
granted "city" status to three localities in the state, namely Berka/ Werra
Werra
(Eisenach district, 1847), Ruhla
Ruhla
( Eisenach
Eisenach
district, 1886, administered jointly with the Duke of Saxe-Gotha) and Münchenbernsdorf
Münchenbernsdorf
(Neustadt district, 1904). In 1840, there were 13 cities with over 2,000 inhabitants. In the 70 years to 1910, the Grand Duchy industrialized heavily and the population of the largest cities grew, while the medium-sized cities remained constant or even lost population. The population of Stadtlengsfeld
Stadtlengsfeld
shrank dramatically after the Jewish emancipation, when most of the city's Jewish citizens migrated to larger cities.

City Population 1 Dec 1840

Weimar 11,444

Eisenach 9,377

Jena 5,949

Neustadt an der Orla 4,154

Apolda 4,128

Weida 3,756

Ilmenau 2,721

Allstedt 2,507

Ostheim vor der Rhön 2,497

Stadtlengsfeld 2,239

Vacha 2,239

Buttstädt 2,164

Creuzburg 2,103

City Population 1 Dec 1910 Change from 1840

Jena 38,487 + 547%

Eisenach 38,362 + 309%

Weimar 34,582 + 202%

Apolda 22,610 + 448%

Ilmenau 12,202 + 348%

Weida 9,036 + 141%

Neustadt an der Orla 7,095 + 71%

Allstedt 3,353 + 34%

Buttstädt 2,843 + 32%

Ostheim vor der Rhön 2,277 – 9%

Vacha 2,240 0 %

Creuzburg 2,062 – 2%

Stadtlengsfeld 1,593 – 29%

In 1910, several other towns had grown past the 2,000 inhabitants mark: Ruhla
Ruhla
( Weimar
Weimar
part: 3917 v. 1533: +156%), Blankenhain
Blankenhain
(3405 v. 1689: +102%), Bad Sulza, (3052 v. 1422: +115%), Auma
Auma
(2978 v. 1701, +75%), Triptis
Triptis
(2948 v. 1480: +99%), Tiefenort
Tiefenort
(2539 v. 1237: +105%), Bad Berka
Bad Berka
(2379 v. 1228: +94%), Oberweimar (2095 v. 621: +237%), Oldisleben
Oldisleben
(2064 v. 1332: +55) and Mihla
Mihla
(2008 v. 1294: +55%). History[edit]

Schloss Weimar

Wartburg
Wartburg
Castle near Eisenach

The duchies of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
and Saxe-Eisenach
Saxe-Eisenach
had been ruled in personal union by the same branch of the House of Wettin
House of Wettin
since 1741, after the Eisenach
Eisenach
line had died out upon the death of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich. The first Duke of the personal union was Ernest Augustus I, who built the Belvedere Palace in Weimar. His son Ernest Augustus II reigned for only three years, and died at the age of 20 years. At the age of 18, he married the Brunswick Princess Anna Amalia, one year his junior and a niece of King Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
of Prussia. A year later she gave birth to her son, Charles Augustus and after another year, when she was already a widow, to her son Constantine. As Dowager Duchess Anna Amalia actively took up the regency, with the approval of the Empress Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and the support of her ethical Minister Baron von Fritsch. As educator for her sons, she employed the poet Christoph Martin Wieland, who was a professor at the university of Erfurt. At 18 years of age, Charles Augustus married Princess Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt. He employed the poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, with whom he soon became friends. Goethe, in turn, invited the authors Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder
and Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
to Weimar, thus laying the foundation for the Weimar
Weimar
Classicism circle, which was supported in the background by Anna Amalia. Later regents would see it as main task to guard this heritage. In 1804 Duke Charles Augustus' eldest son and heir Charles Frederick married Maria Pavlovna Romanova, sister of Emperor Alexander I of Russia, a conjugal union which decisively promoted the rise of the Ernestine Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
dynasty. It also gave the duchy some protection during the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars. Though at first an ally of Prussia
Prussia
in the Napoleonic War of the Fourth Coalition, Duke Charles Augustus escaped his deposition by joining the Confederation of the Rhine on 15 December 1806. After the official merger in 1809, the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach consisted of the separate districts around the capital Weimar
Weimar
in the north and Eisenach
Eisenach
in the west. Thanks to their Russian connection, the duchy gained substantially from the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815. In the east, it gained the district of Neustadt an der Orla (629 km2, 243 sq mi). It also received most of the Principality
Principality
of Erfurt, which had been an exclave of Mainz before the war and a directly administered French fief under occupation. It further gained smaller possessions, such as Blankenhain
Blankenhain
and Kranichfeld. In the Rhön
Rhön
area, the Eisenacher Oberland was created from adjacent former parts of Hesse-Kassel and territories held by the secularized Fulda monastery. Finally, the country was raised to a Grand Duchy. The cosmopolitan Grand Duke
Grand Duke
gave his grand duchy the first liberal constitution in Germany, on 5 May 1816. Students of the University of Jena
Jena
organized themselves as Germany's first fraternity, the Urburschenschaft
Urburschenschaft
and celebrated Wartburg
Wartburg
Festival at the Wartburg
Wartburg
in October 1817. Many liberal-minded people participated and the speakers, most of them students, must be regarded as having been among the earliest democrats in Germany. Maria Pavlovna, who was Grand Duchess from 1828, featuring composers like Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
and Peter Cornelius. Her art-loving son Charles Alexander (1818–1901), who was Grand Duke
Grand Duke
from 1853, also supported the arts, and music in particular. He was married to Sophie, who supported his plans, and he rebuilt the decaying Wartburg
Wartburg
the romantic historicism style of the day and had it painted by Moritz von Schwind. He also supported, albeit half-heartedly, the founding of the School of Applied Arts in Weimar, which merged to form the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
in 1919. In 1901 Charles Alexander was succeeded by his grandson William Ernest, who was married to Caroline Reuss of Greiz and later to Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen. In 1903, the Grand Duchy officially changed its name to Grand Duchy of Saxony. However, many people continued to call it Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, to avoid confusion with the neighbouring Kingdom of Saxony. William Ernest abdicated the throne on 9 November 1918, thereby ending the monarchy in the state. It continued as the Free State of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, until 1920, when it merged with most of its neighbours to form Thuringia, with Weimar
Weimar
as the state capital. Religion[edit] In the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, as in all the Thuringian states, the Lutheran faith was the most prevalent. Specifically, in 1895, the reported religious affiliations of the 339,217 were:

Evangelical: 325,315 (95.9%) Catholic: 12,112 (3.6%) Jewish: 1,290 (0.4%) Other / Non-denominational: 500 (0.1%)

In the district of Eisenach, the distribution was slightly different. Of the 95,226 inhabitants were:

Evangelical: 85,319 (89.6%) Catholic: 8,809 (9.3%) Jewish: 979 (1.0%) Other / Non-denominational: 119 (0.1%)

The Catholic and Jewish minorities in the district Eisenach
Eisenach
lived mainly in the Rhön. The area around the town of Geisa
Geisa
was predominantly Catholic and belonged to the Diocese of Fulda. Constitution and administration[edit] Under the Constitution of 5 May 1816 (revised 15 October 1850), Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
was a constitutional monarchy, hereditary in the male line. Under the Electoral Act of 1852, the Landtag
Landtag
had 31 members, of whom 21 were elected in general elections. One member was elected by the landed former Imperial Knights, four were elected by other wealthy landowners, and five by voters who had an annual income exceeding 1000 Thaler from other sources. The latter group of voters were popularly called "thousand taler men". The elctoral Act of 17 April 1896 enlarged the parliament to 33 members. The Grand Duchy had one vote in the Bundesrat and three members in the Reichstag. In 1909, general suffrage was introduced, under the auspices of Alfred Appelius, the later Speaker of the Landtag. The large landowners and the "thousand taler men" retained their extra votes, and five new special members were added to the parliament, representing the University of Jena, the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Trade, the Chamber of Agriculture
Agriculture
and the Chamber of Labour[1] The highest court in the land was the Court of Appeals in Jena, which dealt with appeals from all Thuringian states. There were Regional Courts in Weimar
Weimar
and Eisenach. The Grand Duchy had one infantry regiment, which was part of the Prussian 11th Army Corps. Princes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[edit] Dukes of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
and Saxe-Eisenach, 1741–1809[edit]

Ernest Augustus I, 1741–1748; Duke of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
since 1707 Ernest Augustus II, 1748–1758 Charles Augustus, 1758–1809, until 1775 under the tutelage of his mother Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1809–1815[edit]

Charles Augustus, 1809–1815; Duke of Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
and Saxe-Eisenach since 1758

Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1815–1918[edit]

Charles Augustus, 1815–1828 Charles Frederick, 1828–1853 Charles Alexander, 1853–1901 William Ernest, 1901–1918

Heads of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1918–present[edit]

Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Wilhelm Ernst, 1918–1923 Hereditary Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Carl August, 1923–1988 Prince Michael, 1988–present

Economy[edit] Agriculture[edit] In 1895, 37.9% of the workforce were employed in the agriculture and forestry industries, 38.9% worked in the manufacturing sector, and 16.4% were employed in the service sector. Until 1900, agriculture was the most important branch in the economy of the Grand Duchy. A total of 56% of the duchy's territory was used for agriculture, mainly in the districts Weimar
Weimar
and Neustadt and the exclaves Allstedt
Allstedt
and Oldisleben
Oldisleben
in the Goldene Aue area. The harvest of 1895 consisted of:

Crop Area (km²) Yield (metric tons)

Wheat 216 27,100

Rye 295 33,300

Barley 276 41,900

Oats 334 39,600

Potatoes 225 232,200

Hay 574 192,717

Fodder 92 152,400

Fruit was mainly grown in the Saale
Saale
valley, around Jena
Jena
and Bürgel. There was some viticulture north of Jena, between Dornburg
Dornburg
and Camburg. Stock breeding
Stock breeding
was also widespread. In 1892, there were 19,121 horses in the Grand Duchy, 119,720 cattle, 113,208 sheep, 122,974 pigs, 46,405 goats and 16,999 beehives. Game was only found near Eisenach, in Eichenzell
Eichenzell
and in the Ilmenau exclave, where the grand duke's largest hunting ground was located on the banks of the Gabelbach. About 50% of the forests were state-owned (450 km²). The dominant tree species were beech (in the Weimar district), pine (especially in the Neustadt district) and spruce (in the Eisenach
Eisenach
district and around Ilmenau). The Grand Duchy's State Forestry
Forestry
Office was based in Eisenach. Manufacturing Industries[edit] A versatile array of manufacturing industries developed in the Grand Duchy. For example, in Bürgel
Bürgel
and Ilmenau, there were porcelain factories (in all, there were 39 such factories in the country). In Ilmenau
Ilmenau
and Jena, glass was made (in particular, in the Schott factories). The glass industry was specialized in industrial glass (for example measuring devices such as thermometers in the area around Ilmenau) and optical products, around Jena. In 1846, Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
found a precision engineering and optical company that quickly developed into a world leader. In 1917, the company had 10000 employees. In 1889, Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
founded the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung, which became the sole share holder of the companies Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG and Schott AG. The textile industry was also important. It was concentrated in Apolda (mostly hosiery knitting mills) and Neustadt an der Orla. Other major textile plants could be found in Wenigenjena, Eisenach, Weida, Remda and Blankenhain. In 1895, the textile industry employed approximately 7000 people. Ruhla
Ruhla
was a center of the metalworking industry. The country's first car plant was built in 1895 in Eisenach. Chemical industries, such as a paint factory, could also be found in Eisenach. Furthermore, there were a paper mill in Oberweimar and a toy factory in Ilmenau. Wicker-work was manufactured in the Kuppenrhön area and pipes were made in Geisa. In 1895, there were 257 breweries in the Grand Duchy; the largest of these were in Apolda
Apolda
and Ilmenau. Mining industry[edit] Ilmenau
Ilmenau
and Ruhla
Ruhla
were important mining centers in the Thuringian Forest. Around 1900, potash industry began to develop in the Werra valley, around Vacha and Berka/Werra. There were salt works in Creuzburg
Creuzburg
and Bad Sulza. Trade[edit] The major transport centers were Weimar
Weimar
and Eisenach. Many banks opened branch offices here. In 1895, there were 23 branch offices of savings banks in the Grand Duchy, and they were managing deposits totalling approximately 40 million Reichsmark. The Grand Duchy was part of the Thuringian Toll Union, except for the exclaves Ostheim, Oldisleben, and Allstedt. Education[edit] There was one state university in the Grand Duchy, the University of Jena, which was funded by Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
together with the other Thuringian states. There were several art and music schools in Weimar, and in Ilmenau, there was the Technische Universität Ilmenau, a privately owned university providing technical and scientific education. Gymnasiums existed in Weimar, Eisenach
Eisenach
and Jena; Realschules were found in Weimar, Apolda, Jena, Eisenach, Neustadt and Ilmenau. In 1895, there were 462 primary schools, and any child would received at least four years of primary education. Large libraries of 200000 volumes each were maintained in Weimar
Weimar
and Jena. In 1869, a State Museum was founded in Weimar. See also[edit]

Ernestine duchies Thuringian states

Notes[edit]

^ The new Electoral Act, in: Berliner Tageblatt, morning edition of 5 March 1909, p. 2

References[edit]

Carl Ferdinand Weiland: General Charte von dem Großherzogthume Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
nach den besten vorhandenen Hülfsmitteln entworfen und gezeichnet von C. F. Weiland, Geographical Institute of Weimar, 1817, reprinted: Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2009, ISBN 978-3-86777-136-8, (in German) Karl Helmrich: Geschichte des Großherzogthums Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach für Schule und Haus, Albrecht, Weimar, 1852, (in German) Constantin Kronfeld (1878), Geschichte des Landes, Landeskunde des Großherzogthums Sachsen-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
(in German), 1, Weimar: Hermann Böhlau  Constantin Kronfeld (1879), Topographie des Landes, Landeskunde des Großherzogthums Sachsen-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
(in German), 2, Weimar: Hermann Böhlau  Detlef Ignasiak (1996), Regenten-Tafeln Thüringischer Fürstenhäuser. Mit einer Einführung in die Geschichte der Dynastien in Thüringen (in German), Jena: Quartus, ISBN 3-931505-20-0 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

"Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
genealogy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-30.   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

v t e

Ernestine duchies
Ernestine duchies
after the Division of Erfurt (1572)

Saxe- Weimar
Weimar
(1572–1806) Saxe-Coburg- Eisenach
Eisenach
(1572–1596, 1633-1638) Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
(1596–1633, 1681–1699) Saxe-Eisenach
Saxe-Eisenach
(1596–1638, 1640–1644, 1672–1806) Saxe-Altenburg
Saxe-Altenburg
(1603–1672, 1826–1918) Saxe-Gotha
Saxe-Gotha
(1640–1680) Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
(1681–1826) Saxe-Marksuhl
Saxe-Marksuhl
(1662–1672) Saxe- Jena
Jena
(1672–1690) Saxe-Eisenberg
Saxe-Eisenberg
(1680–1707) Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
(1680–1826) Saxe-Römhild
Saxe-Römhild
(1680–1710) Saxe-Saalfeld
Saxe-Saalfeld
(1680–1735) Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Meiningen
(1681–1918) Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
(1735–1826) Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
(1806–1918) Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha (1826–1918)

v t e

States of the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–13)

Rank elevated by Napoleon

Kingdoms

Bavaria Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse

Duchies

Nassau

States created

Kingdoms

Westphalia

Grand Duchies

Berg Frankfurt1 Würzburg

Principalities

Aschaffenburg2 Leyen Regensburg2

Pre-existing states

Saxon duchies

Coburg-Saalfeld Gotha-Altenburg Hildburghausen Meiningen Weimar3 Eisenach3 Weimar-Eisenach4

Other duchies

Anhalt (Bernburg Dessau Köthen) Arenberg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg

Principalities

Hohenzollern

Hechingen Sigmaringen

Isenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Reuss

Ebersdorf Greiz Lobenstein Schleiz

Salm5 Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck

1 from 1810 2 until 1810 3 until 1809 4 from 1809 5 until 1811

v t e

States of the German Confederation
States of the German Confederation
(1815–66)

Empires

Austria1

Kingdoms

Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg

Electorates

Hesse-Kassel

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt

Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen

Principalities

Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

v t e

States of the North German Confederation
German Confederation
(1867–71)

Kingdoms

Prussia Saxony

Grand Duchies

Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg Saxe-Meiningen

Principalities

Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

v t e

States of the German Empire (1871–1918)

Kingdoms

Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt Brunswick Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
(until 1876) Saxe-Meiningen

Principalities

Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

Imperial Territories

Alsace-Lorraine

Other

German colonial empire Mittelafrika Mitteleuropa

v t e

States of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1919–33)

States

Anhalt Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hesse Lippe Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Prussia Saxony Schaumburg-Lippe Thuringia
Thuringia
(from 1920) Waldeck (until 1929) Württemberg

City-states

Bremen Hamburg Lübeck

Until 1920

Ernest

Altenburg Coburg Gotha Meiningen Weimar-Eisenach

Reuss

Reuss-Greiz Reuss-Gera

Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Unrecognized separatist movements

Bavarian Soviet Republic Bottleneck Rhenish Republic

Coordinates: 50°59′0″N 11°10′0″E / 50.98333°N 11.16667°E / 50.98333; 11.16667

Authority control

.