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Saussurea
Saussurea
is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the thistle tribe within the daisy family, native to cool temperate and arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and North America, with the highest diversity in alpine habitats in the Himalaya
Himalaya
and central Asia. Common names include saw-wort and snow lotus, the latter used for a number of high altitude species in central Asia. They are perennial herbaceous plants, ranging in height from dwarf alpine species 5–10 cm tall, to tall thistle-like plants up to 3 m tall. The leaves are produced in a dense basal rosette, and then spirally up the flowering stem. The flowers form in a dense head of small capitula, often surrounded by dense white to purple woolly hairs; the individual florets are also white to purple. The wool is densest in the high altitude species, and aid in thermoregulation of the flowers, minimising frost damage at night, and also preventing ultraviolet light damage from the intense high altitude sunlight. De Candolle named the genus after Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740-1799) and Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure
(1767–1845).[2]

Contents

1 Uses

1.1 Traditional uses

2 Pharmacology

2.1 Literature and culture

3 Selected species 4 References

4.1 External links

Uses[edit] A number of the high alpine Himalayan species are grown as ornamental plants for their decorative dense woolly flowerheads; they are among the most challenging plants to grow, being adapted to harsh climates from 3500–5000 m altitude, demanding cool temperatures, a very long (up to 8–10 months) winter rest period, and very good soil drainage in humus-rich gravel soils. Traditional uses[edit] Costi amari radix or costus root was an important item of Roman trade with India, and is believed to have been the dried root of Saussurea lappa.[3] Several varieties of snow lotus are used in traditional Tibetan medicine. Saussurea lappa
Saussurea lappa
is used a component of the traditional Tibetan medicine Padma 28. Research conducted on the Himalayan medicinal plants by C.P. Kala
C.P. Kala
reveals that the practitioners of Tibetan medicine living in the Pin Valley of Himachal Pradesh use its root for curing dysentery and ulcer.[4] Saussurea laniceps , Saussurea involucrata and Saussurea medusa
Saussurea medusa
flowers and stems have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, cough with cold, stomachache, dysmenorrhea, and altitude sickness, and has been found to have antiinflammatory and analgesic effects,[5] as well as cardiotonic, abortifacient, anticancer, and antifatigue actions.[citation needed] Saussurea laniceps have been proven to be more effective than Saussurea involucrata
Saussurea involucrata
and Saussurea Medusa. [6] Saussurea
Saussurea
obvallata, known as "brahmakamala" in India is one of the most sacred species, and it has been used for offerings to goddess Nanda Devi for time immemorial.[7][8] Pharmacology[edit] Saussurea lappa
Saussurea lappa
and has been shown to inhibit the mRNA expression of iNOS by lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages, thus reducing nitric oxide production.[citation needed] In rats, high doses of 50-200 milligrams per kilogram of crude ethanolic extract reduced observed inflammation in standard laboratory tests, and 25-100 milligrams per kilogram of the sesquiterpene fraction of the extract reduced several molecular markers of inflammation.[9][10] Ethanol extracts were shown to have analgesic and antiinflammatory effects at high doses of 75-300 milligrams per kilogram. As the slow-growing wild plant is endangered by collections, a substitute grown in tissue culture has been suggested, which is mostly equivalent. Generally the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of the plant are much inferior to those of indometacin. Literature and culture[edit] In most Chinese martial arts literature, the snow Lotus was classified a rare herb as precious as lingzhi mushroom, and old ginseng. Selected species[edit]

Saussurea
Saussurea
abnormis. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
acrophila. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
albescens. Western Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
alpina (it). Common saw-wort. Northern and central Europe, northwest Asia. Saussurea
Saussurea
amara. China, Russia. Saussurea
Saussurea
americana. American saw-wort. Western North America. Saussurea
Saussurea
amurensis. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
angustifolia. Narrowleaf saw-wort. Arctic
Arctic
northeast Asia, Alaska, Canada. Saussurea
Saussurea
auriculata. Himalaya, western China. Saussurea
Saussurea
bhutkesh. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
bodinieri. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
bullockii. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
cana. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
candolleana. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
ceratocarpa. Kashmir. Saussurea
Saussurea
chinnampoensis. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
chrysotricha. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
controversa. Russia. Saussurea
Saussurea
cordifolia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
costus. Eastern Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
crispa. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
deltoidea. Himalaya, China, Taiwan. Saussurea
Saussurea
densa. Clustered saw-wort. Arctic
Arctic
northeast Asia, Canada, Montana. Saussurea
Saussurea
dhwojii. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
discolor. Alpine central Europe. Saussurea
Saussurea
dolichopoda. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
donkiah. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
dutaillyana. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
dzeurensis. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
elegans. Caucasus. Saussurea
Saussurea
epilobioides. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
fastuosa. Himalaya, western China. Saussurea
Saussurea
formosana. Taiwan. Saussurea
Saussurea
forrestii. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
frondosa. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
glandulosa. Taiwan. Saussurea
Saussurea
globosa. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
gnaphalodes. Himalaya, western China. Saussurea
Saussurea
gossypiphora. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
graminea. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
graminifolia. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
grandiflora. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
heteromalla. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
hieracioides. Himalaya, western China. Saussurea
Saussurea
hookeri. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
involucrata. Snow lotus, Himalaya, (Vansemberuu) Mongolia. Saussurea
Saussurea
iodostegia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
japonica. Japan, Korea, northern China. Saussurea
Saussurea
kanaii. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
kanzanensis. Taiwan. Saussurea
Saussurea
kingii. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
kiraisanensis. Taiwan. Saussurea
Saussurea
laminamaensis. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
laniceps. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
lanuginosa. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
lappa. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
leontodontoides. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
licentiana. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
likiangensis. Southwest China. Saussurea
Saussurea
linearifolia. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
longifolia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
manshurica. Northern China. Saussurea
Saussurea
medusa. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
mongolica. Western China, Mongolia. Saussurea
Saussurea
namikawae. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
neofranchetii. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
nepalensis. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
nigrescens. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
nishiokae. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
nivea. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
nuda. Nutty Saw-wort. Alaska. Saussurea
Saussurea
obvallata. Brahma kamal. Himalaya, northern Burma and south-west China. Saussurea
Saussurea
oligantha. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
otophylla. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
pachyneura. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
parviflora. Russia, China. Saussurea
Saussurea
pectinata. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
peguensis. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
phaeantha. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
pinetorum. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
piptathera. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
platyphyllaria. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
polycephala. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
polystichoides. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
populifolia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
porcii. Carpathians. Saussurea
Saussurea
pulchella. Japan, Korea, northern China, eastern Siberia. Saussurea
Saussurea
pygmaea. Alps, Carpathians. Saussurea
Saussurea
quercifolia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
romuleifolia. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
roylei. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
runcinata. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
salsa. Russia, China. Saussurea
Saussurea
simpsoniana. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
sobarocephala. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
spicata. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
stafleuana. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
stella. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
stracheyana. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
sughoo. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
taraxacifolia. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
tangutica. Western Asia. Saussurea
Saussurea
topkegolensis. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
tridactyla. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
turgaiensis. Russia. Saussurea
Saussurea
uniflora. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
ussuriensis. China, eastern Russia. Saussurea
Saussurea
vansemberuu. Mongolia. Saussurea
Saussurea
veitchiana. Central China. Saussurea
Saussurea
velutina. China. Saussurea
Saussurea
viscida. Sticky saw-wort. Alaska. Saussurea
Saussurea
weberi. Weber's saw-wort. Rocky Mountains. Saussurea
Saussurea
werneroides. Himalaya. Saussurea
Saussurea
yakla. Himalaya.

References[edit]

^ Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist ^ Candolle, A.P. de, in Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 16:197-198 ^ Moeslinger, T; Friedl, R; Volf, I; Brunner, M; Koller, E; Spieckermann, PG (2000). "Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by the herbal preparation Padma 28 in macrophage cell line". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 78 (11): 861–6. doi:10.1139/cjpp-78-11-861. PMID 11100933.  ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Indigenous uses, population density and conservation of threatened medicinal plants in protected areas of India Himalaya". Conservation Biology. 19 (2): 368–378. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x.  ^ Jia, JM; Wu, CF; Liu, W; Yu, H; Hao, Y; Zheng, JH; Ji, YR (2005). "Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the tissue culture of Saussurea
Saussurea
involucrata". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 28 (9): 1612–4. doi:10.1248/bpb.28.1612. PMID 16141525.  ^ Yi, Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hu-Biao (2010-03-24). "Comparison of the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of three medicinal plants known as "Snow Lotus" herb in traditional Uighur and Tibetan medicines". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 128 (2): 405–411. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.037. ISSN 1872-7573. PMID 20083181.  ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2003). Medicinal Plants of the Indian Trans Himalaya: Focus on Tibetan Use of Medicinal Resources. Dehradun: Bishan Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. p. 200. ISBN 8121101808.  ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash (2010). Medicinal Plants of Uttarakhand: Diversity, Livelihood and Conservation. Delhi: BioTech Books. p. 188. ISBN 9788176222099.  ^ Damre, AA; Damre, AS; Saraf, MN (2003). "Evaluation of sesquiterpene lactone fraction of Saussurea lappa
Saussurea lappa
on transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation". Phytotherapy Research. 17 (7): 722–5. doi:10.1002/ptr.1152. PMID 12916066.  ^ Gokhale, AB; Damre, AS; Kulkami, KR; Saraf, MN (2002). "Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. Lappa, A. Speciosa and A. Aspera". Phytomedicine. 9 (5): 433–7. doi:10.1078/09447110260571689. PMID 12222664. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saussurea.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Saussurea

Chinese plant names: Saussurea Checklist of the plants of Nepal: Saussurea Jintu: Snow Lotus Law W, Salick J (2005). "Human-induced dwarfing of Himalayan snow lotus, Saussurea laniceps (Asteraceae)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (29): 10218–10220. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502931102. PMC 1177378 . PMID 16006524.  Saussurea
Saussurea
on Plants for a Future

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1421617 EoL: 38423 EPPO: 1SAUG FNA: 129338 FoC: 129338 GBIF: 2752681 GRIN: 10781 ITIS: 36074 NCBI: 41629 PLANTS:

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