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Anita Goshkin (1937–56) Alexandra (Sondra) Tschacbasov (1956–59) Susan Glassman (1961–64) Alexandra Bagdasar Ionescu Tulcea (1974–85) Janis Freedman (1989–2005)

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Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(born Solomon Bellows; 10 June 1915 – 5 April 2005) was a Jewish Canadian-American writer. For his literary work, Bellow was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, the Nobel Prize for Literature, and the National Medal of Arts.[1] He is the only writer to win the National Book Award for Fiction three times[2] and he received the National Book Foundation's lifetime Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters in 1990.[3] In the words of the Swedish Nobel Committee, his writing exhibited "the mixture of rich picaresque novel and subtle analysis of our culture, of entertaining adventure, drastic and tragic episodes in quick succession interspersed with philosophic conversation, all developed by a commentator with a witty tongue and penetrating insight into the outer and inner complications that drive us to act, or prevent us from acting, and that can be called the dilemma of our age."[4] His best-known works include The Adventures of Augie March, Henderson the Rain King, Herzog, Mr. Sammler's Planet, Seize the Day, Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
and Ravelstein. Widely regarded as one of the 20th century's greatest authors, Bellow has had a "huge literary influence."[5] Bellow said that of all his characters, Eugene Henderson, of Henderson the Rain King, was the one most like himself.[6] Bellow grew up as an insolent slum kid, a "thick-necked" rowdy, and an immigrant from Quebec. As Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
describes it, Bellow's fiction and principal characters reflect his own yearning for transcendence, a battle "to overcome not just ghetto conditions but also ghetto psychoses."[7][8] Bellow's protagonists, in one shape or another, all wrestle with what Corde (Albert Corde, the dean in "The Dean's December") called "the big-scale insanities of the 20th century." This transcendence of the "unutterably dismal" (a phrase from Dangling Man) is achieved, if it can be achieved at all, through a "ferocious assimilation of learning" (Hitchens) and an emphasis on nobility.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Education and early career 1.3 Return to Chicago and mid-career 1.4 Nobel Prize and later career

2 Themes and style 3 Criticism, controversy and conservative cultural activism 4 Awards and honors 5 Bibliography

5.1 Novels and novellas 5.2 Short story collections 5.3 Plays 5.4 Library of America editions 5.5 Translations 5.6 Non-fiction

6 Works about Saul Bellow 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
was born Solomon Bellows[9][10] in Lachine, Quebec, two years after his parents, Lescha (née Gordin) and Abraham Bellows,[11] emigrated from Saint Petersburg, Russia. [9][10] Bellow's family was Lithuanian-Jewish;[12][13] his father was born in Vilnius. Bellow celebrated his birthday in June, although he may have been born in July (in the Jewish community, it was customary to record the Hebrew date of birth, which does not always coincide with the Gregorian calendar).[14] Of his family's emigration, Bellow wrote:

The retrospective was strong in me because of my parents. They were both full of the notion that they were falling, falling. They had been prosperous cosmopolitans in Saint Petersburg. My mother could never stop talking about the family dacha, her privileged life, and how all that was now gone. She was working in the kitchen. Cooking, washing, mending... There had been servants in Russia... But you could always transpose from your humiliating condition with the help of a sort of embittered irony.[15]

A period of illness from a respiratory infection at age eight both taught him self-reliance (he was a very fit man despite his sedentary occupation) and provided an opportunity to satisfy his hunger for reading: reportedly, he decided to be a writer when he first read Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. When Bellow was nine, his family moved to the Humboldt Park neighborhood on the West Side of Chicago, the city that formed the backdrop of many of his novels.[10] Bellow's father, Abraham, had become an onion importer. He also worked in a bakery, as a coal delivery man, and as a bootlegger.[10] Bellow's mother, Liza, died when he was 17. He was left with his father and brother Maurice. His mother was deeply religious, and wanted her youngest son, Saul, to become a rabbi or a concert violinist. But he rebelled against what he later called the "suffocating orthodoxy" of his religious upbringing, and he began writing at a young age.[10] Bellow's lifelong love for the Bible began at four when he learned Hebrew. Bellow also grew up reading William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and the great Russian novelists of the 19th century.[10] In Chicago, he took part in anthroposophical studies at the Anthroposophical Society of Chicago.[16] Bellow attended Tuley High School on Chicago's west side where he befriended fellow writer Isaac Rosenfeld. In his 1959 novel Henderson the Rain King, Bellow modeled the character King Dahfu on Rosenfeld.[17] Education and early career[edit] Bellow attended the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
but later transferred to Northwestern University. He originally wanted to study literature, but he felt the English department was anti-Jewish. Instead, he graduated with honors in anthropology and sociology.[18] It has been suggested Bellow's study of anthropology had an influence on his literary style, and anthropological references pepper his works.[citation needed] Bellow later did graduate work at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Paraphrasing Bellow's description of his close friend Allan Bloom (see Ravelstein), John Podhoretz has said that both Bellow and Bloom "inhaled books and ideas the way the rest of us breathe air."[19] In the 1930s, Bellow was part of the Chicago branch of the Works Progress Administration Writer's Project, which included such future Chicago literary luminaries as Richard Wright and Nelson Algren. Many of the writers were radical: if they were not members of the Communist Party USA, they were sympathetic to the cause. Bellow was a Trotskyist, but because of the greater numbers of Stalinist-leaning writers he had to suffer their taunts.[20] In 1941 Bellow became a naturalized US citizen, after discovering upon attempting to enlist in the armed forces that he had immigrated to the United States illegally as a child.[21] [22] In 1943, Maxim Lieber was his literary agent. During World War II, Bellow joined the merchant marine and during his service he completed his first novel, Dangling Man (1944) about a young Chicago man waiting to be drafted for the war. From 1946 through 1948 Bellow taught at the University of Minnesota, living on Commonwealth Avenue, in St. Paul, Minnesota.[23] In 1948, Bellow was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship that allowed him to move to Paris, where he began writing The Adventures of Augie March (1953). Critics have remarked on the resemblance between Bellow's picaresque novel and the great 17th Century Spanish classic Don Quixote.[citation needed] The book starts with one of American literature's most famous opening paragraphs,[24] and it follows its titular character through a series of careers and encounters, as he lives by his wits and his resolve. Written in a colloquial yet philosophical style, The Adventures of Augie March
The Adventures of Augie March
established Bellow's reputation as a major author. In 1958, Bellow once again taught at the University of Minnesota. During this time, he and his wife Sasha received psychoanalysis from University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Psychology Professor Paul Meehl.[25] In the spring term of 1961 he taught creative writing at the University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
at Río Piedras.[26] One of his students was William Kennedy, who was encouraged by Bellow to write fiction. Return to Chicago and mid-career[edit] Bellow lived in New York City for a number of years, but he returned to Chicago in 1962 as a professor at the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. The committee's goal was to have professors work closely with talented graduate students on a multi-disciplinary approach to learning. Bellow taught on the committee for more than 30 years, alongside his close friend, the philosopher Allan Bloom. There were also other reasons for Bellow's return to Chicago, where he moved into the Hyde Park neighborhood with his third wife, Susan Glassman. Bellow found Chicago vulgar but vital, and more representative of America than New York.[27] He was able to stay in contact with old high school friends and a broad cross-section of society. In a 1982 profile, Bellow's neighborhood was described as a high-crime area in the city's center, and Bellow maintained he had to live in such a place as a writer and "stick to his guns."[28] Bellow hit the bestseller list in 1964 with his novel Herzog. Bellow was surprised at the commercial success of this cerebral novel about a middle-aged and troubled college professor who writes letters to friends, scholars and the dead, but never sends them. Bellow returned to his exploration of mental instability, and its relationship to genius, in his 1975 novel Humboldt's Gift. Bellow used his late friend and rival, the brilliant but self-destructive poet Delmore Schwartz, as his model for the novel's title character, Von Humboldt Fleisher.[29] Bellow also used Rudolf Steiner's spiritual science, anthroposophy, as a theme in the book, having attended a study group in Chicago. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1969.[30] Nobel Prize and later career[edit] Propelled by the success of Humboldt's Gift, Bellow won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1976. In the 70-minute address he gave to an audience in Stockholm, Sweden, Bellow called on writers to be beacons for civilization and awaken it from intellectual torpor.[29] The following year, the National Endowment for the Humanities
National Endowment for the Humanities
selected Bellow for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. Bellow's lecture was entitled "The Writer and His Country Look Each Other Over."[31] From December 1981 to March 1982, Bellow was the Visiting Lansdowne Scholar at the University of Victoria
University of Victoria
(B.C.),[32] and also held the title Writer-in-Residence.[33] Bellow traveled widely throughout his life, mainly to Europe, which he sometimes visited twice a year.[29] As a young man, Bellow went to Mexico City
Mexico City
to meet Leon Trotsky, but the expatriate Russian revolutionary was assassinated the day before they were to meet. Bellow's social contacts were wide and varied. He tagged along with Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
for a magazine profile he never wrote, he was close friends with the author Ralph Ellison. His many friends included the journalist Sydney J. Harris and the poet John Berryman.[citation needed] While sales of Bellow's first few novels were modest, that turned around with Herzog. Bellow continued teaching well into his old age, enjoying its human interaction and exchange of ideas. He taught at Yale University, University of Minnesota, New York University, Princeton University, University of Puerto Rico, University of Chicago, Bard College
Bard College
and Boston University, where he co-taught a class with James Wood ('modestly absenting himself' when it was time to discuss Seize the Day). In order to take up his appointment at Boston, Bellow moved in 1993 from Chicago to Brookline, Massachusetts, where he died on 5 April 2005, at age 89. He is buried at the Jewish cemetery Shir HeHarim of Brattleboro, Vermont. Bellow was married five times, with all but his last marriage ending in divorce. His son by his first marriage, Greg Bellow, became a psychotherapist; Greg Bellow published Saul Bellow’s Heart: A Son’s Memoir
Memoir
in 2013, nearly a decade after his father's death.[34] Bellow's son by his second marriage, Adam, published a nonfiction book In Praise of Nepotism in 2003. Bellow's wives were Anita Goshkin, Alexandra (Sondra) Tsachacbasov, Susan Glassman, Alexandra Ionescu Tulcea and Janis Freedman. In 2000, when he was 84, Bellow had his fourth child and first daughter, with Freedman.[35] While he read voluminously, Bellow also played the violin and followed sports. Work was a constant for him, but he at times toiled at a plodding pace on his novels, frustrating the publishing company.[29] His early works earned him the reputation as a major novelist of the 20th century, and by his death he was widely regarded as one of the greatest living novelists.[36] He was the first writer to win three National Book Awards in all award categories.[2] His friend and protege Philip Roth
Philip Roth
has said of him, "The backbone of 20th-century American literature has been provided by two novelists—William Faulkner and Saul Bellow. Together they are the Melville, Hawthorne, and Twain of the 20th century." James Wood, in a eulogy of Bellow in The New Republic, wrote:[37]

I judged all modern prose by his. Unfair, certainly, because he made even the fleet-footed—the Updikes, the DeLillos, the Roths—seem like monopodes. Yet what else could I do? I discovered Saul Bellow's prose in my late teens, and henceforth, the relationship had the quality of a love affair about which one could not keep silent. Over the last week, much has been said about Bellow's prose, and most of the praise—perhaps because it has been overwhelmingly by men—has tended toward the robust: We hear about Bellow's mixing of high and low registers, his Melvillean cadences jostling the jivey Yiddish rhythms, the great teeming democracy of the big novels, the crooks and frauds and intellectuals who loudly people the brilliant sensorium of the fiction. All of this is true enough; John Cheever, in his journals, lamented that, alongside Bellow's fiction, his stories seemed like mere suburban splinters. Ian McEwan wisely suggested last week that British writers and critics may have been attracted to Bellow precisely because he kept alive a Dickensian amplitude now lacking in the English novel. [...] But nobody mentioned the beauty of this writing, its music, its high lyricism, its firm but luxurious pleasure in language itself. [...] [I]n truth, I could not thank him enough when he was alive, and I cannot now.

Themes and style[edit] The author's works speak to the disorienting nature of modern civilization, and the countervailing ability of humans to overcome their frailty and achieve greatness (or at least awareness). Bellow saw many flaws in modern civilization, and its ability to foster madness, materialism and misleading knowledge.[38] Principal characters in Bellow's fiction have heroic potential, and many times they stand in contrast to the negative forces of society. Often these characters are Jewish and have a sense of alienation or otherness. Jewish life and identity is a major theme in Bellow's work, although he bristled at being called a "Jewish writer." Bellow's work also shows a great appreciation of America, and a fascination with the uniqueness and vibrancy of the American experience. Bellow's work abounds in references and quotes from the likes of Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust
and Henry James, but he offsets these high-culture references with jokes.[10] Bellow interspersed autobiographical elements into his fiction, and many of his principal characters were said to bear a resemblance to him. Criticism, controversy and conservative cultural activism[edit] Martin Amis
Martin Amis
described Bellow as "The greatest American author ever, in my view".[39]

His sentences seem to weigh more than anyone else's. He is like a force of nature... He breaks all the rules [...] [T]he people in Bellow's fiction are real people, yet the intensity of the gaze that he bathes them in, somehow through the particular, opens up into the universal.[40]

For Linda Grant, "What Bellow had to tell us in his fiction was that it was worth it, being alive."

His vigour, vitality, humour and passion were always matched by the insistence on thought, not the predigested cliches of the mass media or of those on the left, which had begun to disgust him by the Sixties... It's easy to be a 'writer of conscience'—anyone can do it if they want to; just choose your cause. Bellow was a writer about conscience and consciousness, forever conflicted by the competing demands of the great cities, the individual's urge to survival against all odds and his equal need for love and some kind of penetrating understanding of what there was of significance beyond all the racket and racketeering.[41]

On the other hand, Bellow's detractors considered his work conventional and old-fashioned, as if the author was trying to revive the 19th-century European novel. In a private letter, Vladimir Nabokov once referred to Bellow as a "miserable mediocrity."[42] Journalist and author Ron Rosenbaum described Bellow's Ravelstein
Ravelstein
(2000) as the only book that rose above Bellow's failings as an author. Rosenbaum wrote,

My problem with the pre- Ravelstein
Ravelstein
Bellow is that he all too often strains too hard to yoke together two somewhat contradictory aspects of his being and style. There's the street-wise Windy City wiseguy and then—as if to show off that the wiseguy has Wisdom—there are the undigested chunks of arcane, not entirely impressive, philosophic thought and speculation. Just to make sure you know his novels have intellectual heft. That the world and the flesh in his prose are both figured and transfigured.[43]

Sam Tanenhaus wrote in New York Times Book Review
New York Times Book Review
in 2007:

But what, then, of the many defects—the longueurs and digressions, the lectures on anthroposophy and religion, the arcane reading lists? What of the characters who don't change or grow but simply bristle onto the page, even the colorful lowlifes pontificating like fevered students in the seminars Bellow taught at the University of Chicago? And what of the punitively caricatured ex-wives drawn from the teeming annals of the novelist's own marital discord?

But Tanenhaus went on to answer his question:

Shortcomings, to be sure. But so what? Nature doesn't owe us perfection. Novelists don't either. Who among us would even recognize perfection if we saw it? In any event, applying critical methods, of whatever sort, seemed futile in the case of an author who, as Randall Jarrell once wrote of Walt Whitman, 'is a world, a waste with, here and there, systems blazing at random out of the darkness'—those systems 'as beautifully and astonishingly organized as the rings and satellites of Saturn.'[44]

V. S. Pritchett
V. S. Pritchett
praised Bellow, finding his shorter works to be his best. Pritchett called Bellow's novella Seize the Day a "small gray masterpiece."[10] As he grew older, Bellow moved decidedly away from leftist politics and became identified with cultural conservatism.[29][45] His opponents included feminism, campus activism and postmodernism.[46] Bellow also thrust himself into the often contentious realm of Jewish and African-American relations.[47] Bellow was critical of multiculturalism and once said to an interviewer: "Who is the Tolstoy of the Zulus? The Proust of the Papuans? I'd be glad to read him."[48] Bellow distanced himself somewhat from these remarks, which he characterized as "off the cuff obviously and pedantic certainly." He, however, stood by his criticism of multiculturalism, writing:

In any reasonably open society, the absurdity of a petty thought-police campaign provoked by the inane magnification of "discriminatory" remarks about the Papuans and the Zulus would be laughed at. To be serious in this fanatical style is a sort of Stalinism
Stalinism
-- the Stalinist
Stalinist
seriousness and fidelity to the party line that senior citizens like me remember all too well.[49]

Despite his identification with Chicago, he kept aloof from some of that city's more conventional writers. In a 2006 interview with Stop Smiling magazine, Studs Terkel
Studs Terkel
said of Bellow: "I didn't know him too well. We disagreed on a number of things politically. In the protests in the beginning of Norman Mailer's Armies of the Night, when Mailer, Robert Lowell
Robert Lowell
and Paul Goodman were marching to protest the Vietnam War, Bellow was invited to a sort of counter-gathering. He said, 'Of course I'll attend'. But he made a big thing of it. Instead of just saying OK, he was proud of it. So I wrote him a letter and he didn't like it. He wrote me a letter back. He called me a Stalinist. But otherwise, we were friendly. He was a brilliant writer, of course. I love Seize the Day." Attempts to name a street after Bellow in his Hyde Park neighborhood were scotched by local alderman on the grounds that Bellow had made remarks about the neighborhood's current inhabitants that they considered racist.[50] Awards and honors[edit]

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1948 Guggenheim Fellowship 1954 National Book Award for Fiction 1965 National Book Award for Fiction 1971 National Book Award for Fiction 1976 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Fiction 1976 Nobel Prize in Literature 1980 O. Henry Award 1986 St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
Library Associates[51][52] 1988 National Medal of Arts 1989 PEN/Malamud Award 1989 Peggy V. Helmerich Distinguished Author Award 1990 National Book Foundation's lifetime Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters 2010 Inducted into the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame.[53]

Bibliography[edit]

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For a complete list of works, see Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
bibliography. Novels and novellas[edit]

Dangling Man (1944) The Victim (1947) The Adventures of Augie March
The Adventures of Augie March
(1953), National Book Award for Fiction[54] Seize the Day (1956) Henderson the Rain King
Henderson the Rain King
(1959) Herzog (1964), National Book Award[55] Mr. Sammler's Planet
Mr. Sammler's Planet
(1970), National Book Award[56] Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
(1975), winner of the 1976 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Fiction[57] The Dean's December (1982) More Die of Heartbreak
More Die of Heartbreak
(1987) A Theft
A Theft
(1989) The Bellarosa Connection
The Bellarosa Connection
(1989) The Actual (1997) Ravelstein
Ravelstein
(2000)

Short story collections[edit]

Mosby's Memoirs (1968) Him with His Foot in His Mouth (1984) Something to Remember Me By: Three Tales (1991) Collected Stories (2001)

Plays[edit]

The Last Analysis (1965)

Library of America editions[edit]

Novels 1944–1953: Dangling Man, The Victim, The Adventures of Augie March (2003) Novels 1956–1964: Seize the Day, Henderson the Rain King, Herzog (2007) Novels 1970–1982: Mr. Sammler’s Planet, Humboldt’s Gift, The Dean’s December (2010) Novels 1984–2000: What Kind of Day Did You Have?, More Die of Heartbreak, A Theft, The Bellarosa Connection, The Actual, Ravelstein (2014)

Translations[edit]

"Gimpel the Fool"' (1945), short story by Isaac Bashevis Singer (translated by Bellow in 1953)

Non-fiction[edit]

To Jerusalem and Back (1976), memoir It All Adds Up (1994), essay collection Saul Bellow: Letters, edited by Benjamin Taylor (2010), correspondence There Is Simply Too Much To Think About (Viking, 2015), collection of shorter non-fiction pieces

Works about Saul Bellow[edit]

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Saul Bellow's Heart: A Son's Memoir, Greg Bellow, 2013 ISBN 978-1608199952 Saul Bellow, Tony Tanner (1965) (see also his City of Words [1971]) Saul Bellow, Malcolm Bradbury
Malcolm Bradbury
(1982) Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
Drumlin Woodchuck, Mark Harris, University of Georgia Press. (1982) Saul Bellow: Modern Critical Views, Harold Bloom (Ed.) (1986) Handsome Is: Adventures with Saul Bellow, Harriet Wasserman (1997) Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
and the Decline of Humanism, Michael K Glenday (1990) Saul Bellow: A Biography of the Imagination, Ruth Miller, St. Martins Pr. (1991) Bellow: A Biography, James Atlas (2000) Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
and American Transcendentalism, M.A. Quayum (2004) "Even Later" and "The American Eagle" in Martin Amis, The War Against Cliché (2001) are celebratory. The latter essay is also found in the Everyman's Library
Everyman's Library
edition of Augie March. 'Saul Bellow's comic style': James Wood in The Irresponsible Self: On Laughter and the Novel, 2004. ISBN 0-224-06450-9. The Hero in Contemporary American Fiction: The Works of Saul Bellow and Don DeLillo , Stephanie Halldorson (2007) "Saul Bellow" a song, written by Sufjan Stevens
Sufjan Stevens
on The Avalanche, which is composed of outtakes and other recordings from his concept album Illinois The Life of Saul Bellow: To Fame and Fortune, 1915–1964, Zachary Leader (2015)

See also[edit]

List of Jewish Nobel laureates PEN/ Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
Award for Achievement in American Fiction

References[edit]

^ University of Chicago
University of Chicago
accolades – National Medal of Arts. Retrieved 8 March 2008. ^ a b " National Book Award Winners: 1950–2009". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 12 March 2012. ^ "Distinguished Contribution to American Letters". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 12 March 2012. ^ " Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1976 - Press Release". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Obituary: Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
BBC News, Tuesday, 5 April 2005 ^ "The New York Times, Mel Gussow and Charles McGrath[2005], in Saul Bellow, Who Breathed Life into American Novel, Dies at 89". nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Arguably: Essays, Christopher Hitchens[2011], "Saul Bellow: The Great Assimilator", Atlantic Books, 2011 ISBN 9780857892577 ^ "Jewish American titan from the ghetto" By Christopher Hitchens, 30 December 30, 2011 ^ a b Library of America Bellow Novels 1944–1953 Pg.1000. ^ a b c d e f g h Mel Gussow and Charles McGrath, Saul Bellow, Who Breathed Life Into American Novel, Dies at 89, The New York Times
The New York Times
6 April 2005. Retrieved 21 October 2008. ^ Atlas, J. (2000). Bellow: A Biography. Random House. ISBN 9780394585017. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Greg Bellow: My father, Saul Books The Guardian". theguardian.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Great author, terrible father: Memoir
Memoir
portrays Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
as an egotistical womaniser who drove his son into therapy - Features - Books - The Independent". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ The New York Times
The New York Times
obituary, 6 April 2005. "...his birthdate is listed as either June or July 10, 1915, though his lawyer, Mr. Pozen, said yesterday that Mr. Bellow customarily celebrated in June. (Immigrant Jews at that time tended to be careless about the Christian calendar, and the records are inconclusive.)" ^ Saul Bellow, It All Adds Up, first published 1994, Penguin edition 2007, pp. 295–96. ^ http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/11/saul-bellow-life-steiner ^ "Isaac Rosenfeld's Dybbuk and Rethinking Literary Biography" Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Zipperstein, Steven J. (2002). Partisan Review 49 (1). Retrieved 17 October 2010. ^ The New York Times
The New York Times
obituary, 6 April 2005. "He had hoped to study literature but was put off by what he saw as the tweedy anti-Semitism of the English department, and graduated in 1937 with honors in anthropology and sociology, subjects that were later to instill his novels." ^ "Saul Bellow, a neocon's tale". timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Drew, Bettina. Nelson Algren, A Life on the Wild Side. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991 ^ Slater, Elinor; Robert Slater (1996). "SAUL BELLOW: Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature". Great Jewish Men. Jonathan David Company. p. 42. ISBN 0-8246-0381-8. Retrieved 21 October 2007.  ^ Hitchens, Christopher. "Remembering Saul Bellow". Slate. Retrieved 13 June 2015.  ^ (Life and Works). Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
Journal. Archived 21 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Saul Bellow, An Appreciation : NPR". npr.org. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Menand, Louis (May 11, 2015). "Young Saul". The New Yorker. New York, NY. Retrieved October 18, 2016.  ^ Bellow, Saul (2010). Saul Bellow: Letters. redactor Ben Taylor. New York: Viking. ISBN 9781101445327. Retrieved 12 July 2014. [...] Puerto Rico, where he was spending the spring term of 1961.  ^ The New York Times
The New York Times
Book Review, 13 December 1981 ^ Vogue, March 1982 ^ a b c d e Atlas, James. Bellow: A Biography. New York: Random House, 2000. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 30 May 2011.  ^ Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website. Retrieved 22 January 2009. ^ "Visiting Lansdowne scholar, Saul Bellow". University of Victoria Archives. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ Colombo, John Robert. "Canadian Literary Landmarks". Google Books. Dundum (1984). p. 283. Retrieved 14 June 2015.  ^ Woods, James (22 July 2013). "Sins of the Fathers: Do great novelists make bad parents?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 30 December 2014.  ^ "Saul Bellow's widow on his life and letters: 'His gift was to love and be loved'", by Rachel Cooke, The Guardian ^ 'He was the first true immigrant voice' The Observer, Sunday 10 April 2005 ^ Wood, James, 'Gratitude', New Republic, 00286583, 25 April 2005, Vol. 232, Issue 15 ^ Malin, Irving. Saul Bellow's Fiction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969 ^ Martin Amis
Martin Amis
Author of Yellow Dog talks with Robert Birnbaum 8 December 2003, by Robert Birnbaum ^ Martin Amis
Martin Amis
Author of Yellow Dog talks with Robert Birnbaum, Identity Theory, December 8, 2003, by Robert Birnbaum ^ 'He was the first true immigrant voice' Linda grant, The Observer, Sunday 10 April 2005 ^ Wood, James (1 February 1990) "Private Strife." Guardian Unlimited. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron. " Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
and the Bad Fish." Slate. 3 April 2007 ^ Tanenhaus, Sam (February 4, 2007) "Beyond Criticism." New York Times Book Review. ^ Review: The Joan Peters Case, Edward W. Said, Journal of Palestine Studies, 15:2 (Winter, 1986), pp. 144–150. Retrieved 27 March 2008. ^ "The New American McCarthyism: policing thought about the Middle East" (PDF).  ^ Ahmed, Azam and Ron Grossman (5 October 2007) "Bellow's remarks on race haunt legacy in Hyde Park." Chicago Tribune. ^ John Blades (19 June 1994). "Bellow's Latest Chapter". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 1 October 2012.  ^ Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(10 March 1994). "Papuans and Zulus". New York Times Book Review. Retrieved 10 June 2015.  ^ Ahmed, Azam and Ron Grossman (October 5, 2007) "Bellow's remarks on race haunt legacy in Hyde Park." Chicago Tribune. ^ Website of St. Louis Literary Award ^ Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
Library Associates. "Recipients of the Saint Louis Literary Award". Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ "Saul Bellow". Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. 2010. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "National Book Awards – 1954". National Book Foundation (NBF). Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With essay by Nathaniel Rich from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.) ^ "National Book Awards – 1965". NBF. Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With acceptance speech by Bellow and essay by Salvatore Scibona from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.) ^ "National Book Awards – 1971". NBF. Retrieved 2012-03-03. (With essay by Craig Morgan Teicher from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.) ^ "History". Past winners & finalists by category. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 30 March 2012.

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in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Nobel site with two speeches (one of which is an audio recording) & longer biography Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
at Find a Grave

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Novels and novellas by Saul Bellow

Dangling Man The Victim The Adventures of Augie March Seize the Day Henderson the Rain King Herzog Mr. Sammler's Planet Humboldt's Gift The Dean's December More Die of Heartbreak A Theft The Bellarosa Connection The Actual Ravelstein

Bibliography

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Fiction

1918–1925

His Family
His Family
by Ernest Poole
Ernest Poole
(1918) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1919) The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
by Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
(1921) Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1922) One of Ours
One of Ours
by Willa Cather
Willa Cather
(1923) The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins
by Margaret Wilson (1924) So Big by Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber
(1925)

1926–1950

Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) Early Autumn
Early Autumn
by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary
by Julia Peterkin (1929) Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930) Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) The Good Earth
The Good Earth
by Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck
(1932) The Store
The Store
by Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
(1933) Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom
by Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller
(1934) Now in November
Now in November
by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn
by Harold L. Davis (1936) Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
(1937) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
by John Phillips Marquand (1938) The Yearling
The Yearling
by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1940) In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow
Ellen Glasgow
(1942) Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark
by Martin Flavin (1944) A Bell for Adano by John Hersey
John Hersey
(1945) All the King's Men
All the King's Men
by Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren
(1947) Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific
by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor
by James Gould Cozzens (1949) The Way West
The Way West
by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)

1951–1975

The Town by Conrad Richter (1951) The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(1953) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor
MacKinlay Kantor
(1956) A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
by James Agee
James Agee
(1958) The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Allen Drury
(1960) To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(1961) The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor (1962) The Reivers
The Reivers
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House
by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner
by William Styron
William Styron
(1968) House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
by N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1969) The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter
by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
by Michael Shaara (1975)

1976–2000

Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson
(1978) The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song
by Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
(1980) A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces
by John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole
(1981) Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich
by John Updike
John Updike
(1982) The Color Purple
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984) Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985) Lonesome Dove
Lonesome Dove
by Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
(1986) A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis
by Peter Taylor (1987) Beloved by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) Breathing Lessons
Breathing Lessons
by Anne Tyler (1989) The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) Rabbit at Rest by John Updike
John Updike
(1991) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
by Jane Smiley
Jane Smiley
(1992) A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
by Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler
(1993) The Shipping News
The Shipping News
by E. Annie Proulx
Annie Proulx
(1994) The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries
by Carol Shields (1995) Independence Day by Richard Ford
Richard Ford
(1996) Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997) American Pastoral
American Pastoral
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) The Hours by Michael Cunningham
Michael Cunningham
(1999) Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri
(2000)

2001–present

The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2001) Empire Falls
Empire Falls
by Richard Russo
Richard Russo
(2002) Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
Jeffrey Eugenides
(2003) The Known World
The Known World
by Edward P. Jones (2004) Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2005) March by Geraldine Brooks (2006) The Road
The Road
by Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
(2007) The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
by Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(2008) Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2009) Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010) A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan
Jennifer Egan
(2011) No award given (2012) The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son
by Adam Johnson (2013) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014) All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See
by Anthony Doerr
Anthony Doerr
(2015) The Sympathizer
The Sympathizer
by Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen
(2016) The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead
Colson Whitehead
(2017)

v t e

National Book Award for Fiction (1950–1974)

The Man with the Golden Arm by Nelson Algren
Nelson Algren
(1950) Collected Stories of William Faulkner
William Faulkner
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1951) From Here to Eternity by James Jones (1952) Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison
Ralph Ellison
(1953) The Adventures of Augie March
The Adventures of Augie March
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1954) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Ten North Frederick
Ten North Frederick
by John O'Hara
John O'Hara
(1956) The Field of Vision
The Field of Vision
by Wright Morris (1957) The Wapshot Chronicle
The Wapshot Chronicle
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1958) The Magic Barrel
The Magic Barrel
by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1959) Goodbye, Columbus
Goodbye, Columbus
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1960) The Waters of Kronos
The Waters of Kronos
by Conrad Richter (1961) The Moviegoer
The Moviegoer
by Walker Percy (1962) Morte d'Urban
Morte d'Urban
by J. F. Powers (1963) The Centaur
The Centaur
by John Updike
John Updike
(1964) Herzog by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Eighth Day by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1968) Steps by Jerzy Kosiński
Jerzy Kosiński
(1969) them by Joyce Carol Oates
Joyce Carol Oates
(1970) Mr. Sammler's Planet
Mr. Sammler's Planet
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1971) The Complete Stories by Flannery O'Connor
Flannery O'Connor
(1972) Chimera by John Barth (1973) Augustus by John Williams (1973) Gravity's Rainbow
Gravity's Rainbow
by Thomas Pynchon
Thomas Pynchon
(1974) A Crown of Feathers and Other Stories by Isaac Bashevis Singer
Isaac Bashevis Singer
(1974)

Complete list (1950–1974) (1975–1999) (2000–2024)

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Anthroposophy

Founding board members of the General Anthroposophical Society

Rudolf Steiner Albert Steffen Marie Steiner-von Sivers Ita Wegman Elisabeth Vreede Guenther Wachsmuth Edith Maryon

Anthroposophists

Henri Bortoft Georg Kühlewind Jesaiah Ben-Aharon Dennis Klocek Ehrenfried Pfeiffer Theodor Schwenk Emil Bock Bernard Lievegoed Sergei O. Prokofieff Peter Selg Jens Bjørneboe Aasmund Brynildsen Daniel Nicol Dunlop John Fentress Gardner Walter Burley Griffin Karl König Robert A. McDermott Arthur Zajonc Douglas M. Sloan Pietro Archiati Marjorie Spock Christopher Bamford Henry Barnes Walter Johannes Stein Ernst Lehrs E. A. Karl Stockmeyer Herbert Witzenmann Massimo Scaligero Ross Rentea Rudolf Hauschka Oskar Schmiedel Hermann Poppelbaum Alfred Meebold Wilhelm Rath Herbert Hahn Francis Edmunds Thomas Weihs Cecil Harwood Daphne Olivier Marguerite Lundgren Valborg Werbeck-Svärdström Wilhelm Ernst Barkhoff John Davy Jakob Streit Alfred Rexroth Ernst Weissert Michael Henry Wilson Margaret Cross Fried Geuter Arnold Freeman Rudi Lissau Margaret Bennell Edith Rigby Bertram Keightley Arild Rosenkrantz Eileen Hutchins Eleanor Merry Paul Nordoff Clive Robbins Violetta Plincke Hans Schauder George Adams Kaufmann Liane Collot d'Herbois Egil Tynæs Else Klink Carlo Pietzner Marta Fuchs Johannes Tautz Julian Sleigh Botho Sigwart zu Eulenburg Willem Zeylmans van Emmichoven

Notable supporters

Saul Bellow Owen Barfield Andrej Belyj Joseph Beuys Wassily Kandinsky Selma Lagerlöf Albert Schweitzer Andrei Tarkovsky Bruno Walter Ibrahim Abouleish Nicanor Perlas Jacques Lusseyran Millicent Mackenzie Margaret McMillan

Cultural influences

Waldorf education Anthroposophic medicine Biodynamic agriculture Camphill Movement Eurythmy Threefold social order Anthroposophical architecture The Christian Community

Institutions, publications

General Anthroposophical Society Anthroposophical Society in America Goetheanum GLS Bank Demeter International SEKEM Harduf Triodos Bank RSF Social Finance Associação Comunitária Monte Azul

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 27060791 LCCN: n79078646 ISNI: 0000 0001 2125 0955 GND: 118508725 SELIBR: 177220 SUDOC: 026716453 BNF: cb11891093m (data) BIBSYS: 90058386 NLA: 35738019 NDL: 00432831 NKC: jn19990000650 BNE: XX831448 CiNii: DA01095

.