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The Sava
Sava
(Slovene pronunciation: [ˈsàːʋa],[1] Serbo-Croatian: [sǎːʋa],[2] Serbian Cyrillic: Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, Croatia, along the northern border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and through Serbia, discharging into the Danube
Danube
in Belgrade. Its central part is a natural border of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and Croatia. The Sava
Sava
forms the northern border of the Balkan Peninsula, and the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain. The Sava
Sava
is 990 kilometres (615 miles) long, including the 45-kilometre (28 mi) Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
headwater rising in Zelenci, Slovenia. It is the greatest tributary of the Danube
Danube
by volume of water, and second-largest after Tisza
Tisza
in terms of catchment area (97,713 square kilometres (37,727 square miles)) and length. It drains a significant portion of the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
region, through the major tributaries of Drina, Bosna, Kupa, Una, Vrbas, Lonja, Kolubara, Bosut and Krka. The Sava
Sava
is one of the longest rivers in Europe and among a handful of European rivers of that length that do not drain directly into a sea. The population in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin is estimated at 8,176,000, and it connects three national capitals—Ljubljana, Zagreb
Zagreb
and Belgrade. The Sava
Sava
is navigable for larger vessels from the confluence of the Kupa
Kupa
River
River
in Sisak, Croatia, approximately two-thirds of its length. The name is believed to be derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *sewh1 ('to take liquid', whence the English word sup) and the ending *eh2, so that it literally means 'that which waters [the ground]'.[3]

Contents

1 Sources 2 Course

2.1 From source to the Sutla 2.2 From the Sutla
Sutla
to the Una 2.3 From the Una to the Drina 2.4 From the Drina
Drina
to the Danube 2.5 Settlements

3 Watershed

3.1 Major tributaries

4 Hydrology 5 Geology 6 Economy

6.1 Electric power generation 6.2 Water supply
Water supply
and food production 6.3 Navigation and ports 6.4 Road, rail and pipeline transport

7 Environment

7.1 Pollution 7.2 Protected areas

8 Sport and recreation 9 Tradition 10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 References 13 External links

Sources[edit] See also: Sava Bohinjka
Sava Bohinjka
and Sava
Sava
Dolinka

Zelenci—spring of Sava
Sava
Dolinka

The Sava
Sava
River
River
is formed from the Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
and the Sava
Sava
Bohinjka headwaters in northwest Slovenia. The river's headwater area also encompasses several tributaries, including the 52-kilometre (32 mi) Sora, the 27-kilometre (17 mi) Tržič Bistrica
Tržič Bistrica
and the 17-kilometre (11 mi) Radovna rivers—flowing into the Sava at confluences located as far east downstream as Medvode.[4][5] The Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
rises at the Zelenci
Zelenci
Pools near Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, in a valley separating the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
from the Karavanke mountain range.[6] The spring is located near the Slovene-Italian border at 833 metres (2,733 feet) above sea level,[5][7] in a drainage divide between the Adriatic and Danube
Danube
basins. The Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
spring is fed by groundwater possibly exhibiting bifurcation of source karst aquifer to the Sava
Sava
and Soča
Soča
basins.[8] Nadiža creek, a short losing stream flowing nearby, is the source of Zelenci
Zelenci
Pools water.[6] The Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
is considered the Sava's initial,[5] 45-kilometre (28 mi) segment.[9] The Sava Bohinjka
Sava Bohinjka
originates in Ribčev Laz, at the confluence of the Jezernica,[10] a short watercourse flowing out from Lake Bohinj
Lake Bohinj
and the Mostnica River.[11] Some sources define the Jezernica as a part of the Sava
Sava
Bohinjka, specifying the latter as flowing directly out of the lake,[12] while another group of sources include Savica, rising at the southern flank of Triglav
Triglav
as the 78-metre (256 ft) Savica Falls,[13] downstream from Triglav
Triglav
Lakes Valley, and flowing into the lake, as a part of the Sava
Sava
Bohinjka.[14] The watercourse flows 41 kilometres (25 miles)—including the length of the Savica—east to Radovljica,[5] where it discharges into the Sava
Sava
Dolinka. Downstream from the confluence, the river is referred to as the Sava.[8] Course[edit]

Sava
Sava
at Litija

The Sava
Sava
is located in Southeast Europe, flowing through Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia
Serbia
and along the Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
border. Its total length is 990 kilometres (615 miles), including the 45-kilometre (28 mi) Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
and the 945-kilometre (587 mi) Sava proper. As a right tributary of the Danube, the river belongs to the Black Sea
Black Sea
drainage basin.[15][16] The Sava
Sava
River
River
is the third longest tributary of the Danube,[17] slightly shorter than the 966-kilometre (600 mi) Tisza
Tisza
and the 950-kilometre (590 mi) Prut—the Danube's two longest tributaries—when the Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
headwater is excluded from its course.[18][19] It is also the largest tributary of the Danube
Danube
by discharge.[17] The river course is sometimes used to describe the northern boundary of the Balkans,[20] and the southern border of the Central Europe.[21] Before the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, the river was located completely inside Yugoslav borders and it was the longest river with its entire course within the country.[22] From source to the Sutla[edit] The Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
rises in the Zelenci
Zelenci
Pools, west of Podkoren
Podkoren
in the Upper Carniola
Upper Carniola
region of Slovenia
Slovenia
at 833 metres (2,733 feet) above sea level (a.s.l.),[5][7] and flows east, past Kranjska Gora
Kranjska Gora
to Jesenice, where it turns southeast. At Žirovnica, the river enters the Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Basin and encounters the first hydroelectric dam—Moste plant—before proceeding to the east of the glacial Lake Bled
Lake Bled
towards Radovljica
Radovljica
and confluence of the Sava
Sava
Bohinjka,[23] at 411 metres (1,348 feet) a.s.l.[5] Downstream of Radovljica, the Sava
Sava
proceeds southeast towards Kranj. Between Kranj
Kranj
and Medvode, its course comprises the Lake Trboje
Lake Trboje
and the Lake Zbilje reservoirs,[24] built for the Mavčiče
Mavčiče
and the Medvode
Medvode
power plants.[25][26]

Save gorge between Ljubljana
Ljubljana
and Trbovlje

The Sava
Sava
then flows through the capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana,[27] where another reservoir is located on the river, adjacent to the Tacen Whitewater Course.[28] There the river course turns east and leaves the Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Basin via Dolsko,[29] at 261 metres (856 feet) a.s.l. (at confluence of the Ljubljanica
Ljubljanica
and the Kamnik Bistrica).[5] The course continues through the Sava
Sava
Hills, where it passes the Litija Basin with the mining and industrial town of Litija, the Central Sava Valley with the mining towns of Zagorje ob Savi, Trbovlje, and Hrastnik, turns to the southeast and runs through the Lower Sava Valley with the towns of Radeče, Sevnica, and Krško. The course through the Sava Hills
Sava Hills
forms the boundary of traditional regions of Lower Carniola
Carniola
and Styria,[30] At Radeče, the Vrhovo hydroelectric dam reservoir is located.[31] The latter is site of the Krško
Krško
Nuclear Power Plant, which uses the Sava
Sava
River
River
water to dissipate excess heat.[32] The easternmost stretch of the Sava
Sava
River
River
course in Slovenia runs to the south of Brežice, where it is joined by the Krka, and the river ultimately becomes a border river between Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia, marking 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) of their border near confluence of the Sutla
Sutla
(Slovene: Sotla).[33] At that point, the Sava
Sava
reaches 132 metres (433 feet) a.s.l. after flowing 221 kilometres (137 miles) through Slovenia
Slovenia
and along its border.[5] From the Sutla
Sutla
to the Una[edit]

Sava
Sava
in Zagreb, with Medvednica
Medvednica
mountain in the background

Sava
Sava
in Zagreb
Zagreb
near Youth Bridge on 13 February 2014 after record rainfall, which, combined with melting snow, expanded the river to three times its normal size, rising to the height of 347 cm and reaching the levees. At the time the picture was taken, the water level started subsiding and was at 287 cm.[34] The trees in the water indicate the usual width of the river, around 100 m.[35]

The westernmost part of the 562-kilometre (349 mi) Sava
Sava
River course in Croatia,[36] takes the river east, through the western part of the Zagreb
Zagreb
County, between Samobor
Samobor
and Zaprešić. The area encompasses forests interspersed by marshes and lakes formed in gravel pits.[37] As the Sava
Sava
approaches the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, the marshes give way to urban landscape, but there are surviving examples of the gravel pit lakes, such as the Jarun,[38] and the Bundek
Bundek
within the city.[39] At the western outskirts of Zagreb, there is the western terminus of the 32-kilometre (20 mi) Sava–Odra flood-relief canal connecting the Sava
Sava
to the Odra River
River
plain which is intended to act as flood control retention basin.[40] The canal has been built in response to the most destructive flooding of the river that occurred in Zagreb
Zagreb
in 1964, when one third of the city was flooded and 17 people were killed.[41] The city itself marks the western extent of the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin area especially prone to flooding, spanning from Zagreb
Zagreb
to confluence of the river in Belgrade, Serbia.[42] East of Zagreb, the river turns southeast again further through the Central Croatia, to the Sisak-Moslavina County, the city of Sisak, reaching 91.3 metres (300 feet) a.s.l. The city of Sisak
Sisak
marks the westernmost extent of the Sava
Sava
River
River
navigable to larger vessels. Navigation conditions on the river are poor due to limited draft and fairway width, meandering of the river, bridge clearance restrictions, poor fairway markings as well as presence of sunken vessels and other objects, including unexploded ordnance.[43] The ordnance is left over from various conflicts including the World War II,[44] Croatian War of Independence, Bosnian War,[45] and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[46] Before reaching confluence of Una at Jasenovac and 86.8 metres (285 feet) a.s.l,[47] the Sava
Sava
River
River
traces Lonjsko polje Nature Park,[48] encompassing marshes frequently flooded by the Sava and its tributaries in the area.[49] From the Una to the Drina[edit]

Sava
Sava
seen from Slavonski Brod, the bridge in the background links the city to Brod via a river island.[50]

Downstream of confluence of the Una River, the Sava
Sava
is once again tracing an international border—between Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Its meandering course runs generally eastwards along Gradiška, and Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
to Županja, where it turns south to Brčko. There, the river resumes its predominantly eastward course towards Sremska Rača
Sremska Rača
and confluence of the Drina
Drina
River. The right bank of the Sava, in this segment of its course, belongs to Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
(with Bosnia's all three administrative entities, Republika Srpska, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the Brčko District, having gateway to the river), while the opposite bank belongs to Croatia
Croatia
and its Sisak-Moslavina, Brod- Posavina
Posavina
and Vukovar-Srijem counties, except in the area of Jamena
Jamena
and further downstream—which belongs to Serbia
Serbia
and the province of Vojvodina. No cities in this segment of the course span the river as it represents an international frontier, but there are adjacent settlements located in two different countries, divided by the Sava. Those include Gradiška, Brod and Brčko
Brčko
in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and Stara Gradiška, Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Gunja in Croatia
Croatia
opposite them. The 337.2-kilometre (209.5 mi) segment between the Una and the Drina
Drina
confluences, marking corresponding to the entire length of the Sava
Sava
flowing along the border of Bosnia-Herzegovina, exhibits small change of elevation—from 86.8 metres (285 feet) a.s.l at Jasenovac to 76.6 metres (251 feet) a.s.l. at Brčko
Brčko
gauges, over 287.5 kilometres (178.6 miles) of the river between them.[51] The entire course of the river downstream from Zagreb
Zagreb
flows down 0.4‰ slope on average, significantly less steep than the course in Slovenia, where the average slope exceeds 0.7‰—resulting in the Sava's meandering course running through a wide plain bordered by wetlands.[7] From the Drina
Drina
to the Danube[edit]

Sava
Sava
and the Danube
Danube
at Belgrade

Sava
Sava
and the historical center of Belgrade.

Downstream from confluence of the Drina, the Sava
Sava
River
River
changes its eastward course to northeast, until it reaches Sremska Mitrovica, from where it flows to the southeast and then south to Šabac, before finally turning east towards Belgrade. Most of the river's course in Serbia
Serbia
represents a border between province of Vojvodina, on the left bank, and Central Serbia, on the right bank. Exceptions to that are in area around Sremska Mitrovica, where both banks are in Vojvodina, and downstream of Progar
Progar
suburb of Belgrade
Belgrade
where both banks are in Central Serbia. The river meanders and forms wetlands in there as well—the most significant wetland among them centering on Obedska bara oxbow lake.[9] The Sava
Sava
River
River
forms several large islands in this segment of the course, with the largest among them—800-hectare (2,000-acre) Ada Ciganlija
Ada Ciganlija
in Belgrade—connected to the right bank by a pair of artificial embankment dams forming Lake Sava
Lake Sava
since 1967.[52][53] The Sava
Sava
discharges into the Danube, after reaching 68.3 metres (224 feet) a.s.l. as its right tributary at the Great War Island
Great War Island
off the easternmost tip of Syrmia
Syrmia
in Belgrade, 1,169.9 kilometres (726.9 miles) away from the Danube's confluence and the Black Sea.[54] Settlements[edit] Population in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin is estimated at 8,176,000, and it includes four capitals—Belgrade, Ljubljana, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Zagreb. All of them, except Sarajevo, are also located directly on the river banks and represent the three largest settlements found along the Sava
Sava
River course.[55] Belgrade, located at the confluence of the river, is the largest city in the basin with urban population of 1,135,502. Ten municipalities where the city is situated have combined population of 1,283,783 as suburban settlements are added, while the Belgrade metropolitan area encompasses population of 1,639,121.[56] Zagreb
Zagreb
is the second largest city on the river, comprising population of 688,163 living in the city itself, and 790,017 in the city-administered area.[57] Together with the Zagreb
Zagreb
County, largely corresponding to various definitions of the city's metropolitan area,[58] it has a combined population of 1,110,517.[57] Ljubljana
Ljubljana
is the third-largest city on the banks of the Sava, encompassing population of 258,873 living in the city itself and 265,881 in the city-governed area.[59][60] The largest city in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
situated on the Sava
Sava
River course is Brčko, whose urban population is estimated at 40,000.[61] Other cities along the river, with populations of 20,000 and larger, are Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
(53,473), Šabac
Šabac
(52,822), Sremska Mitrovica (37,586), Kranj
Kranj
(35,587),[62] Sisak
Sisak
(33,049),[57] Obrenovac (24,568),[63] and Gradiška (est. 20,000).[64]

The most populous urban areas along the Sava
Sava
River

Belgrade

Zagreb

Rank City Country Urban population Municipal population

Ljubljana

Slavonski Brod

1 Belgrade Serbia 1,233,350 1,659,440

2 Zagreb Croatia 688,163 1,110,517

3 Ljubljana Slovenia 258,873 265,881

4 Slavonski Brod Croatia 53,473 59,507

5 Šabac Serbia 52,822 115,347

6 Brčko Bosnia-Herzegovina 40,000 85,000

7 Sremska Mitrovica Serbia 37,586 79,773

8 Kranj Slovenia 35,587 51,225

9 Sisak Croatia 33,322 47,768

10 Obrenovac Serbia 24,568 71,419

Sources: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
2011 Census;[65] Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 Census;[57] Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002 Census;[66] Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina[61]

Watershed[edit]

Brčko
Brčko
Bridge between Brčko
Brčko
and Gunja in 1996. Wartime damage was repaired in 2000.[67][68]

The Sava
Sava
River
River
basin covers a total area of 97,713.2 square kilometres (37,727.3 square miles) making it the second largest Danube
Danube
tributary catchment by area size, surpassed only by the Tisza
Tisza
basin,[7] and it encompasses 12% of the Danube
Danube
basin, draining into the Black Sea. The Sava
Sava
represents the third longest tributary of the Danube
Danube
and its largest tributary by discharge.[17] The catchment area borders the remainder of the Danube
Danube
basin to the north and east, and the Adriatic Sea basin to the west and south. The river basin generally consists of parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and Slovenia, with a very small part of the catchment area belonging to Albania. Topography of the basin varies significantly. Upstream portion of the basin is more rugged than downstream one, but asymmetry of the basin topography is particularly apparent when comparing right and left bank areas—the former dominated by the Alps
Alps
and the Dinarides
Dinarides
reaching elevations in excess of 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) a.s.l, while the latter is dominated by the Pannonian Plain. The mean elevation of the basin is 545 metres (1,788 feet) a.s.l.[69]

Country Sava
Sava
basin area Share of national territory in the basin Share of the Sava
Sava
basin

Slovenia 11,734.8 km2 (4,530.8 sq mi) 52.8% 12.01%

Croatia 25,373.5 km2 (9,796.8 sq mi) 45.2% 25.97%

Bosnia-Herzegovina 38,349.1 km2 (14,806.7 sq mi) 75.8% 39.25%

Serbia 15,147.0 km2 (5,848.3 sq mi) 17.4% 15.50%

Montenegro 6,929.8 km2 (2,675.6 sq mi) 49.6% 7.09%

Albania 179.0 km2 (69.1 sq mi) 0.59% 0.18%

Source: International Sava
Sava
River
River
Basin Commission;[70]

Major tributaries[edit]

The confluence of the Sava
Sava
and Drina

The most important tributaries of the Sava
Sava
River
River
found in its upper basin are characterized by relatively steep grades of flow, high flow velocities and rapids. Those are left tributaries: the Kokra, the Kamnik Bistrica
Kamnik Bistrica
and the Savinja; and right tributaries: the Sora, the Ljubljanica
Ljubljanica
and the Krka (Sava). Further downstream larger rivers empty into the Sava, as the right bank of the basin grows steadily. Right tributaries in this lower segment of the basin start as fast flowing courses, only to slow down as they enter the Pannonian Basin. They include the Kupa, the Una, the Vrbas, the Ukrina, the Bosna, the Brka, the Tinja, the Drina
Drina
and the Kolubara. Left tributaries in the lower segment drain plains consequently exhibiting less steep course grades, lower flow rates and meandering. They include the Sutla, the Krapina, the Lonja, the Ilova, the Orljava
Orljava
and the Bosut.[71] The 346-kilometre (215 mi) Drina
Drina
is the largest tributary of the Sava, flowing in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and along border of the country and Serbia. It is formed by the headwaters of the Tara and the Piva at the border of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and Montenegro, near Šćepan Polje. Its 20,319.9-square-kilometre (7,845.6 sq mi) catchment extends across parts of four countries—reaching as far south as Albania. The Bosna and the Kupa
Kupa
river basins are the second and third largest catchments of the Sava
Sava
tributaries, each surpassing 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 square miles) in size.[71]

List of major tributaries of the Sava
Sava
River

Left bank Catchment area Length Confluence Right bank

Country Region/County Tributary Tributary Region/County Country

Slovenia Central Slovenia

1,860.0 km2 (718.2 sq mi) 41.0 km (25.5 mi) 46°04′32″N 14°38′31″E / 46.075553°N 14.641857°E / 46.075553; 14.641857 (Ljubljanica) Ljubljanica Central Slovenia Slovenia

Savinja Savinja 1,849.0 km2 (713.9 sq mi) 93.9 km (58.3 mi) 46°05′09″N 15°10′42″E / 46.085733°N 15.178471°E / 46.085733; 15.178471 (Savinja)

Savinja

Lower Sava

2,247.0 km2 (867.6 sq mi) 94.6 km (58.8 mi) 45°53′38″N 15°36′04″E / 45.893772°N 15.601187°E / 45.893772; 15.601187 (Krka) Krka Lower Sava

Croatia Zagreb Sutla 584.3 km2 (225.6 sq mi) 88.6 km (55.1 mi) 45°51′50″N 15°41′05″E / 45.864015°N 15.684614°E / 45.864015; 15.684614 (Sutla)

Krapina 1,237.0 km2 (477.6 sq mi) 66.9 km (41.6 mi) 45°49′38″N 15°49′24″E / 45.827244°N 15.823359°E / 45.827244; 15.823359 (Krapina) Zagreb Croatia

Sisak-Moslavina

10,225.6 km2 (3,948.1 sq mi) 297.4 km (184.8 mi) 45°27′39″N 16°23′54″E / 45.460793°N 16.398296°E / 45.460793; 16.398296 (Kupa) Kupa Sisak-Moslavina

Lonja 4,259.0 km2 (1,644.4 sq mi) 49.1 km (30.5 mi) 45°21′50″N 16°45′14″E / 45.363846°N 16.753807°E / 45.363846; 16.753807 (Lonja)

Ilova-Trebež 1,796.0 km2 (693.4 sq mi) 104.6 km (65.0 mi) 45°20′55″N 16°46′21″E / 45.348707°N 16.772604°E / 45.348707; 16.772604 (Ilova)

9,828.9 km2 (3,795.0 sq mi) 214.6 km (133.3 mi) 45°16′15″N 16°55′07″E / 45.27096°N 16.918516°E / 45.27096; 16.918516 (Una) Una Border river at the confluence

Brod-Posavina 6,273.8 km2 (2,422.3 sq mi) 249.7 km (155.2 mi) 45°06′29″N 17°30′48″E / 45.107939°N 17.51328°E / 45.107939; 17.51328 (Vrbas) Vrbas Republika Srpska Bosnia-Herzegovina

Orljava 1,618.0 km2 (624.7 sq mi) 87.6 km (54.4 mi) 45°06′24″N 17°43′29″E / 45.106773°N 17.724724°E / 45.106773; 17.724724 (Orljava)

1,504.0 km2 (580.7 sq mi) 80.7 km (50.1 mi) 45°05′19″N 17°56′13″E / 45.088702°N 17.936854°E / 45.088702; 17.936854 (Ukrina) Ukrina

10,809.8 km2 (4,173.7 sq mi) 281.6 km (175.0 mi) 45°04′00″N 18°27′58″E / 45.066792°N 18.466043°E / 45.066792; 18.466043 (Bosna) Bosna Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Vukovar-Srijem 904.0 km2 (349.0 sq mi) 99.4 km (61.8 mi) 44°55′40″N 18°45′23″E / 44.927893°N 18.75628°E / 44.927893; 18.75628 (Tinja) Tinja Brčko
Brčko
District

Serbia Vojvodina 20,319.9 km2 (7,845.6 sq mi) 346.0 km (215.0 mi) 44°53′31″N 19°21′19″E / 44.891968°N 19.355249°E / 44.891968; 19.355249 (Drina) Drina Border river at the confluence

Bosut 2,943.1 km2 (1,136.3 sq mi) 186.0 km (115.6 mi) 44°56′29″N 19°22′10″E / 44.941443°N 19.369583°E / 44.941443; 19.369583 (Bosut)

Vojvodina Serbia

Central Serbia

3,638.4 km2 (1,404.8 sq mi) 86.6 km (53.8 mi) 44°39′44″N 20°14′55″E / 44.662152°N 20.248532°E / 44.662152; 20.248532 (Kolubara) Kolubara Central Serbia

Notes: Country/region/county of location of confluence with Sava corresponding to tributary bank side; The list includes rivers with catchment areas greater than 900 square kilometres (350 square miles), with addition of Sutla. Source: International Sava
Sava
River
River
Basin Commission;[72]

Hydrology[edit]

Lake Zbilje upstream from Medvode

The average annual flow rate of the Sava
Sava
River
River
at Radovljica, immediately downstream of the Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
and the Sava
Sava
Bohinjka confluence, stands at 44.9 cubic metres (1,590 cubic feet) per second.[73] Downstream of the Krka confluence the average flow rate reaches 317 cubic metres (11,200 cubic feet) per second,[74] gradually increasing as tributaries discharge along the course—340 cubic metres (12,000 cubic feet) per second downstream of the Sutla, 880 cubic metres (31,000 cubic feet) per second following discharge of the Kupa
Kupa
and the Una, 990 cubic metres (35,000 cubic feet) per second downstream of the Vrbas confluence, 1,180 cubic metres (42,000 cubic feet) per second after the Bosna river empties into the Sava,[75] and finally of 1,564 cubic metres (55,200 cubic feet) per second at confluence of the Sava
Sava
in Belgrade.[17] The highest flow rate of 6,007 cubic metres (212,100 cubic feet) per second was recorded by Slavonski Šamac gauging station in May 2014.[76] Seven out of eight largest reservoirs in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin are located in the Drina
Drina
catchment, the largest among them being the 0.88-cubic-kilometre (0.21 cu mi) Lake Piva on the eponymous river in Montenegro, created after construction of Mratinje Dam. Overall, there are 22 reservoirs holding more than 5,000,000 cubic metres (180,000,000 cubic feet) of water in the basin, with only four of them situated directly on the Sava, including one on the Sava Dolinka. Most of the reservoirs are used primarily, or even exclusively, for electricity generation, but they are also used as supply of drinking water, industrial water source, for irrigation and food production.[24] Groundwater
Groundwater
is a very important resource in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin, generally used for public water supply of potable water, as a source of water for industrial use, but also as the mainstay of aquatic ecosystems. There are 41 identified significant groundwater bodies in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin of basin-wide importance,[77] ranging in area size from 97 to 5,186 square kilometres (37 to 2,002 square miles), as well as numerous minor ground water bodies. Even though most of them are transboundary waters, eleven are considered to be largely located in Slovenia, fourteen in Croatia, seven in Bosnia-Herzegovina, five in Serbia
Serbia
and four in Montenegro.[78] Geology[edit] The course of the Sava
Sava
River
River
runs through several diverse geological units and orographic regions. The uppermost course of the river and its headwaters in the Karavanke
Karavanke
area, is situated in the Southern Alps, tracing the Sava
Sava
Fault—itself running parallel to the Periadriatic Seam. Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Upper Triassic rocks are exposed in the region.[79] The Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Basin represents the boundary of the Southern Alps
Alps
and the Dinarides.[80] Valleys of the Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
and the Sava Bohinjka
Sava Bohinjka
are glacial valleys, carved out by the Sava
Sava
Dolinka and Bohinj glaciers advancing down Karavanke
Karavanke
range to vicinity of present-day Radovljica. In the late Pleistocene, Bohinj Glacier
Glacier
was the largest glacier in the territory of present-day Slovenia, up to 900 metres (3,000 feet) thick.[81][82] Sava
Sava
Folds, southeast and east of the Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Basin are thought of as a part of the Dinarides,[83] separating the Ljubljana
Ljubljana
and Krško
Krško
Basins,[79] and forming the Sava Hills.[84] The east–west oriented folds are younger than the Miocene and the folding is considered to had taken place in the Pliocene
Pliocene
and the Quaternary, but it is possible that the tectonic activity continues in the present day.[85] The Sava
Sava
Folds largely exhibit Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Triassic
Triassic
rocks,[86] and clastic sediments.[87] The lower course of the Sava
Sava
River
River
is located in the Pannonian Basin—first reached by the Sava
Sava
River
River
in the Krško
Krško
Basin on the western rim of the Pannonian Basin.[88] The Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
took shape through Miocenian thinning and subsidence of crust structures formed during Late Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Variscan orogeny. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Mesozoic structures are visible in Papuk
Papuk
and other Slavonian mountains. The processes also led to the formation of a stratovolcanic chain in the basin 17–12 Mya (million years ago) and intensified subsidence observed until 5 Mya as well as flood basalts about 7.5 Mya. Contemporary uplift of the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
prevented water flowing to the Black Sea, and the Pannonian Sea
Pannonian Sea
formed in the basin. Sediments were transported to the basin from uplifting Carpathian and Dinaric mountains, with particularly deep fluvial sediments being deposited in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
during the uplift of the Transdanubian Mountains.[89] Ultimately, up to 3,000 metres (9,800 feet) of the sediment was deposited in the basin, and the Pannonian sea eventually drained through the Iron Gate gorge.[90] In the southern Pannonian Basin, the Neogene
Neogene
to Quaternary
Quaternary
sediment depth is normally lower, averaging 500 to 1,500 metres (1,600 to 4,900 feet), except in central parts of depressions formed by subduction. A subduction zone formed in the present-day Sava
Sava
River
River
valley, and approximately 4,000 metres (13,000 feet) deep sediments were deposited in the Slavonia-Syrmia depression and 5,500 metres (18,000 feet) in the Sava
Sava
depression.[91] The results of those processes are large plains in the Sava
Sava
River valley and the Kupa
Kupa
River
River
valley. The plains are interspersed by the horst and graben structures, believed to have broken the Pannonian Sea surface as islands,[92] which became watershed between Drava
Drava
and Sava River
River
basins extending along Ivanščica–Kalnik–Bilogora–Papuk mountain chain.[93] The Papuk
Papuk
Mountain is flanked by the Krndija
Krndija
and the Dilj
Dilj
Hills on the eastern rim of the Požega Valley. The Bilogora, Papuk
Papuk
and Krndija
Krndija
Mountains consist mostly of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
rocks which are 300–350 million years old, while the Dilj
Dilj
consists of much more recent Neogene
Neogene
rocks, 2–18 million years old.[94] Further east of the chain, the watershed runs through the Đakovo–Vinkovci and Vukovar
Vukovar
Plateau.[95] The loess plateau, extending eastward from Dilj
Dilj
and representing the watershed between the Vuka and Bosut rivers, gradually rises to the Fruška Gora
Fruška Gora
south of Ilok.[96] Economy[edit] Electric power generation[edit] There are 18 hydroelectric power plants with power generation capacity exceeding 10 Megawatts in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin. In Slovenia, most of them are located on the Sava
Sava
itself. In other countries, the hydroelectric power plants are situated on its tributaries. Total power generation capacity of the 18 power plants, and additional smaller plants largely found in Slovenia, amounts to 41,542 Megawatts, and their annual production capacity stands at 2,497 Gigawatt-hours. Approximately 3.3 cubic kilometres (0.79 cubic miles) of water per year in the river's basin is used to cool thermoelectric and nuclear power plants. Power plant cooling represents the main type of use of the Sava
Sava
River
River
waters.[97] As of October 2012[update], there are six existing hydroelectric power plants built along the Sava
Sava
River. Upstream of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
there are Moste, Mavčiče
Mavčiče
and Medvode
Medvode
power plants, while Vrhovo, Boštanj and Blanca are located downstream of the capital. There is one additional plant under construction near Krško. The Krško hydroelectric power plant, as well as two additional plants planned on the Sava
Sava
River
River
course downstream of Ljubljana— Brežice
Brežice
and Mokrice—should be completed by 2018. The power plants downstream of Ljubljana, except Vrhovo, are developed as a chain of five Slovenia's Lower Sava Valley
Lower Sava Valley
plants since 2002.[98][99] They will have production capacity of 2,000 Gigawatt-hours per year and 570 Megawatts of installed capacity. Completion of the five power plants is expected to cost 700 million Euros. There are also plans for construction of ten new powerplants in the middle Sava
Sava
valley HE Suhadol, HE Trbovlje, HE Renke, HE Ponovice, HE Kresnice, HE Jevnica, HE Zalog, HE Šentjakob, HE Ježica and HE Tacen. Croatia
Croatia
is planning construction of four hydroelectric power plants on the Sava
Sava
River
River
in Zagreb
Zagreb
area. The four plants—Podsused, Prečko, Zagreb
Zagreb
and Drenje—are scheduled to be completed by 2021 at a cost of 800 million Euros. The four power plants will have installed capacity of 122 Megawatts and annual production capacity of 610 Gigawatt-hours.[100]

Hydroelectric power plant Location Installed capacity Annual production capacity

Moste Moste, Slovenia 21 MW 56 GWh

Mavčiče Mavčiče, Slovenia 38 MW 62 GWh

Medvode Medvode, Slovenia 25 MW 72 GWh

Vrhovo Vrhovo, Slovenia 34.2 MW 116 GWh

Boštanj Boštanj, Slovenia 36 MW 115 GWh

Blanca Blanca, Slovenia 42 MW 144 GWh

Sources: Savske Elektrarne Ljubljana,[101] Hidroelektrarne na spodnji Savi.[102]

Water supply
Water supply
and food production[edit] Use of water for public water supply in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin is estimated at 783,000,000 cubic metres (2.77×1010 cubic feet) per year, and another 289,000,000 cubic metres (1.02×1010 cubic feet) of water per year is used for industrial production purposes. Use of water for agriculture in the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin is relatively high, but most of it is applied in non-consumptive uses, such as fish farming. Use of water for irrigation is relatively low, estimated at 30,000,000 cubic metres (1.1×109 cubic feet) per year.[97] Commercial fishing
Commercial fishing
on the Sava
Sava
River
River
is in decline since the middle of the 20th century. In 1978, there were only 97 commercial fishermen there, while recreational fishing became dominant.[103] The decline became more rapid during the wars in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina, reducing quantity of fish caught in the river to approximately one third of the pre-war catches which ranged from 719 to 988 tonnes (708 to 972 long tons; 793 to 1,089 short tons) between 1979 and 1990.[104] The International Sava
Sava
River
River
Basin Commission (ISRBC), a cooperative body established by Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
in 2005,[105] is tasked with establishment of sustainable management of surface water and groundwater resources in the Sava River
River
basin.[106] Navigation and ports[edit] The Sava
Sava
is navigable to larger vessels for 593.8 kilometres (369.0 miles) between its confluence with the Danube
Danube
in Belgrade, Serbia
Serbia
and Galdovo Bridge in Sisak, Croatia, 2.8 kilometres (1.7 miles) upstream from confluence of Sava
Sava
and Kupa
Kupa
rivers.[107] The confluence marks the westernmost point of the river course designated as a Class IV international waterway in compliance with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's European Agreement on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance (AGN).[108] The classification means that the river course between Sisak
Sisak
and Belgrade
Belgrade
is navigable to ships of the maximum length of 80 to 85 metres (262 to 279 feet), the maximum beam of 9.5 metres (31 feet), the maximum draught of 2.5 metres (8 feet 2 inches) and tonnage up to 1,500 tonnes (1,500 long tons; 1,700 short tons).[109] The Sava
Sava
River
River
downstream of Sisak, is designated as European waterway E 80-12, branching off from the E 80 waterway spanning the Danube
Danube
and Le Havre
Le Havre
via the Rhine.[110] The largest ports on the Sava
Sava
River
River
are Brčko
Brčko
and Šamac in Bosnia-Herzegovina,[111] Sisak
Sisak
and Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
in Croatia,[112] and Šabac
Šabac
and Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
in Serbia.[113] As of 2008[update], 24.5 kilometres (15.2 miles) of the river course between Slavonski Šamac
Slavonski Šamac
and Oprisavci, as well as additional 219.8 kilometres (136.6 miles) between Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Sisak, are considered by Croatia's Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure to fail the Class IV criteria, permitting navigation of vessels up to 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons) only, complying with the AGN's Category III.[108] The Slavonski Šamac– Oprisavci
Oprisavci
section is especially troublesome for navigation as it offers 250 centimetres (98 inches) draught in less than 50% of an average hydrological year, causing navigation to cease each summer. Similar interruptions are less frequent elsewhere on the river, occurring 30 days a year on average upstream from Oprisavci, and even more rarely downstream from Slavonski Šamac.[114] The restricted draft and fairway is compounded with meandering of the river's course—limiting length of vessels—and low bridge clearance. Further problems are incurred through poor transport infrastructure along the route, including poor navigation markings, and presence of sunken vessels and unexploded munitions.[43] Navigation along further 68 kilometres (42 miles) of the river upstream to Rugvica near Zagreb
Zagreb
is possible for vessels with tonnage below 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons), and the section of the river belongs to the AGN's Category II. There are plans for restoration of the Category IV compliant waterway downstream of Sisak and betterment of navigation infrastructure between Sisak
Sisak
and Rugvica,[115] as well as upgrading of the waterway between Brčko
Brčko
and Belgrade
Belgrade
to Category Va, matching that of the Danube, with uninterrupted navigation through the year. The plan is planned to be supported by the European Union
European Union
and as of October 2012[update], an agreement to implement the plan was signed by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia, while Serbia
Serbia
is invited to join the project. The plan aims to increase safety and volume of river transport, which declined by about 70% since the breakup of Yugoslavia, largely because of poor maintenance of the route.[116] The ISRBC is tasked with establishment of an international regime of navigation on the river since 2005.[106]

Country Port Annual cargo Year

Croatia Sisak 139,899 t 2007[117]

Slavonski Brod 139,364 t 2007[117]

Serbia Sremska Mitrovica 295,551 t 2009[113]

Road, rail and pipeline transport[edit] The Sava
Sava
River
River
valley is also a route for road and rail traffic. The river valley routes are a part of the Pan-European Corridor X, and forming junctions with Pan-European Corridors
Pan-European Corridors
V, Vb, Vc, Xa and Xb in area of Ljubljana
Ljubljana
(V), Zagreb
Zagreb
(Vb, Xa), Slavonski Šamac
Slavonski Šamac
(Vc), and Belgrade
Belgrade
(Xb).[118] The motorways forming the Pan-European Corridor X in the area—Slovenia's A2, Croatia's A3 and Serbia's A1 motorways—represent a part of European route E70 Bordeaux–Turin–Ljubljana–Zagreb–Belgrade–Bucharest,[119] and the European route E61
European route E61
Villach–Ljubljana–Trieste–Rijeka.[120] A largely double track railroad with a railway electrification system is also a part of the Corridor X.[121] The railroad was a part of the Simplon-Orient-Express and Direct-Orient-Express routes.[122] The navigable river course between Belgrade
Belgrade
and Galdovo north of Sisak
Sisak
is spanned by 25 bridges.[123] The Sava
Sava
River
River
valley east of Sisak is also used as a route for the Jadranski naftovod, a crude oil pipeline. The system connects the Port of Rijeka
Rijeka
oil terminal to oil refineries in Rijeka
Rijeka
and Sisak, to Brod in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as well as Novi Sad
Novi Sad
and Pančevo
Pančevo
in Serbia.[124] Environment[edit] Pollution[edit] The main pressure on the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin environment is generated by activities of urban population in the basin.[125] Even though nearly all population centres generating pollution above 10,000 population equivalent (PE) have some sort of sewage treatment in place, less than a quarter of them are adequate.[126] Wastewater from 86% of Sava
Sava
River
River
basin settlements, generating more than 2,000 PE, goes untreated. Pollution levels vary along the river. The best conditions in terms of the wastewater treatment are found in Slovenia, although the existing facilities are inadequate.[127] In Serbia, on the other hand, 68% of population centres have no wastewater treatment facilities at all.[126] Population centres exceeding 2,000 PE directly discharge into the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin's surface waters 11,112 tonnes of nitrogen and 2,642 tonnes of phosphorus.[128] Agriculture
Agriculture
is another significant source of the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin surface water pollution, specifically through livestock manure production. It is estimated that the nutrient pollution levels generated by manure production equal 32,394 tonnes of nitrogen and 3,784 tonnes of phosphorus per year.[129] As a consequence, the Sava
Sava
River
River
is microbiologically polluted in areas affected by the nutrient pollution. One such part of the river is the lowermost part of its course between Šabac
Šabac
and Belgrade, where acceptable freshwater bacterial counts are exceeded.[130] Levels of industrial pollution vary significantly throughout the basin. In 2007, significant sources of industrial pollution were identified in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia.[131] Levels of lead, cadmium and arsenic measured in the Sava
Sava
River
River
at Zagreb
Zagreb
in 2003 did not exceed permitted concentrations, but measured levels of mercury exceeded permitted levels in four out of 216 samples.[132] Levels of heavy metals, specifically zinc, copper, lead and cadmium, measured in sediments in the Sava
Sava
River
River
near Belgrade were assessed as representing little to no risk,[dubious – discuss] and the conclusion drawn was that in order to "reduce the existing bacterial contamination of the Sava
Sava
River
River
it is necessary to control faecal discharge near cities like Belgrade." [133] The two countries ( Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro) with greatest direct access to the Adriatic showed by far the least polluted basin surface waters, although other factors, such as demography, agricultural/environmental development and, especially, investment (internal and external), play a role.

Hazardous substances load from significant industrial pollution of the Sava
Sava
River
River
basin surface waters in 2007

Country Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Mercury Nickel Lead Zinc Phenols

Slovenia 115 0.03 83 142 0.51 582 75 7,656 104

Croatia N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.02 0.04 0.02 N/A N/A

Bosnia-Herzegovina N/A N/A 1,380 983 N/A 21 13,629 1,656 N/A

Serbia 2,010 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,223 2,038

Montenegro N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 246 1 N/A

Source: International Sava
Sava
River
River
Basin Commission;[131] N/A - data not available

Protected areas[edit] The Sava
Sava
River
River
basin is very significant because of its biological diversity, and it contains large alluvial wetlands and lowland forests. This led to designation of six protected areas under provisions of the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
by the countries in the basin. Those are Lake Cerknica
Lake Cerknica
in Slovenia, Lonjsko Polje
Lonjsko Polje
and Crna Mlaka in Croatia, Lake Bardača
Lake Bardača
in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Obedska and Zasavica bogs in Serbia.[134] Sport and recreation[edit]

The Tacen Whitewater Course
Tacen Whitewater Course
in Ljubljana, Slovenia

There are several sports and recreational grounds located on the river course or gravel pit and artificial lakes adjacent to the Sava. Tacen Whitewater Course, located on the right bank of the Sava
Sava
in Tacen suburb of Ljubljana, was built as a permanent kayaking course in 1948.[135] It hosts a major international competition almost every year, examples being the ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships in 1955, 1991,[136] and 2010.[137] In Zagreb, Jarun
Jarun
complex of lakes along the river course offers a range of facilities for swimming, water sports and cycling.[138] The island of Ada Ciganlija
Ada Ciganlija
in Belgrade
Belgrade
is the major recreational zone of the city, gathering as much as 100,000 visitors daily in summer months.[139][140] The Sava
Sava
River
River
is the site of several regattas. Those include the International Sava
Sava
Tour rowing regatta taking place between Zagreb
Zagreb
and Brčko,[141] and the Belgrade
Belgrade
Regatta
Regatta
(sailing regatta).[142] The river is also the site of the Šabac
Šabac
Swimming Marathon—an open water swimming competition, running on an 18.8-kilometre (11.7 mi) course between the village of Jarak
Jarak
and the city of Šabac
Šabac
in Serbia. The competition is held annually since 1970, and was included in FINA
FINA
international calendar from 1984 to 2012.[143] Recreational and sport fishing is a popular activity along the Sava River
River
course.[103] There is a 700 metres (2,300 feet) long sport fishing competition ground near Hotemež, Slovenia.[144] Tradition[edit] Even though the name Sava
Sava
became very common among Slavs, especially as a personal name (either male or female) and has a "Slavic tone", the river's name has pre-Slavic Celtic and Roman origins;[145] Strabo writes in Geographica 4.6.10 (composed between 20 BCE and 20 CE) of the River
River
Saüs,[146] and the Romans used the name Savus. Another name, used for the Sava
Sava
in entirety or its lower part by Strabo, is Noarus.[147] Worship of various river gods in the area dates to the Late Bronze Age,[148] when the first settlements were founded along the Sava River.[149] Taurisci
Taurisci
associated their river goddess Adsullata with the Savus.[145][148] Altars or inscriptions dedicated to the river-god Savus have been found at a number of locations along the river course, including at the Zelenci
Zelenci
Pools where the Sava Dolinka
Sava Dolinka
rises, and a number of Roman settlements and castra built along the Via Pannonia, the Roman road
Roman road
running from Aquileia
Aquileia
to the Danube.[150] The settlements include Emona, Andautonia
Andautonia
and Siscia
Siscia
(near modern-day Ljubljana, Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica
and Sisak
Sisak
respectively) upstream of the Kupa River
River
confluence, and Marsonia, itself built atop a prehistoric settlement,[151] Cibalae, Sirmium
Sirmium
and Singidunum
Singidunum
(in modern-day Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
and Belgrade) downstream of the Kupa.[152] Besides the altar found at the Zelenci
Zelenci
Pools, inscriptions and sites dedicated to Savus have been found in remains of Emona,[153] Andautonia
Andautonia
and Siscia.[154] Several years after 1751 completion of the Robba Fountain
Robba Fountain
in Ljubljana, the three male figures sculpted as parts of the fountain were identified[by whom?] as statues of the river gods of Sava, Krka and Ljubljanica. In the early 20th century, the fountain was named the Fountain of Three Carniolan Rivers.[155] The Romantic poet France Prešeren
France Prešeren
wrote The Baptism on the Savica (Slovene: Krst pri Savici), the Slovene national epic, in 1835. The poem, referring in its title to a headwater of the Sava
Sava
River, helped to inspire the design of the coat of arms of Slovenia
Slovenia
of 1991:

However, the two wavy lines at the base of the blazon officially represent rivers of Slovenia
Slovenia
and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
rather than the Savica or the Sava
Sava
specifically.[156] The Sava
Sava
River
River
also appears symbolically in the coat of arms of the former Kingdom of Slavonia:

The design, approved by the Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
in 1496, incorporates two bars symbolising the Sava
Sava
and the Drava
Drava
rivers tracing the borders of the kingdom. The design inspired the arms of several present-day counties of Croatia
Croatia
in the region of Slavonia
Slavonia
and itself forms a part of the coat of arms of Croatia.[157] The poem Horvatska domovina, written by Antun Mihanović
Antun Mihanović
in 1835 as a national symbol of Croatia, also refers to the Sava
Sava
River. Modified lyrics of the poem later became the Croatian anthem.[158] See also[edit]

International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
Danube
River Posavina

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Sava".  ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal: Sava".  ^ Jürgen, Udolph, (28 March 2007). "Stara Europa u Hrvatskoj: ime rijeke Save". Folia onomastica Croatica (12/13). Retrieved 19 March 2018.  More than one of website= and journal= specified (help) ^ Vrhovec, Pristov & Hočevar 1996, p. 123. ^ a b c d e f g h SURS 2002, p. 47. ^ a b Carey & Clark 2005, p. 50. ^ a b c d Tockner, Uehlinger & Robinson 2009, chapter 3.9.6.. ^ a b Trišič et al. 1997, pp. 295–298. ^ a b ISRBC & September 2009, p. 12. ^ Orožen 1901, pp. 96. ^ WFFC 2012. ^ Fallon 2010, p. 133. ^ McKelvie & McKelvie 2008, p. 111. ^ Singleton 1985, p. 3. ^ ISRBC & September 2009, p. 113. ^ Primožič, Kobold & Brilly 2008, p. 1. ^ a b c d ISRBC & February 2009. ^ ICPDR. ^ Bostan et al. 2011, p. 127. ^ Todorova 2009, p. 30. ^ Promitzer, Hermanik & Staudinger 2009, p. 10. ^ Lampe 2000, p. 13. ^ & HSE (Moste). ^ a b ISRBC & September 2009, p. 53. ^ HSE (Mavčiče). ^ HSE (Medvode). ^ Municipality of Ljubljana. ^ ECRR 2006, pp. 81–83. ^ Municipality of Dol pri Ljubljani
Dol pri Ljubljani
2007. ^ Municipality of Laško. ^ HSE (Vrhovo). ^ Krško
Krško
NPP. ^ ISRBC & September 2009, p. 170. ^ http://www.voda.hr/HV_PrikazVodostaja_EksternaVS8/A3.aspx?postajaID=5&slivID=1 ^ Google Earth ^ Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
2015, p. 49. ^ Zagreb
Zagreb
County Tourist Board. ^ Aničić & Treer 1997, p. 162. ^ Nacional & 22 May 2006. ^ Šterc 1979, p. 97. ^ Index.hr & 26 October 2011. ^ ISRBC & September 2009, p. 187. ^ a b ISRBC & September 2009, pp. 160-161. ^ Nova TV & 4 January 2012. ^ tportal.hr & 7 July 2011. ^ Index.hr & 19 January 2011. ^ ISRBC 2011, p. 37. ^ Lonjsko Polje
Lonjsko Polje
NP (a). ^ Lonjsko Polje
Lonjsko Polje
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References[edit]

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Aničić, B.; Treer, T. (December 1997). "Uređenje krajolika u ribarstvu" [Landscape architecture in fisheries]. Ribarstvo (in Serbo-Croatian). University of Zagreb. 55 (4): 161–166. ISSN 1330-061X.  Bačani, Andrea; Šparica, Marko; Velić, Josipa (December 1999). " Quaternary
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Agglomeration]. Hrvatskigeografski glasnik (in Serbo-Croatian). Croatian geographic society. 67 (1): 63–78. ISSN 1331-5854.  Bošnir, Jasna; Puntarić, Dinko; Škes, Ivo; Klarić, Maja; Šimić, Spomenka; Zorić, Ivan; Galić, Radoslav (June 2003). "Toxic Metals in Freshwater Fish from the Zagreb
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Geopark.  Placer, Ladislav (2008). "Principles of the tectonic subdivision of Slovenia". Geologija. Geološki zavod Ljubljana
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in Slovensko geološko društvo. 51 (2): 205–217. doi:10.5474/geologija.2008.021. ISSN 0016-7789.  Primožič, Miha; Kobold, Mira; Brilly, Mitja (2008). "The implementation of the HBV model on the Sava
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basin" (PDF). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing. 4. doi:10.1088/1755-1307/4/1/012004. ISSN 1755-1315.  Rendić-Miočević, Ante (August 2012). "Rivers and River
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Deities in Roman Period in the Croatian Part of Pannonnia". Histria antiqua. Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar. 21 (21): 293–306. ISSN 1331-4270.  Saftić, Bruno; Velić, Josipa; Sztanó, Orsolya; Juhász, Györgyi; Ivković, Željko (June 2003). "Tertiary Subsurface Facies, Source Rocks and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the SW Part of the Pannonian Basin (Northern Croatia
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News reports

"Avionska bomba u Savi ispod Savskog mosta Gunja - Brčko" [An aircraft Bomb found in Sava
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under the Gunja - Brčko
Brčko
Bridge] (in Serbo-Croatian). Nova TV (Croatia). 4 January 2012.  Mario Duspara (22 May 2006). "Obiteljski park na južnoj obali Save" [Family park at the south bank of Sava]. Nacional (weekly) (in Serbo-Croatian). Archived from the original on 7 July 2012.  Janjušević, Zorica (2 July 2012). "Na Adi 100.000 ljudi" [100,000 People at Ada]. Press (in Serbo-Croatian).  Lee, Jack (22 March 1996). "Engineers rebuild Brcko Road bridge" (PDF). The Talon. 1st Armored Division (United States).  "NATO-ove bombe još uvijek prijete Srbiji" [NATO bombs still threaten Serbia] (in Serbo-Croatian). Index.hr. 19 January 2011.  Nikolić, M. (8 August 2011). "Beogradska regata 14. avgusta" [ Belgrade
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Regatta
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on 14 August] (in Serbo-Croatian). 24 sata (Serbia).  "Otvoren obnovljeni most Gunja-Brčko" [Reconstructed Gunja-Brčko bridge reopened] (in Serbo-Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 25 October 2000.  Perović, Ljiljana (14 July 2008). "Sto hiljada sugrađana na Vodenom cvetu" [One Hundred Thousand Citizens at the Water Flower] (in Serbo-Croatian). Politika.  "Prije točno 47 godina katastrofalna poplava ubila je 17 ljudi i uništila veliki dio Zagreba" [Exactly 47 years ago, a catastrophic flood kills 17 and destroys a large part of Zagreb] (in Serbo-Croatian). Index.hr. 26 October 2011.  Rapaić, Sanja (7 July 2011). "Bombe i minobacačke granate u slavonskim rijekama" [Bombs and mortar rounds in Slavonia's rivers]. t-portal (in Serbo-Croatian).  Švab, Matic (October 2010). "2010 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships SLOKA 2010" (PDF).  "Šansa regionalnog razvoja riječnog prometa" [A chance for regional development of river transport] (in Serbo-Croatian). Al Jazeera Balkans. 22 April 2012. 

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River
River
Basin Commission. September 2009.  "Slovenian Symbols" (PDF). Government Communication Office (Slovenia). June 2011.  "Srednjoročni plan razvitka vodnih putova i luka unutarnjih voda Republike Hrvatske (za razdoblje 2009.-2016. godine)" [Mid-term plan of development of internal waterways and internal waterway ports in the Republic of Croatian (for 2009–2016 period)] (PDF) (in Serbo-Croatian). Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). December 2008.  "Strateški plan Ministarstva mora, prometa i infrastrukture za razdoblje 2011.-2013" [Strategic plan of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure for period of 2011–2013] (in Serbo-Croatian). Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). 6 August 2010.  "Tacen". Canoe Federation of Slovenia.  "Tacenska kajakaška proga" [ Tacen
Tacen
Kayaking
Kayaking
Course] (in Slovenian). Canoe Federation of Slovenia.  "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod.  "The Robba Fountain". National Gallery of Slovenia. [permanent dead link] " Tisza
Tisza
Basin – the largest sub-basin of the Danube". International Commission for the Protection of the Danube
Danube
River.  "Transport: launch of the Italy-Turkey pan-European Corridor through Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece". European Union. 9 September 2002.  "WFD and hydromorphological pressures – Technical report – Case studies" (PDF). European Centre for River
River
Restoration. November 2006.  "Zgodovina" [Town history] (in Slovenian). Municipality of Laško.  "Velike vode donjeg toka rijeke Save tijekom svibnja 2014" [High Waters of Sava
Sava
River
River
Lover Course in May 2014]. Hydrometeorological State Institute of Croatia. 

External links[edit]

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Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Save.

Condition of Sava
Sava
at locations in Slovenia
Slovenia
(proceeding from the upper to the lower stream):

Radovljica
Radovljica
– graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Radovljica
Radovljica
by ARSO) Medno
Medno
– graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Medno
Medno
by ARSO) Šentjakob
Šentjakob
– graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Šentjakob
Šentjakob
by ARSO) Hrastnik
Hrastnik
– graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Hrastnik
Hrastnik
by ARSO) Jesenice na Dolenjskem – graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Jesenice na Dolenjskem by ARSO)

 "Save". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

Hydrography of Slovenia

Rivers

Bača Big Krka Bolska Čabranka Dragonja Drava Dravinja Dreta Fram Creek Gradaščica Hudinja Idrijca Iška Ledava Ložnica Kamnik Bistrica Kokra Koritnica Krka Kolpa Krupa Lahinja Ljubljanica Meža Mirna Mislinja Mura Nadiža Nevljica Oplotniščica Paka Pesnica Pivka Polskava Pšata Radulja Reka Rinža Rižana Sava Sava
Sava
Bohinjka Sava
Sava
Dolinka Savinja Ščavnica Soča Sora Sotla Temenica Tržič Bistrica Vipava Voglajna

Streams

Aslivka Besnica Big Božna Borovniščica Davščica Dobličica Glinščica Kobilje Creek Logaščica Nadiža Obrh Rak Reka Tunjščica

Waterfalls

Javornik Falls Peričnik Falls Rinka Falls

Lakes

Black Lake in the Triglav
Triglav
Lakes Valley Lake Bled Lake Bohinj Lake Cerknica Lake Gradišče Lake Kreda Lake Palčje Lake Ptuj Lake Trboje Lake Žovnek Wild Lake

Wetlands

Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Marshes Sečovlje Saltworks Škocjan Caves

Sea

Adriatic Sea

River
River
valleys

Log Koritnica Valley Logar Valley Radovna Valley Rak Škocjan Soča
Soča
Valley Trenta Valley Triglav
Triglav
Lakes Valley Tuhinj Valley Upper Sava
Sava
Valley Vipava Valley

Canyons and gorges

Bistrica Gorge Dovžan Gorge Hell Gorge Iška
Iška
Gorge Ribnica Gorge Vintgar Gorge

v t e

Hydrography of Croatia

Rivers

Bednja Boljunčica Bosut Cetina Česma Danube Dobra Drava Gacka Glina Glogovnica Ilova Jadro Karašica Karašica Korana Krapina Krka Kupa Kupčina Lika Lonja Mirna Mrežnica Mura Neretva Odra Ombla Orljava Pakra Plitvica Raša Rječina Sava Slunjčica Spačva Studva Sunja Sutla Trnava Una Vuka Zrmanja

Lakes

Vrana (Dalmatia) Dubrava Peruća Prokljan Varaždin Vrana (Cres) Krušćica Plitvice Baćina Trakošćan

Valleys, estuaries, canyons, wetlands

Lim Paklenica Kopački Rit Lonjsko Polje

Waterfalls

Galovački buk Skradinski buk Roški slap Štrbački buk Large waterfall (Plitvice)

v t e

Hydrography of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Rivers

Danube/Black Sea watershed

Bila Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bliha Bobovica Bosanka Bosna Brka Crkvenica Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Crna rijeka Cvrcka Čudnić Ćehotina Ćorkovac Dabar Demićka Devetero vrela Drina Drinjača Duboka Fojnica Glina Glinica Gomjenica Gostović Grabovička rijeka Ilomska Jadar Jakotina Janj Japra Jezerka Klokot Korana Kreševka Krivaja Krka Kruševica Krušnica Lašva Lepenica Lim Miljacka Mala Ilomska Misoča Piva Pliva Prača Rakitnica
Rakitnica
(Prača) Ribnik Rzav Sava Sana Sanica Spreča Stavnja Stupčanica Sutjeska Tara Ugar Ukrina Una Unac Usora Uvac Vrbanja Vrbas Zdena Zujevina Željeznica Žepa

Adriatic watershed

Bistrica (Livanjsko Polje) Bregava Buna Bunica Doljanka Drežanka Krupa Lištica Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Pljačkovac Radobolja Rakitnica Rama Sturba Šuica Trebišnjica Trebižat Zalomka

Lakes

Mountain Lakes (natural/glacial)

Bijelo Bijelo Blatačko Blidinje Boračko Busija Crno Crvenjak Donje Bare Glamočko Gornje Bare Gvozno Hrast Idovačko Jugovo Kladopoljsko Kotlaničko Kukavičko Orlovačko Platno Prokoško Rastičevsko Šatorsko Štirinsko Turjača Uloško / Crvanjsko Velež Veliko

Ponds (natural & artificial)

Aligovac Balkana Bara Bardača Bašigovaćko Bistarac Breštica Bukvensko Busača Bužimsko Deransko Drenova Drijen Vrelo Gubinsko Hazna Humci Ispod Pržića Malo Lake Ispod Pržića Veliko Lake Jelim Jelovac Kalemovo Krenica Kvrkulja Laminci Malo Malo Plivsko Mezgraja Mijino Orah Orlovo Oličko Opačićko Panonsko Pasje Paučko Pelagićevo Pijavičko Popovača Prekajsko Radovan Ramičko Sniježnica Starača Šićki Brod Škrka Smreka Veliko Plivsko Vidara Vijenac Zanasovići Ždrimačko Župica

Artificial reservoirs

Bilećko Bočac Buško Blato Grabovičko Grahovčići Grajseljići Jablaničko Klinje Lipsko Mali Lug Mandek Modračko Mostarsko Nuga Peručaćko Ramsko Salakovačko Trebinjsko Tribistovo Veliki Lug Višegradsko Vrtliško Zvorničko Župica

Valleys & canyons

Bioštica Bistrica (Drina) Bregava Doljanka Drežnica Drina Drinjača Krivaja Lim Miljacka Misoča Mostarska Bijela Neretva Neretvica Piva Prača Rakitnica Sana Stupčanica Sutjeska Sutjeska Tara Tara River
River
Canyon Ugar Una Unac
Unac
River Upper Neretva Vrbas Željeznica Žepa

Wetlands

Bardača Hutovo Blato Sava
Sava
marshes

Waterfalls

Bliha Bobaš Dušćica falls Ilomska falls Kočuša Kozica Kravica Marina Pećina falls Una falls Pliva Skakavac 1 Skakavac 2 Skakavac 3 Štrbački buk Ugar falls Vrbanja falls Ždrimački slap

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248174

.