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Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(Bengali pronunciation: [ˈʃɔtːodʒit ˈrai̯] (listen); 2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, music composer, graphic artist, lyricist and author, widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.[2][3][4] Ray was born in Calcutta
Calcutta
into a Bengali family which was prominent in the field of arts and literature. Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
(1948) during a visit to London. Ray directed 36 films, including feature films, documentaries and shorts. He was also a fiction writer, publisher, illustrator, calligrapher, music composer, graphic designer and film critic. He authored several short stories and novels, meant primarily for young children and teenagers. Feluda, the sleuth, and Professor Shonku, the scientist in his science fiction stories, are popular fictional characters created by him. He was awarded an honorary degree by Oxford University. Ray's first film, Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
(1955), won eleven international prizes, including the inaugural Best Human Document award at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. This film, along with Aparajito
Aparajito
(1956) and Apur Sansar (The World of Apu) (1959), form The Apu Trilogy. Ray did the scripting, casting, scoring, and editing, and designed his own credit titles and publicity material. Ray received many major awards in his career, including 32 Indian National Film Awards, a Golden Lion, a Golden Bear, 2 Silver Bears, a number of additional awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies, and an Academy Honorary Award in 1992. The Government of India
Government of India
honored him with the Bharat Ratna, its highest civilian award, in 1992. Ray had received many noticeable awards and gained a prestigious position over his life time. In 2004, Ray was ranked number 13 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time.[5][6][7]

Contents

1 Family history 2 Early life and background 3 Career

3.1 The Apu years (1950–59) 3.2 From Devi
Devi
to Charulata
Charulata
(1959–64) 3.3 New directions (1965–82) 3.4 The last phase (1983–92)

4 Film craft 5 Literary works 6 Ray as calligrapher 7 Critical and popular response 8 Legacy 9 Preservation 10 Awards, honours and recognitions 11 Ray family 12 Filmography 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

Family history[edit] From the history of the Ray family, it is known that one of their earlier ancestors Shri Ramsunder Deo (Deb) was a native of Chakdah, Nadia District, Bengal
Bengal
(now in West Bengal, India). From there he migrated to sherpur in East Bengal
Bengal
in search of fate. The Zamindar
Zamindar
of Jashodal, Raja Gunichandra met him in the Zamindar
Zamindar
House of sherpur and was immediately impressed by him. He took Ramsunder with him to his estate in Jashodal, gave him a part of his Zamindari and made him his son-in-law.[8] [9]

Early life and background[edit] Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
as a child The exterior of Satyajit Ray's house in Kolkata Satyajit Ray's ancestry can be traced back for at least ten generations.[10] Ray's grandfather, Upendrakishore Ray
Upendrakishore Ray
was a writer, illustrator, philosopher, publisher, amateur astronomer and a leader of the Brahmo Samaj, a religious and social movement in nineteenth century Bengal. He also set up a printing press by the name of U. Ray and Sons, which formed a crucial backdrop to Satyajit's life. Sukumar Ray, Upendrakishore's son and father of Satyajit, was a pioneering Bengali writer of nonsense rhyme (Abol tabol) and children's literature, an illustrator and a critic. Ray was born to Sukumar and Suprabha Ray in Calcutta. Satyajit Ray's family had acquired the name 'Ray'(originally 'Rai') from the Mughals. Although they were Bengali Kayasthas, the Rays were 'Vaishnavas' (worshippers of Vishnu) as against majority Bengali Kayasthas who were 'Shaktos' (worshippers of the Shakti) .[11] Sukumar Ray
Sukumar Ray
died when Satyajit was barely three, and the family survived on Suprabha Ray's meager income. Ray studied at Ballygunge Government High School, Calcutta, and completed his BA in economics at Presidency College, Calcutta
Calcutta
then affiliated with the University of Calcutta,(now Kolkata)though his interest was always in fine arts. In 1940, his mother insisted that he studied at the Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, founded by Rabindranath Tagore. Ray was reluctant due to his love of Calcutta, and the low opinion of the intellectual life at Santiniketan.[12] His mother's persuasion and his respect for Tagore finally convinced him to try. In Santiniketan, Ray came to appreciate Oriental art. He later admitted that he learned much from the famous painters Nandalal Bose[13] and Benode Behari Mukherjee. Later he produced a documentary film, The Inner Eye, about Mukherjee. His visits to Ajanta, Ellora and Elephanta stimulated his admiration for Indian art.[14]

Sukumar Ray
Sukumar Ray
and Suprabha Ray, parents of Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1914) In 1943, Ray started work at D.J. Keymer, a British-run advertising agency, as a "junior visualiser," earning eighty rupees a month. Although he liked visual design (graphic design) and he was mostly treated well, there was tension between the British and Indian employees of the firm. The British were better paid, and Ray felt that "the clients were generally stupid."[15] Later, Ray also worked for Signet Press, a new publishing house started by D. K. Gupta. Gupta asked Ray to create cover designs for books to be published by Signet Press and gave him complete artistic freedom. Ray designed covers for many books, including Jibanananda Das's Banalata Sen, and Rupasi Bangla, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay's Chander Pahar, Jim Corbett's Maneaters of Kumaon, and Jawaharlal Nehru's Discovery of India. He worked on a children's version of Pather Panchali, a classic Bengali novel by Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, renamed as Aam Antir Bhepu (The mango-seed whistle). Designing the cover and illustrating the book, Ray was deeply influenced by the work. He used it as the subject of his first film, and featured his illustrations as shots in his ground-breaking film.[16] Along with Chidananda Dasgupta and others, Ray founded the Calcutta Film Society in 1947. They screened many foreign films, many of which Ray watched and seriously studied. He befriended the American GIs stationed in Calcutta
Calcutta
during World War II, who kept him informed about the latest American films showing in the city. He came to know a RAF employee, Norman Clare, who shared Ray's passion for films, chess and western classical music.[17] In 1949, Ray married Bijoya Das, his first cousin and long-time sweetheart.[18] The couple had a son, Sandip, who is now a film director. In the same year, French director Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
came to Calcutta
Calcutta
to shoot his film The River. Ray helped him to find locations in the countryside. Ray told Renoir about his idea of filming Pather Panchali, which had long been on his mind, and Renoir encouraged him in the project.[19] In 1950, D.J. Keymer sent Ray to London to work at its headquarters office. During his three months in London, Ray watched 99 films. Among these was the neorealist film Ladri di biciclette (Bicycle Thieves) (1948) by Vittorio De Sica, which had a profound impact on him. Ray later said that he came out of the theatre determined to become a film-maker.[20]

Career[edit] The Apu years (1950–59)[edit] See also: The Apu Trilogy
The Apu Trilogy
and Satyajit Ray filmography
Satyajit Ray filmography
22 years old Ray at Santiniketan Ray decided to use Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
(1928), the classic Bildungsroman of Bengali literature, as the basis for his first film. The semi-autobiographical novel describes the maturation of Apu, a small boy in a Bengal
Bengal
village. Ray gathered an inexperienced crew, although both his cameraman Subrata Mitra and art director Bansi Chandragupta went on to achieve great acclaim. The cast consisted of mostly amateur actors. He started shooting in late 1952 with his personal savings and hoped to raise more money once he had some passages shot, but did not succeed on his terms.[21] As a result, Ray shot Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
over three years, an unusually long period, based on when he or his production manager Anil Chowdhury
Anil Chowdhury
could raise additional funds.[21] He refused funding from sources who wanted a change in script or supervision over production. He also ignored advice from the government to incorporate a happy ending, but he did receive funding that allowed him to complete the film.[22] Ray showed an early film passage to the American director John Huston, who was in India scouting locations for The Man Who Would Be King. The passage was of the vision which Apu and his sister have of the train running through the countryside, the only sequence which Ray had yet filmed due to his small budget. Huston notified Monroe Wheeler
Monroe Wheeler
at the New York Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) that a major talent was on the horizon. With a loan from the West Bengal
West Bengal
government, Ray finally completed the film. It was released in 1955 to great critical and popular success. It earned numerous prizes and had long runs in both India
India
and abroad. In India, the reaction to the film was enthusiastic; The Times of India
India
wrote that "It is absurd to compare it with any other Indian cinema [...] Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
is pure cinema."[23] In the United Kingdom, Lindsay Anderson
Lindsay Anderson
wrote a glowing review of the film.[23] But, the reaction was not uniformly positive. After watching the movie, François Truffaut
François Truffaut
is reported to have said, "I don't want to see a movie of peasants eating with their hands."[24] Bosley Crowther, then the most influential critic of The New York Times, wrote a scathing review of the film. Its American distributor Ed Harrison was worried Crowther's review would dissuade audiences, but the film had an exceptionally long run when released in the United States. A film still used on the original poster for the movie featured in The Family of Man, the Museum of Modern Art exhibition that was seen by 9 million visitors.[25] It is a low-angle shot of the hero Apu having his hair brushed by his sister Durga and adoring mother Sarbojaya. Of the thirteen images the exhibition depicting India
India
it was the only one made by an Indian photographer. Curator Edward Steichen
Edward Steichen
credited it to Ray, but because Ray was not known to be a photographer, it is likely the author of this photograph, of a scene directed by Ray, was the film's cinematographer, Subrata Mitra.[26] Ray's international career started in earnest after the success of his next film, Aparajito
Aparajito
(The Unvanquished).[27] This film shows the eternal struggle between the ambitions of a young man, Apu, and the mother who loves him.[27] Critics such as Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
and Ritwik Ghatak
Ritwik Ghatak
rank it higher than Ray's first film.[27] Aparajito
Aparajito
won the Golden Lion
Golden Lion
at the Venice Film Festival, bringing Ray considerable acclaim. Before completing The Apu Trilogy, Ray directed and released two other films: the comic Parash Pathar
Parash Pathar
(The Philosopher's Stone), and Jalsaghar
Jalsaghar
(The Music Room), a film about the decadence of the Zamindars, considered one of his most important works.[28] While making Aparajito, Ray had not planned a trilogy, but after he was asked about the idea in Venice, it appealed to him.[29] He finished the last of the trilogy, Apur Sansar
Apur Sansar
(The World of Apu) in 1959. Critics Robin Wood and Aparna Sen
Aparna Sen
found this to be the supreme achievement of the trilogy. Ray introduced two of his favourite actors, Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
and Sharmila Tagore, in this film. It opens with Apu living in a Calcutta
Calcutta
house in near-poverty. He becomes involved in an unusual marriage with Aparna. The scenes of their life together form "one of the cinema's classic affirmative depictions of married life."[30] They suffer tragedy. After Apur Sansar
Apur Sansar
was harshly criticised by a Bengali critic, Ray wrote an article defending it. He rarely responded to critics during his filmmaking career, but also later defended his film Charulata, his personal favourite.[31] Ray wrote his memoirs during his filming of the Apu Trilogy which has been published as My Years with Apu: A Memoir. Ray's film successes had little influence on his personal life in the years to come. He continued to live with his wife and children in a rented house, with his mother, uncle and other members of his extended family.[32]

From Devi
Devi
to Charulata
Charulata
(1959–64)[edit] Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
at a discussion with Ray for the sounds in Pather Panchali (1955) During this period, Ray composed films on the British Raj
British Raj
period (such as Devi), a documentary on Tagore, a comic film (Mahapurush) and his first film from an original screenplay (Kanchenjungha). He also made a series of films that, taken together, are considered by critics among the most deeply felt portrayals of Indian women on screen.[33] Ray followed Apur Sansar
Apur Sansar
with Devi
Devi
(The Goddess), a film in which he examined the superstitions in Hindu society. Sharmila Tagore
Sharmila Tagore
starred as Doyamoyee, a young wife who is deified by her father-in-law. Ray was worried that the censor board might block his film, or at least make him re-cut it, but Devi
Devi
was spared. In 1961, on the insistence of Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Ray was commissioned to make a documentary on Rabindranath Tagore, on the occasion of the poet's birth centennial, a tribute to the person who likely most influenced Ray. Due to limited footage of Tagore, Ray faced the challenge of making a film out of mainly static material. He said that it took as much work as three feature films.[34] In the same year, together with Subhas Mukhopadhyay and others, Ray was able to revive Sandesh, the children's magazine which his grandfather once published. Ray had been saving money for some years to make this possible.[35] A duality in the name (Sandesh means both "news" in Bengali and also a sweet popular dessert) set the tone of the magazine (both educational and entertaining). Ray began to make illustrations for it, as well as to write stories and essays for children. Writing became his major source of income. In 1962, Ray directed Kanchenjungha. Based on his first original screenplay, it was his first film in colour. The film tells of an upper-class family spending an afternoon in Darjeeling, a picturesque hill town in West Bengal. They try to arrange the engagement of their youngest daughter to a highly paid engineer educated in London. He had first conceived shooting the film in a large mansion, but later decided to film it in the famous hill town. He used the many shades of light and mist to reflect the tension in the drama. Ray noted that while his script allowed shooting to be possible under any lighting conditions, a commercial film contingent present at the same time in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
failed to shoot a single scene, as they only wanted to do so in sunshine.[36] In the sixties, Ray visited Japan and took particular pleasure in meeting the filmmaker Akira Kurosawa, for whom he had very high regard. While at home, he would take an occasional break from the hectic city life by going to places such as Darjeeling
Darjeeling
or Puri
Puri
to complete a script in isolation. In 1964 Ray made Charulata
Charulata
(The Lonely Wife); it was the culmination of this period of work, and regarded by many critics as his most accomplished film.[37] Based on "Nastanirh", a short story of Tagore, the film tells of a lonely wife, Charu, in 19th-century Bengal, and her growing feelings for her brother-in-law Amal. Critics have referred to this as Ray's Mozartian masterpiece. He said the film contained the fewest flaws among his work, and it was his only work which, given a chance, he would make exactly the same way. Charulata won him the Best Director prize at the Berlin Film Festival.[38] Madhabi Mukherjee's performance as Charu, and the work of both Subrata Mitra and Bansi Chandragupta in the film, have been highly praised. Other films in this period include Mahanagar (The Big City), Teen Kanya
Teen Kanya
(Three Daughters), Abhijan
Abhijan
(The Expedition), Kapurush
Kapurush
(The Coward) and Mahapurush
Mahapurush
(Holy Man).

New directions (1965–82)[edit] A painting of Ray In the post- Charulata
Charulata
period, Ray took on projects of increasing variety, ranging from fantasy to science fiction to detective films to historical drama. Ray also made considerable formal experimentation during this period. He expressed contemporary issues of Indian life, responding to a perceived lack of these issues in his films. The first major film in this period is Nayak (The Hero), the story of a screen hero travelling in a train and meeting a young, sympathetic female journalist. Starring Uttam Kumar
Uttam Kumar
and Sharmila Tagore, in the twenty-four hours of the journey, the film explores the inner conflict of the apparently highly successful matinée idol. In spite of the film's receiving a "Critics prize" at the Berlin International Film Festival, it had a generally muted reception.[39] In 1967, Ray wrote a script for a film to be called The Alien, based on his short story "Bankubabur Bandhu" ("Banku Babu's Friend"), which he wrote in 1962 for Sandesh, the Ray family magazine. Columbia Pictures was the producer for what was a planned US-India co-production, and Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
and Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
were cast as the leading actors. Ray found that his script had been copyrighted and the fee appropriated by Michael Wilson. Wilson had initially approached Ray through their mutual friend, Arthur C. Clarke, to represent him in Hollywood. Wilson copyrighted the script credited to Mike Wilson & Satyajit Ray, although he contributed only one word. Ray later said that he never received a penny for the script.[40] After Brando dropped out of the project, the project tried to replace him with James Coburn, but Ray became disillusioned and returned to Calcutta.[40] Columbia expressed interest in reviving the project several times in the 1970s and 1980s, but nothing came of it. When E.T. was released in 1982, Clarke and Ray saw similarities in the film to his earlier Alien script. Ray claimed that this film plagiarized his script. Ray said that Steven Spielberg's movie "would not have been possible without my script of 'The Alien' being available throughout America in mimeographed copies." Spielberg denied any plagiarism by saying, "I was a kid in high school when this script was circulating in Hollywood." (Spielberg actually graduated high school in 1965 and released his first film in 1968).[41] Besides The Alien, two other unrealised projects that Ray had intended to direct were adaptations of the ancient Indian epic, the Mahābhārata, and E. M. Forster's 1924 novel A Passage to India.[42] In 1969, Ray released what would be commercially the most successful of his films. Based on a children's story written by his grandfather, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
(The Adventures of Goopy and Bagha), it is a musical fantasy. Goopy the singer and Bagha the drummer, endowed with three gifts by the King of Ghosts, set out on a fantastic journey. They try to stop an impending war between two neighboring kingdoms. Among his most expensive enterprises, the film project was difficult to finance. Ray abandoned his desire to shoot it in color, as he turned down an offer that would have forced him to cast a certain Hindi film
Hindi film
actor as the lead.[43] Ray made a film from a novel by the young poet and writer, Sunil Gangopadhyay. Featuring a musical motif structure acclaimed as more complex than Charulata,[44] Aranyer Din Ratri
Aranyer Din Ratri
(Days and Nights in the Forest) traces four urban young men going to the forests for a vacation. They try to leave their daily lives behind. All but one of them become involved in encounters with women, which becomes a deep study of the Indian middle class. According to Robin Wood, "a single sequence [of the film] ... would offer material for a short essay".[44] After Aranyer, Ray addressed contemporary Bengali life. He completed what became known as the Calcutta
Calcutta
trilogy: Pratidwandi (1970), Seemabaddha (1971), and Jana Aranya (1975), three films that were conceived separately but had thematic connections.[45] Pratidwandi (The Adversary) is about an idealist young graduate; if disillusioned at the end of film, he is still uncorrupted. Jana Aranya (The Middleman) showed a young man giving in to the culture of corruption to make a living. Seemabaddha (Company Limited) portrayed an already successful man giving up his morality for further gains. In the first film, Pratidwandi, Ray introduces a new, elliptical narrative style, such as scenes in negative, dream sequences, and abrupt flashbacks.[45] In the 1970s, Ray adapted two of his popular stories as detective films. Though mainly addressed to children and young adults, both Sonar Kella
Sonar Kella
(The Golden Fortress) and Joi Baba Felunath (The Elephant God) found some critical following.[46] Ray considered making a film on the Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
but later abandoned the idea. He said that, as a filmmaker, he was more interested in the travails of the refugees and not the politics.[47] In 1977, Ray completed Shatranj Ke Khilari (The Chess
Chess
Players), a Hindi/Urdu
Hindi/Urdu
film based on a short story by Munshi Premchand. It was set in Lucknow
Lucknow
in the state of Oudh, a year before the Indian rebellion of 1857. A commentary on issues related to the colonisation of India
India
by the British, this was Ray's first feature film in a language other than Bengali. It is his most expensive and star-studded film, featuring Sanjeev Kumar, Saeed Jaffrey, Amjad Khan, Shabana Azmi, Victor Bannerjee
Victor Bannerjee
and Richard Attenborough. In 1980, Ray made a sequel to Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne, a somewhat political Hirak Rajar Deshe
Hirak Rajar Deshe
(Kingdom of Diamonds). The kingdom of the evil Diamond King, or Hirok Raj, is an allusion to India
India
during Indira Gandhi's emergency period.[48] Along with his acclaimed short film Pikoo
Pikoo
(Pikoo's Diary) and hour-long Hindi film, Sadgati, this was the culmination of his work in this period.

The last phase (1983–92)[edit] Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
became the first Indian to receive an Honorary Academy Award in 1992. In 1983, while working on Ghare Baire
Ghare Baire
(Home and the World), Ray suffered a heart attack; it would severely limit his productivity in the remaining 9 years of his life. Ghare Baire
Ghare Baire
was completed in 1984 with the help of Ray's son (who operated the camera from then on) because of his health condition. He had wanted to film this Tagore novel on the dangers of fervent nationalism for a long time, and wrote a first draft of a script for it in the 1940s.[49] In spite of rough patches due to Ray's illness, the film did receive some critical acclaim. It had the first kiss fully portrayed in Ray's films. In 1987, he made a documentary on his father, Sukumar Ray. Ray's last three films, made after his recovery and with medical strictures in place, were shot mostly indoors, and have a distinctive style. They have more dialogue than his earlier films and are often regarded as inferior to his earlier body of work.[50] The first, Ganashatru
Ganashatru
(An Enemy of the People) is an adaptation of the Ibsen play, and considered the weakest of the three.[51] Ray recovered some of his form in his 1990 film Shakha Proshakha
Shakha Proshakha
(Branches of the Tree).[52] In it, an old man, who has lived a life of honesty, comes to learn of the corruption of three of his sons. The final scene shows the father finding solace only in the companionship of his fourth son, who is uncorrupted but mentally ill. Ray's last film, Agantuk (The Stranger), is lighter in mood but not in theme. When a long-lost uncle arrives to visit his niece in Calcutta, he arouses suspicion as to his motive. This provokes far-ranging questions in the film about civilisation.[53] In 1992, Ray's health deteriorated due to heart complications. He was admitted to a hospital, but never recovered. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded him an Honorary Academy Award. Ray is the first and the only Indian, yet, to receive the honor. Twenty-four days before his death, Ray accepted the award in a gravely ill condition, calling it the "Best achievement of [his] movie-making career."[54] He died on 23 April 1992.[55]

Film craft[edit] Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
considered script-writing to be an integral part of direction. Initially he refused to make a film in any language other than Bengali. In his two non-Bengali feature films, he wrote the script in English; translators interpreted it in Hindi or Urdu under Ray's supervision. Ray's eye for detail was matched by that of his art director Bansi Chandragupta. His influence on the early films was so important that Ray would always write scripts in English before creating a Bengali version, so that the non-Bengali Chandragupta would be able to read it. The craft of Subrata Mitra garnered praise for the cinematography of Ray's films. A number of critics thought that his departure from Ray's crew lowered the quality of cinematography in the following films.[39] Though Ray openly praised Mitra, his single-mindedness in taking over operation of the camera after Charulata
Charulata
caused Mitra to stop working for him after 1966. Mitra developed "bounce lighting", a technique to reflect light from cloth to create a diffused, realistic light even on a set. Ray acknowledged his debts to Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
and François Truffaut
François Truffaut
of the French New Wave for introducing new technical and cinematic innovations.[56] Ray's regular film editor was Dulal Datta, but the director usually dictated the editing while Datta did the actual work. Because of financial reasons and Ray's meticulous planning, his films were mostly cut in-camera (apart from Pather Panchali). At the beginning of his career, Ray worked with Indian classical musicians, including Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, and Ali Akbar Khan. He found that their first loyalty was to musical traditions, and not to his film. He had a greater understanding of Western classical forms, which he wanted to use for his films set in an urban milieu.[57] Starting with Teen Kanya, Ray began to compose his own scores. He used actors of diverse backgrounds, from famous film stars to people who had never seen a film (as in Aparajito).[58] Robin Wood and others have lauded him as the best director of children, pointing out memorable performances in the roles of Apu and Durga (Pather Panchali), Ratan (Postmaster) and Mukul (Sonar Kella). Depending on the talent or experience of the actor, Ray varied the intensity of his direction, from virtually nothing with actors such as Utpal Dutt, to using the actor as a puppet[59] (Subir Banerjee as young Apu or Sharmila Tagore
Sharmila Tagore
as Aparna). Actors who had worked for Ray praised his customary trust but said he could also treat incompetence with total contempt.[60] With full of admiration of his cinematic style and impeccable craft, British Film Academy Director Roger Manvell had said, “In the restrained style he has adopted, Ray has become a master of technique. He takes his timing from the nature of the people and their environment; his camera is the intent, unobtrusive observer of reactions; his editing the discreet, economical transition from one value to the next."[61] Though a master technician and a superb craftsman, Ray always credited life to be the best kind of inspiration for a popular medium like cinema. In his own words, "For a popular medium, the best kind of inspiration should derive from life and have its roots in it. No amount of technical polish can make up for artificiality of the theme and the dishonesty of treatment."[61]

Literary works[edit] Main article: Literary works of Satyajit Ray Ray created two popular fictional characters in Bengali children's literature—Feluda, a detective, and Professor Shonku, a scientist. The Feluda
Feluda
stories are narrated by Topesh Ranjan Mitra aka Topse, his teenage cousin, something of a Watson to Feluda's Holmes. The science fictions of Shonku are presented as a diary discovered after the scientist had mysteriously disappeared. Ray also wrote a collection of nonsense verse named Today Bandha Ghorar Dim, which includes a translation of Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky". He wrote a collection of humorous stories of Mullah Nasiruddin in Bengali. His short stories were published as collections of 12 stories, in which the overall title played with the word twelve (for example Aker pitthe dui, or literally "Two on top of one"). Ray's interest in puzzles and puns is reflected in his stories. Ray's short stories give full rein to his interest in the macabre, in suspense and other aspects that he avoided in film, making for an interesting psychological study.[62] Most of his writings have been translated into English. Most of his screenplays have been published in Bengali in the literary journal Eksan. Ray wrote an autobiography about his childhood years, Jakhan Choto Chilam (1982), translated to English as Childhood Days. Ray penned his experiences during the period when he filmed the Apu Trilogy in his memoirs titled My Years with Apu: A Memoir. He also wrote essays on film, published as the collections: Our Films, Their Films (1976), Bishoy Chalachchitra (1976), and Ekei Bole Shooting (1979). During the mid-1990s, Ray's film essays and an anthology of short stories were also published in English in the West. Our Films, Their Films is an anthology of film criticism by Ray. The book contains articles and personal journal excerpts. The book is presented in two sections: Ray first discusses Indian film, before turning his attention toward Hollywood, specific filmmakers (Charlie Chaplin and Akira Kurosawa), and movements such as Italian neorealism. His book Bishoy Chalachchitra was published in translation in 2006 as Speaking of Films. It contains a compact description of his philosophy of different aspects of the cinemas.

Ray as calligrapher[edit] Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
designed four typefaces for roman script named Ray Roman, Ray Bizarre, Daphnis, and Holiday script, apart from numerous Bengali ones for the Sandesh magazine.[63][64] Ray Roman and Ray Bizarre won an international competition in 1971.[65] In certain circles of Calcutta, Ray continued to be known as an eminent graphic designer, well into his film career. Ray illustrated all his books and designed covers for them, as well as creating all publicity material for his films, i.e., Ray's artistic playing with the Bengali graphemes was also revealed in the cine posters and cine promo-brochures' covers. He also designed covers of several books by other authors.[66] In his calligraphic technique there are deep impacts of: (a) Artistic pattern of European musical staff notation in the graphemic syntagms; (b) alpana ("ritual painting" mainly practiced by Bengali women at the time of religious festival; the term denotes 'to coat with'. Generally categorized as "Folk"-Art cf. in Ray's graphemes representations. Thus, so-called division between classical and folk art is blurred in Ray's representation of Bengali graphemes. The three-tier X-height of Bengali graphemes was presented in a manner of musical map and the contours, curves in between horizontal and vertical meeting-point, follow the patterns of alpana. It is also noticed that the metamorphosis of graphemes (This might be designated as "Archewriting") as a living object/subject in Ray's positive manipulation of Bengali graphemes.[67]

Critical and popular response[edit] Ray's work has been described as full of humanism and universality, and of a deceptive simplicity with deep underlying complexity.[68][69] The Japanese director Akira Kurosawa said, "Not to have seen the cinema of Ray means existing in the world without seeing the sun or the moon."[70] But his detractors find his films glacially slow, moving like a "majestic snail."[37] Some find his work anti-modern; they criticize him for lacking the new modes of expression or experimentation found in works of Ray's contemporaries, such as Jean-Luc Godard.[71] As Stanley Kauffmann wrote, some critics believe that Ray assumes that viewers "can be interested in a film that simply dwells in its characters, rather than one that imposes dramatic patterns on their lives."[72] Ray said he could do nothing about the slow pace. Kurosawa defended him by saying that Ray's films were not slow, "His work can be described as flowing composedly, like a big river".[73] Critics have often compared Ray to artists in the cinema and other media, such as Chekhov, Renoir, De Sica, Hawks or Mozart. The writer V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul
compared a scene in Shatranj Ki Khiladi (The Chess Players) to a Shakespearean play; he wrote, "only three hundred words are spoken but goodness! – terrific things happen."[30][74][75] Even critics who did not like the aesthetics of Ray's films generally acknowledged his ability to encompass a whole culture with all its nuances. Ray's obituary in The Independent
The Independent
included the question, "Who else can compete?"[76] His work was promoted in France by The Studio des Ursuline cinema. With full of positive admiration for most of Ray's films, celebrated film critic Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
had cited "Apu Trilogy" among the great movies.[77] Praising his contribution to the world of cinema, Martin Scorsese mentions: "His work is in the company of that of living contemporaries like Ingmar Bergman, Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
and Federico Fellini."[78] Director of classics like "The Godafther" and "Apocalypse Now", Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
cited him (Ray) to be a major influence in life.[79] With deep words of praise for Ray's 1960 classic "Devi", what he had considered to be his best work and a "cinematic milestone"; he further admitted to know of Indian cinema through Ray's works.[80] Recently, on a visit to India, celebrated filmmaker Christopher Nolan expresses his admiration for Ray's first film, "Pather Panchali". Nolan expressed, "I have had the pleasure of watching [Satyajit] Ray’s Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
recently, which I hadn’t seen before. I think it is one of the best films ever made. It is an extraordinary piece of work." [79] Political ideologues took issue with Ray's work. In a public debate during the 1960s, Ray and the Marxist
Marxist
filmmaker Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
engaged in an argument. Sen criticised him for casting a matinée idol such as Uttam Kumar, whom he considered a compromise.[81] Ray said that Sen only attacked "easy targets", i.e. the Bengali middle-classes. However Ray himself has made movies on Bengali middle class in films like Pratidwandi and Jana Aranya set during the period of the naxalite movement in Bengal. Advocates of socialism said that Ray was not "committed" to the cause of the nation's downtrodden classes; some critics accused him of glorifying poverty in Pather Panchali and Ashani Sanket
Ashani Sanket
(Distant Thunder) through lyricism and aesthetics. They said he provided no solution to conflicts in the stories, and was unable to overcome his bourgeois background. During the naxalite movements in the 1970s, agitators once came close to causing physical harm to his son, Sandip.[82] Early in 1980, Ray was criticised by an Indian M.P. and former actress Nargis Dutt, who accused Ray of "exporting poverty." She wanted him to make films to represent "Modern India."[83]

Legacy[edit] Ray on a 1994 stamp of India Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
is a cultural icon in India
India
and in Bengali communities worldwide.[84] Following his death, the city of Calcutta
Calcutta
came to a virtual standstill, as hundreds of thousands of people gathered around his house to pay their last respects.[85] Satyajit Ray's influence has been widespread and deep in Bengali cinema; a number of Bengali directors, including Aparna Sen, Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno Ghosh
and Gautam Ghose
Gautam Ghose
as well as Vishal Bhardwaj, Dibakar Banerjee, Shyam Benegal and Sujoy Ghosh
Sujoy Ghosh
from Hindi cinema in India, Tareq Masud
Tareq Masud
and Tanvir Mokammel
Tanvir Mokammel
in Bangladesh, and Aneel Ahmad
Aneel Ahmad
in England, have been influenced by his film craft. Across the spectrum, filmmakers such as Budhdhadeb Dasgupta, Mrinal Sen[86] and Adoor Gopalakrishnan have acknowledged his seminal contribution to Indian cinema. Beyond India, filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese,[87][88] Francis Ford Coppola, George Lucas,[89] James Ivory,[90] Abbas Kiarostami, Elia Kazan, William Wyler,[91] François Truffaut,[92] Carlos Saura,[93] Isao Takahata,[94] Wes Anderson,[95] Danny Boyle[96] Christopher Nolan[79] and many other noted filmmakers from all over the world have been influenced by his cinematic style, with many others such as Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
praising his work.[70] Gregory Nava's 1995 film My Family had a final scene that repeated that of Apur Sansar. Ira Sachs's 2005 work Forty Shades of Blue was a loose remake of Charulata. Other references to Ray films are found, for example, in recent works such as Sacred Evil,[97] the Elements trilogy of Deepa Mehta.[98] According to Michael Sragow of The Atlantic Monthly, the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".[99] The trilogy also introduced the bounce lighting technique.[100] Kanchenjungha (1962) introduced a narrative structure that resembles later hyperlink cinema.[101] Pratidwandi (1972) helped pioneer photo-negative flashback and X-ray digression techniques.[102] Together with Madhabi Mukherjee, Ray was the first Indian film figure to be featured on a foreign stamp (Dominica). Iranian master filmmaker, Majid Majidi
Majid Majidi
has expressed his deep admiration to Satyajit Ray. While discussing the inspirations for making his first feature film on India
India
Beyond the Clouds (2017 film), which is a foreign land and culture for the director; Majidi expressed, "I have learned a lot about India
India
based on the works of remarkable Indian director Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
so it was my dream to make a film in his land. His view point is very valuable to me and I love whatever he has done, so one of the main reasons behind making this film is my admiration for Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
and his work".[103] Many literary works include references to Ray or his work, including Saul Bellow's Herzog and J. M. Coetzee's Youth. Salman Rushdie's Haroun and the Sea of Stories
Haroun and the Sea of Stories
contains fish characters named Goopy and Bagha, a tribute to Ray's fantasy film. In 1993, UC Santa Cruz established the Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Study collection, and in 1995, the Government of India
Government of India
set up Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Television Institute for studies related to film. In 2007, the BBC declared that two Feluda
Feluda
stories would be made into radio programs.[104] During the London Film Festival, a regular " Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Award" is given to a first-time feature director whose film best captures "the artistry, compassion and humanity of Ray's vision". Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
has claimed Ray as an influence on his work; his 2007 film, The Darjeeling Limited, set in India, is dedicated to Ray. Ray also a graphic designer, designed most of his film posters, combining folk-art and calligraphy to create themes ranging from mysterious, surreal to comical; an exhibition his posters was held at British Film Institute in 2013.[105] In 2016, during the shooting of the film Double Feluda, Satyajit's only son, Sandip Ray, filmed his father's famous library.[106]

Preservation[edit] The Academy Film Archive preserved a number of Satyajit Ray's films, Abhijan
Abhijan
in 2001, Aparajito
Aparajito
in 1996, Apur Sansar
Apur Sansar
in 1996, Charulata
Charulata
in 1996, Devi
Devi
in 1996, Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
in 2003, Jalsaghar
Jalsaghar
in 1996, Jana Aranya in 1996, Joi Baba Felunath in 2007, Kapurush
Kapurush
in 2005, Mahanagar
Mahanagar
in 1996, Mahapurush
Mahapurush
in 2005, Nayak in 2004, Parash Pathar
Parash Pathar
in 2007, Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
in 1996, Seemabaddha in 2001, Shatranj ke Khilari in 2010, Sikkim in 2007, Teen Kanya
Teen Kanya
in 1996 . Other Satyajit Ray films preserved by the Academy include the short film Two in 2006.[107]

Awards, honours and recognitions[edit] Further information: List of awards and nominations received by Satyajit Ray Ray received many awards, including 32 National Film Awards by the Government of India, and awards at international film festivals. At the 11th Moscow International Film Festival in 1979, he was awarded with the Honorable Prize for the contribution to cinema.[108] At the Berlin International Film Festival, he was one of only four filmmakers to win the Silver Bear for Best Director more than once[109] and holds the record for the most number of Golden Bear nominations, with seven. At the Venice Film Festival, where he had previously won a Golden Lion
Golden Lion
for Aparajito
Aparajito
(1956), he was awarded the Golden Lion
Golden Lion
Honorary Award in 1982. That same year, he received an honorary "Hommage à Satyajit Ray" award at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival.[110] Ray is the second film personality after Chaplin to have been awarded an honorary doctorate by Oxford University.[111] He was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award
Dadasaheb Phalke Award
in 1985 and the Legion of Honor
Legion of Honor
by the President of France
President of France
in 1987.[112] The Government of India awarded him the Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
in 1965[113] and the highest civilian honour, Bharat Ratna, shortly before his death.[112] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
awarded Ray an Honorary Oscar in 1992 for Lifetime Achievement. It was one of his favourite actresses, Audrey Hepburn, who represented the Academy on that day in Calcutta. Ray, unable to attend the ceremony due to his illness, gave his acceptance speech to the Academy via live video feed from the hospital bed. In 1992 he was posthumously awarded the Akira Kurosawa Award for Lifetime Achievement in Directing at the San Francisco International Film Festival; it was accepted on his behalf by actress Sharmila Tagore.[114] Participants in a 2004 BBC poll voted him thirteenth of the "Greatest Bengali of all time".[115] In 1992, the Sight & Sound Critics' Top Ten Poll ranked Ray at No. 7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, making him the highest-ranking Asian filmmaker in the poll.[116] In 2002, the Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll ranked Ray at No. 22 in its list of all-time greatest directors,[117] thus making him the fourth highest-ranking Asian filmmaker in the poll.[117] In 1996, Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
magazine ranked Ray at No. 25 in its "50 Greatest Directors" list.[118] In 2007, Total Film magazine included Ray in its "100 Greatest Film Directors Ever" list.[119]

Ray family[edit]

 Upendrakishore Ray Chowdhury Bidhumukhi                                                                                Sukumar Ray Suprabha Ray  Sukhalata Rao Subinoy Ray Subimal Ray Punyalata Chakrabarti Shantilata                           The Satyajit Ray Bijoya Ray                                Sandip Ray Lalita Ray                                  Souradip Ray      

Filmography[edit] Main article: Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
filmography See also[edit]

Children's literature portal Cinema of West Bengal Parallel Cinema Feluda Feluda
Feluda
in film Professor Shonku Tarini khuro Tarini Khuro
Tarini Khuro
in other media Literary works of Satyajit Ray Sandip Ray Culture of Bengal Culture of West Bengal Bengali literature History of Bengali literature List of Bengali-language authors (chronological) Kolkata culture Notes[edit]

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^ Seton 1971, p. 36

^ Ames, Roger and Kasulis, Thomas (1998). Self as Image in Asian Theory and Practice. State University of New York press. p. 308. Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
was born into a well known family of littérateurs and social reformers in 1921. Since the sixteenth century, the Rays had an east bengali connection through their landed estates in Mymensingh, now in Bangladesh. Unlike a majority of Bengali Kayastha who are Shaktos, the Rays were Vaisnvas.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

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Satyajit Ray
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Calcutta
the next year at a traditional religious ceremony."

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Satyajit Ray
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UC Santa Cruz
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Satyajit Ray
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^ "Greatest Film Directors and Their Best Films". Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2009.

^ "The Greatest Directors Ever by Total Film Magazine". Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2009.

References[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Biswas, M, ed. (2006). Apu and after: Revisiting Ray's cinema. Seagull Books. ISBN 978-1-905422-25-8. Cooper, D (2000). The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62980-5. Dasgupta, C (1996). The cinema of Satyajit Ray. Penguin India. ISBN 978-0-14-024780-0. Ganguly, S (2001). Satyajit Ray: In search of the modern. Indialog. ISBN 978-81-87981-04-6. Y, Ishaghpour (2002). Satyajit Ray, l'Orient et l'Occident. Volume 24 of Les essais. Différence. ISBN 978-2-7291-1401-5. Mitra, S (1983). "The Genius of Satyajit Ray". India
India
Today. Nandy, A (1995). "Satyajit Ray's Secret Guide to Exquisite Murders". The Savage Freud and Other Essays on Possible and Retrievable Selves. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04410-1. Nyce, B (1988). Satyajit Ray: A Study of His Films. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-92666-3. Ray, S (1993). Our films, their films (3 ed.). Asia Book Corp of Amer. ISBN 978-0-86311-317-8. Ray, S (1994). My Years with Apu. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-86215-3. Ray, S (2005). Speaking of films. Penguin India. ISBN 978-0-14-400026-5. Robinson, A (2003). Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: The Biography of a Master Film-Maker. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-965-3. Robinson (2005). Satyajit Ray: A Vision of Cinema. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-074-1. Rushdie, S (1992). Imaginary Homelands. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-014036-1. Santas, Constantin (2002). Responding to film: A Text Guide for Students of Cinema Art. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8304-1580-9. Seton, Marie (1971). Satyajit Ray: Portrait of a director. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-16815-3. Wood, R (1972). The Apu trilogy. November Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85631-003-4.

External links[edit]

Satyajit Rayat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Works by or about Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
at Internet Archive Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Foundation SatyajitRay.org Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Study Center: University of California – Santa Cruz Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Society Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
on IMDb "Satyajit Ray: A Vision of Cinema". Archived from the original on 4 January 2006. article by W. Andrew Robinson Extensive analyses of Ray's films at Let's talk about Bollywood vteSatyajit Ray Filmography Literary works Awards for Satyajit Ray Films directedThe Apu Trilogy Pather Panchali
Pather Panchali
(1955) Aparajito
Aparajito
(1956) The World of Apu
The World of Apu
(1959) Calcutta
Calcutta
trilogy Pratidwandi (1970) Seemabaddha (1971) Jana Aranya (1976) Goopy & Bagha series Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne
(1969) Hirak Rajar Deshe
Hirak Rajar Deshe
(1980) Feluda
Feluda
series Sonar Kella
Sonar Kella
(1974) Joi Baba Felunath (1978) Documentaries Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
(1961) Two (1964) Sikkim (1971) The Inner Eye
The Inner Eye
(1972) Bala (1976) Pikoo
Pikoo
(1980) Sukumar Ray
Sukumar Ray
(1987) Other films Parash Pathar
Parash Pathar
(1958) Jalsaghar
Jalsaghar
(1958) Devi
Devi
(1960) Teen Kanya
Teen Kanya
(1961) Kanchenjungha (1962) Abhijan
Abhijan
(1962) Mahanagar
Mahanagar
(1963) Charulata
Charulata
(1964) Kapurush
Kapurush
(1965) Mahapurush
Mahapurush
(1965) Nayak (1966) Chiriyakhana
Chiriyakhana
(1967) Aranyer Din Ratri
Aranyer Din Ratri
(1970) Distant Thunder (1973) The Chess
Chess
Players (1977) Sadgati (1981) Ghare Baire
Ghare Baire
(1984) Ganashatru
Ganashatru
(1989) Shakha Proshakha
Shakha Proshakha
(1990) Agantuk (1991) Films writtenGoopy & Bagha series Goopy Bagha Phire Elo (1991) Goopi Gawaiya Bagha Bajaiya
Goopi Gawaiya Bagha Bajaiya
(2014) Feluda
Feluda
films Baksho Rahashya (1996) Baksho Rahashya (2001) Bombaiyer Bombete (2003) Kailashey Kelenkari (2007) Tintorettor Jishu (2008) Gorosthaney Sabdhan (2010) Royal Bengal
Bengal
Rahashya (2011) Badshahi Angti (2014) Tarini Khuro
Tarini Khuro
films Jekhane Bhooter Bhoy
Jekhane Bhooter Bhoy
(2012) Other films The Alien (unproduced) Target (1995) Bombay Talkies (2013) Chaar (2014) Anukul
Anukul
(2017) Literature on cinema Our Films, Their Films Bishoy Chalachchitra Ekei Bole Shooting Related articles Feluda Professor Shonku Tarini Khuro Sandesh magazine Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Television Institute

vte Feluda
Feluda
by Satyajit RayNovels Badshahi Angti (1969) Gangtokey Gondogol (1971) Sonar Kella
Sonar Kella
(1971) Baksho Rahashya (1972) Kailash e Kelenkari (1974) Royal Bengal
Bengal
Rahashya (1974) Gosainpur Sargaram (1976) Chhinnamastar Abhishap (1978) Hatyapuri (1979) Tintorettor Jishu (1983) Robertsoner Ruby
Robertsoner Ruby
(1992) Short stories "Feluda'r Goendagiri" (1965-66) "Ghurghutiyar Ghatona" (1975) "Golokdham Rahasya" (1980) "Jahangirer Swarnamudra" (1983) "Bhuswargo Bhayankar" (1987) "Golapi Mukta Rahasya" "London e Feluda" (1989) Films Sonar Kella
Sonar Kella
(1974) Joy Baba Felunath (1979) Baksho Rahashya (1996) Baksho Rahashya (2001) Bombaiyer Bombete (2003) Kailashey Kelenkari (2007) Tintorettor Jishu (2008) Gorosthaney Sabdhan (2010) Royal Bengal
Bengal
Rahashya (2011) Badshahi Angti (2014) Characters Lalmohan Ganguly

vteRay family1st generation Upendrakishore Ray
Upendrakishore Ray
Chowdhury Hemendra Mohan Bose# 2nd generation Sukumar Ray Shukhalata Rao Nitin Bose Malati Ghoshal Leela Majumdar 3rd generation Satyajit Ray Bijoya Ray# 4th generation Sandip Ray # These persons were married into the family. vte Dwarkanath Ganguly
Dwarkanath Ganguly
familyPersons in blue were born into the family. Persons in magenta were married into the family.1st generation Dwarkanath Ganguly Kadambini Ganguly 2nd generation Upendrakishore Ray 3rd generation Sukumar Ray Shukhalata Rao 4th generation Satyajit Ray Bijoya Ray 5th generation Sandip Ray

vteCinema of West BengalHistory Billwamangal Dena Paona Dhirendra Nath Ganguly Hiralal Sen Kanon Bala J.F. Madan Madan Theatres Minerva Theatres New Theatres Pramathesh Barua Royal Bioscope Star Theatres more Bengali cinema 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Directors Debaki Bose Nitin Bose Buddhadev Dasgupta Ritwik Ghatak Gautam Ghose Rituparno Ghosh Morshedul Islam Tarun Majumdar Tareque Masud Hrishikesh Mukherjee Satyajit Ray Bimal Roy Aparna Sen Hiralal Sen Mrinal Sen Tapan Sinha Srijit Mukherji Goutam Ghosh more Actors George Baker Victor Bannerjee Pramathesh Barua Chhabi Biswas Bobita Mithun Chakraborty Prasenjit Chatterjee Sabitri Chatterjee Soumitra Chatterjee Supriya Devi Rabi Ghosh Uttam Kumar Madhabi Mukherjee Abdur Razzak Suchitra Sen Sharmila Tagore more Music directors Raichand Boral Rahul Dev Burman S.D. Burman Salil Chowdhury Jeet Ganguly Bappi Lahiri Neeta Sen Singers Abhijeet Bhattacharya Zubeen Garg Kishore Kumar Samidh Mukerjee Kumar Sanu Shaan Arijit Singh Alka Yagnik Films By year (A–Z) 36 Chowringhee Lane Bankubabur Bandhu Apu Trilogy Bari Theke Paliye Billwamangal The Bong Connection Bow Barracks Forever Calcutta
Calcutta
trilogy Charulata Chokher Bali Deep Jwele Jaai Dena Paona Feluda
Feluda
series Ganga Ghare Baire Hansuli Banker Upokotha Harano Sur Hemlock Society Herbert It Was Raining That Night Jibon Theke Neya Jole Jongole The Last Lear Matir Moina Meghe Dhaka Tara Mukh O Mukhosh Neel Akasher Neechey Saptapadi Shadows of Time Tahader Katha Titash Ekti Nadir Naam Titli Tolly Lights Unishe April more Fictional charactersin Bengali cinema Diego Alvarez Nilkantha Bagchi Byomkesh Bakshi Lalmohan Ganguly Chandramukhi Shankar Roy Chowdhury Devdas Feluda Kakababu Tarini Khuro

vte Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943Famine Famine Famine
Famine
in India Great Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1770 Bihar famine of 1873–74 Indian famines during British rule Issues British Raj Demand-pull inflation Economy of India
India
under the British Raj Governor of Bengal Indian independence movement Quit India
India
Movement Japanese conquest of Burma People Winston Churchill Churchill war ministry Mahatma Gandhi Victor Hope (Governor-General of India) Frederick Lindemann Archibald Wavell (Commander-in-Chief of the British Indian Army) Artists, photographers Zainul Abedin Chittaprosad Bhattacharya Sunil Janah Directors, writers Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay Freda Bedi Bhabani Bhattacharya Sugata Bose Thomas Keneally Madhusree Mukerjee Cormac Ó Gráda Satyajit Ray Amartya Sen Mrinal Sen Ian Stephens The Statesman Media Nabanna (1944) Distant Thunder (1973) Akaler Shandhaney (1980) Churchill's Secret War (2010)

Awards for Satyajit Ray vteSilver Bear for Best Director Robert Aldrich (1956) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1957) Tadashi Imai (1958) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1959) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1960) Bernhard Wicki (1961) Francesco Rosi
Francesco Rosi
(1962) Nikos Koundouros (1963) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1964) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1965) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1966) Živojin Pavlović (1967) Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(1968) Jean-Pierre Blanc
Jean-Pierre Blanc
(1972) Sergei Solovyov (1975) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1976) Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón
(1977) Georgi Djulgerov (1978) Astrid Henning-Jensen (1979) István Szabó
István Szabó
(1980) Mario Monicelli
Mario Monicelli
(1982) Éric Rohmer
Éric Rohmer
(1983) Costas Ferris / Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1984) Robert Benton (1985) Georgiy Shengelaya (1986) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1987) Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(1988) Dušan Hanák (1989) Michael Verhoeven
Michael Verhoeven
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
/ Ricky Tognazzi
Ricky Tognazzi
(1991) Jan Troell
Jan Troell
(1992) Andrew Birkin (1993) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(1995) Yim Ho / Richard Loncraine (1996) Eric Heumann (1997) Neil Jordan
Neil Jordan
(1998) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(1999) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(2000) Lin Cheng-sheng (2001) Otar Iosseliani
Otar Iosseliani
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Kim Ki-duk
Kim Ki-duk
(2004) Marc Rothemund
Marc Rothemund
(2005) Michael Winterbottom
Michael Winterbottom
/ Mat Whitecross (2006) Joseph Cedar (2007) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2008) Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(2009) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2010) Ulrich Köhler (2011) Christian Petzold (2012) David Gordon Green
David Gordon Green
(2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Radu Jude / Małgorzata Szumowska
Małgorzata Szumowska
(2015) Mia Hansen-Løve
Mia Hansen-Løve
(2016) Aki Kaurismäki
Aki Kaurismäki
(2017) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(2018) Angela Schanelec
Angela Schanelec
(2019)

vteAcademy Honorary Award1928–1950 Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950) 1951–1975 Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975) 1976–2000 Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000) 2001–present Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017) Marvin Levy / Lalo Schifrin
Lalo Schifrin
/ Cicely Tyson
Cicely Tyson
(2018) David Lynch
David Lynch
/ Wes Studi
Wes Studi
/ Lina Wertmüller
Lina Wertmüller
(2019)

vteBFI Fellowship recipients Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
/ David Lean
David Lean
/ Michael Powell
Michael Powell
/ Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
/ Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1983) Sidney Bernstein (1984) John Brabourne / Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1985) Jeremy Isaacs / Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
/ Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
/ Dilys Powell
Dilys Powell
(1986) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
/ Bette Davis
Bette Davis
/ Elem Klimov (1987) Graham Greene
Graham Greene
/ Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
/ Anthony Smith (1988) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
/ Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
/ David Francis (1989) Derek Jarman
Derek Jarman
/ Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
/ Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
/ Fred Zinnemann (1990) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
/ Leslie Hardcastle (1991) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
/ Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1992) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
/ Denis Forman / Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(1993) Nicolas Roeg
Nicolas Roeg
/ Jean Simmons
Jean Simmons
(1994) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
/ John Mills
John Mills
/ Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
/ Robert Wise (1995) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
/ Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(1996) Michael Parkinson / Lynda La Plante / Verity Lambert
Verity Lambert
/ David Puttnam
David Puttnam
/ Sydney Samuelson / Thelma Schoonmaker
Thelma Schoonmaker
/ Alan Yentob
Alan Yentob
(1997) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
/ Jeremy Thomas
Jeremy Thomas
(1998) John Paul Getty Jr.
John Paul Getty Jr.
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
/ Lewis Gilbert (2001) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Bob Weinstein (2002) Abbas Kiarostami
Abbas Kiarostami
/ Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
/ Ousmane Sembène (2005) Terence Davies (2007) Souleymane Cissé
Souleymane Cissé
/ John Hurt
John Hurt
/ Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2009) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
/ David Rose (2010) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
/ Judi Dench
Judi Dench
/ Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
/ David Cronenberg (2011) Bryan Forbes
Bryan Forbes
/ Helena Bonham Carter
Helena Bonham Carter
/ Tim Burton
Tim Burton
/ Richard Lester (2012) Philip French
Philip French
/ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
/ John Boorman
John Boorman
(2013) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
/ Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2014) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
/ Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
(2015) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
/ Greg Dyke
Greg Dyke
/ Steve McQueen (2016) Peter Morgan / Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2017) Olivia Colman
Olivia Colman
(2019)

vte Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
laureates1954–1960 C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve
(1958) 1961–1980 Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1980) 1981–2000 Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999) 2001–2019 Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(2015) Nanaji Deshmukh, Bhupen Hazarika, and Pranab Mukherjee
Pranab Mukherjee
(2019)

vteDadasaheb Phalke Award1969–1980 Devika Rani
Devika Rani
Chaudhuri Roerich (1969) B. N. Sircar (1970) Prithviraj Kapoor
Prithviraj Kapoor
(1971) Pankaj Mullick
Pankaj Mullick
(1972) Ruby Myers
Ruby Myers
(1973) Bommireddy Narasimha Reddy
Bommireddy Narasimha Reddy
(1974) Dhirendranath Ganguly (1975) Kanan Devi
Devi
(1976) Nitin Bose (1977) Rai Chand Boral (1978) Sohrab Modi
Sohrab Modi
(1979) Paidi Jairaj
Paidi Jairaj
(1980) 1981–2000 Naushad
Naushad
(1981) L. V. Prasad
L. V. Prasad
(1982) Durga Khote
Durga Khote
(1983) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1984) V. Shantaram
V. Shantaram
(1985) B. Nagi Reddy
B. Nagi Reddy
(1986) Raj Kapoor
Raj Kapoor
(1987) Ashok Kumar
Ashok Kumar
(1988) Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
(1989) Akkineni Nageswara Rao
Akkineni Nageswara Rao
(1990) Bhalji Pendharkar (1991) Bhupen Hazarika
Bhupen Hazarika
(1992) Majrooh Sultanpuri (1993) Dilip Kumar
Dilip Kumar
(1994) Rajkumar (1995) Sivaji Ganesan
Sivaji Ganesan
(1996) Pradeep (1997) B. R. Chopra (1998) Hrishikesh Mukherjee (1999) Asha Bhosle
Asha Bhosle
(2000) 2001–present Yash Chopra
Yash Chopra
(2001) Dev Anand
Dev Anand
(2002) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(2003) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(2004) Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
(2005) Tapan Sinha (2006) Manna Dey
Manna Dey
(2007) V. K. Murthy
V. K. Murthy
(2008) D. Ramanaidu
D. Ramanaidu
(2009) K. Balachander
K. Balachander
(2010) Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
(2011) Pran (2012) Gulzar
Gulzar
(2013) Shashi Kapoor
Shashi Kapoor
(2014) Manoj Kumar
Manoj Kumar
(2015) Kasinathuni Viswanath
Kasinathuni Viswanath
(2016) Vinod Khanna
Vinod Khanna
(2017)

vteNational Film Award for Best Direction1967–1980 Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1967) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1968) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1969) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1970) Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad
and B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
(1971) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1972) Mani Kaul
Mani Kaul
(1973) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1974) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1975) P. Lankesh (1976) G. Aravindan (1977) G. Aravindan (1978) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1979) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1980) 1981–2000 Aparna Sen
Aparna Sen
(1981) Utpalendu Chakrabarty (1982) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1983) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1984) Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
(1985) G. Aravindan (1986) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1987) Shaji N. Karun
Shaji N. Karun
(1988) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1989) Tapan Sinha (1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Goutam Ghose
Goutam Ghose
(1992) T. V. Chandran
T. V. Chandran
(1993) Jahnu Barua
Jahnu Barua
(1994) Saeed Akhtar Mirza
Saeed Akhtar Mirza
(1995) Agathiyan
Agathiyan
(1996) Jayaraj (1997) Rajeevnath (1998) Buddhadeb Dasgupta (1999) Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno Ghosh
(2000) 2001–present B. Lenin
B. Lenin
(2001) Aparna Sen
Aparna Sen
(2002) Goutam Ghose
Goutam Ghose
(2003) Buddhadeb Dasgupta (2004) Rahul Dholakia
Rahul Dholakia
(2005) Madhur Bhandarkar
Madhur Bhandarkar
(2006) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(2007) Bala (2008) Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno Ghosh
(2009) Vetrimaaran
Vetrimaaran
(2010) Gurvinder Singh
Gurvinder Singh
(2011) Shivaji Lotan Patil (2012) Hansal Mehta (2013) Srijit Mukherji (2014) Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
(2015) Rajesh Mapuskar
Rajesh Mapuskar
(2016) Jayaraj (2017)

vteNational Film Award for Best Screenplay1967–1980 S. L. Puram Sadanandan (1967) Pandit Anand Kumar (1968) Puttanna Kanagal
Puttanna Kanagal
(1969) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1970) Tapan Sinha (1971) Gulzar
Gulzar
(1972) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
and Ashish Burman (1973) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1974) No Award (1975) Vijay Tendulkar
Vijay Tendulkar
(1976) Satyadev Dubey, Shyam Benegal, Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad
(1977) T. S. Ranga and T. S. Nagabharana
T. S. Nagabharana
(1978) Sai Paranjpye (1979) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1980) 1981–2000 K. Balachander
K. Balachander
(1981) Mrinal Sen
Mrinal Sen
(1982) G. V. Iyer
G. V. Iyer
(1983) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1984) Bhabendra Nath Saikia (1985) Budhdhadeb Dasgupta (1986) Adoor Gopalakrishnan
Adoor Gopalakrishnan
(1987) Arundhati Roy
Arundhati Roy
(1988) M. T. Vasudevan Nair (1989) K. S. Sethumadhavan (1990) M. T. Vasudevan Nair (1991) M. T. Vasudevan Nair (1992) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1993) M. T. Vasudevan Nair (1994) Saeed Akhtar Mirza
Saeed Akhtar Mirza
and Ashok Mishra (1995) Agathiyan
Agathiyan
(1996) Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno Ghosh
(1997) Ashok Mishra (1998) Madampu Kunjukuttan
Madampu Kunjukuttan
(1999) Bharathiraja (2000) 2001–present Neelakanta (2001) Aparna Sen
Aparna Sen
(2002) Goutam Ghose
Goutam Ghose
(2003) Manoj Tyagi and Nina Arora (2004) Prakash Jha, Manoj Tyagi and Shridhar Raghavan (2005) Abhijat Joshi, Rajkumar Hirani
Rajkumar Hirani
and Vidhu Vinod Chopra
Vidhu Vinod Chopra
(2006) Feroz Abbas Khan (2007) Sachin Kundalkar
Sachin Kundalkar
(2008) Original P. F. Mathews and Harikrishna (2009) Vetrimaaran
Vetrimaaran
(2010) Nitesh Tiwari, Vikas Bahl, and Vijay Maurya
Vijay Maurya
(2011) Sujoy Ghosh
Sujoy Ghosh
(2012) P. Sheshadri
P. Sheshadri
(2013) Srijit Mukherji (2014) Juhi Chaturvedi and Himanshu Sharma (2015) Syam Pushkaran
Syam Pushkaran
(2016) Sajeev Pazhoor
Sajeev Pazhoor
(2017) Adapted Gopal Krishan Pai and Girish Kasaravalli
Girish Kasaravalli
(2009) Anant Mahadevan
Anant Mahadevan
and Sanjay Pawar (2010) Avinash Deshpande Nigdi (2011) Bhavesh Mandalia and Umesh Shukla (2012) Panchakshari (2013) Joshy Mangalath
Joshy Mangalath
(2014) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(2015) Sanjay Krishnaji Patil (2016) Jayaraj (2017) Dialogues Pandiraj
Pandiraj
(2009) Sanjay Pawar (2010) Girish Kulkarni
Girish Kulkarni
(2011) Anjali Menon
Anjali Menon
(2012) Sumitra Bhave (2013) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(2014) Juhi Chaturvedi and Himanshu Sharma (2015) Tharun Bhascker Dhaassyam (2016) Sambit Mohanty (2017)

vteNational Film Award for Best Music Direction1967–1980 K. V. Mahadevan (1967) Kalyanji Anandji (1968) S. Mohinder (1969) Madan Mohan (1970) Jaidev (1971) S. D. Burman
S. D. Burman
(1972) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1973) Ananda Shankar (1974) Bhupen Hazarika
Bhupen Hazarika
(1975) B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
(1976) B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
(1977) Jaidev (1978) K. V. Mahadevan (1979) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1980) 1981–2000 Khayyam (1981) Ramesh Naidu (1982) Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
(1983) Jaidev (1984) Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
(1985) M. Balamuralikrishna
M. Balamuralikrishna
(1986) Vanraj Bhatia (1987) Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
(1988) Sher Chowdhary (1989) Hridaynath Mangeshkar
Hridaynath Mangeshkar
(1990) Rajat Dholakia (1991) A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(1992) Johnson (1993) Ravi and Johnson (1994) Hamsalekha
Hamsalekha
(1995) A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(1996) M. M. Keeravani
M. M. Keeravani
(1997) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(1998) Ismail Darbar
Ismail Darbar
(1999) Anu Malik
Anu Malik
(2000) 2001–2008 A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(2001) A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(2002) Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy
Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy
(2003) Vidyasagar (2004) Lalgudi Jayaraman
Lalgudi Jayaraman
(2005) Ashok Patki
Ashok Patki
(2006) Ouseppachan (2007) Ajay−Atul
Ajay−Atul
(2008) 2009- PresentSongs Amit Trivedi (2009) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(2010) Neel Dutt
Neel Dutt
(2011) Shailendra Barve (2012) Kabir Suman
Kabir Suman
(2013) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(2014) M. Jayachandran
M. Jayachandran
(2015) Bapu Padmanabha
Bapu Padmanabha
(2016) A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(2017) Background score Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
(2009) Isaac Thomas Kottukapally (2010) Mayookh Bhaumik (2011) Bijibal
Bijibal
(2012) Shantanu Moitra
Shantanu Moitra
(2013) Gopi Sundar
Gopi Sundar
(2014) Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
(2015) Bapu Padmanabha
Bapu Padmanabha
(2016) A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(2017)

vteNational Film Award – Special
Special
Jury Award (feature film)1978–1980  – (1978)  – (1979)  – (1980) 1981–2000 Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1981)  – (1982) Mankada Ravi Varma (1983) T. S. Ranga (1984) Sudha Chandran (1985) John Abraham (1986) M. B. Sreenivasan
M. B. Sreenivasan
(1987) Ashok Ahuja (1988) Amitabh Chakraborty (1989) Pankaj Kapur, Sunny Deol, and Jayabharathi
Jayabharathi
(1990) Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
(1991) Sivaji Ganesan
Sivaji Ganesan
and Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta
(1992) Shashi Kapoor
Shashi Kapoor
and Pallavi Joshi (1993) Radhu Karmakar and Shaji N. Karun
Shaji N. Karun
(1994) Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
(1995) Amol Palekar
Amol Palekar
and Kirron Kher
Kirron Kher
(1996) Jayamala (1997) Kitchhu Sanlap Kitchhu Pralap (1998) Kalabhavan Mani
Kalabhavan Mani
(1999) Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
(2000) 2001–present Janaki Vishwanathan (2001) Prakash Raj
Prakash Raj
(2002) Manoj Bajpayee
Manoj Bajpayee
and Bhalo Theko (2003) J. Phillip (2004) Anupam Kher
Anupam Kher
(2005) Vishal Bhardwaj
Vishal Bhardwaj
(2006) Gandhi, My Father
Gandhi, My Father
(2007) Bioscope (2008) A. Sreekar Prasad (2009) Mee Sindhutai Sapkal
Mee Sindhutai Sapkal
(2010) Anjan Dutt (2011) Rituparno Ghosh
Rituparno Ghosh
and Nawazuddin Siddiqui
Nawazuddin Siddiqui
(2012) Miss Lovely and Yellow (2013) Bhaurao Karhade (2014) Kalki Koechlin
Kalki Koechlin
(2015) Mohanlal
Mohanlal
(2016) Nagarkirtan (2017)

vteFilmfare Award for Best Director1954–1960 Bimal Roy (1954) Bimal Roy (1955) Bimal Roy (1956) V. Shantaram
V. Shantaram
(1957) Mehboob Khan
Mehboob Khan
(1958) Bimal Roy (1959) Bimal Roy (1960) 1961–1980 Bimal Roy (1961) B.R. Chopra (1962) Abrar Alvi (1963) Bimal Roy (1964) Raj Kapoor
Raj Kapoor
(1965) Yash Chopra
Yash Chopra
(1966) Vijay Anand (1967) Manoj Kumar
Manoj Kumar
(1968) Ramanand Sagar (1969) Yash Chopra
Yash Chopra
(1970) Asit Sen (1971) Raj Kapoor
Raj Kapoor
(1972) Sohanlal Kanwar (1973) Yash Chopra
Yash Chopra
(1974) Manoj Kumar
Manoj Kumar
(1975) Yash Chopra
Yash Chopra
(1976) Gulzar
Gulzar
(1977) Basu Chatterjee
Basu Chatterjee
(1978) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1979) Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
(1980) 1981–2000 Govind Nihalani
Govind Nihalani
(1981) Muzaffar Ali (1982) Raj Kapoor
Raj Kapoor
(1983) Govind Nihalani
Govind Nihalani
(1984) Sai Paranjpye (1985) Raj Kapoor
Raj Kapoor
(1986) Mansoor Khan
Mansoor Khan
(1989) Vidhu Vinod Chopra
Vidhu Vinod Chopra
(1990) Rajkumar Santoshi
Rajkumar Santoshi
(1991) Subhash Ghai
Subhash Ghai
(1992) Mukul S. Anand (1993) Shekhar Kapur
Shekhar Kapur
(1994) Sooraj Barjatya
Sooraj Barjatya
(1995) Aditya Chopra
Aditya Chopra
(1996) Rajkumar Santoshi
Rajkumar Santoshi
(1997) J. P. Dutta
J. P. Dutta
(1998) Karan Johar
Karan Johar
(1999) Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
(2000) 2001-present Rakesh Roshan
Rakesh Roshan
(2001) Ashutosh Gowariker
Ashutosh Gowariker
(2002) Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
(2003) Rakesh Roshan
Rakesh Roshan
(2004) Kunal Kohli
Kunal Kohli
(2005) Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
(2006) Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra (2007) Aamir Khan
Aamir Khan
(2008) Ashutosh Gowariker
Ashutosh Gowariker
(2009) Rajkumar Hirani
Rajkumar Hirani
(2010) Karan Johar
Karan Johar
(2011) Zoya Akhtar
Zoya Akhtar
(2012) Sujoy Ghosh
Sujoy Ghosh
(2013) Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra (2014) Vikas Bahl
Vikas Bahl
(2015) Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
(2016) Nitesh Tiwari
Nitesh Tiwari
(2017) Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari
Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari
(2018) Meghna Gulzar
Gulzar
(2019)

vte Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
award recipientsArts Ebrahim Alkazi Kishori Amonkar Amitabh Bachchan Teejan Bai M. Balamuralikrishna T. Balasaraswati Asha Bhosle Nandalal Bose Hariprasad Chaurasia Girija Devi Kumar Gandharva Adoor Gopalakrishnan Satish Gujral Gangubai Hangal Bhupen Hazarika M. F. Husain Ilaiyaraaja Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Bhimsen Joshi Ali Akbar Khan Amjad Ali Khan Allauddin Khan Bismillah Khan Ghulam Mustafa Khan Yamini Krishnamurthy Dilip Kumar R. K. Laxman Birju Maharaj Kishan Maharaj Lata Mangeshkar Sonal Mansingh Mallikarjun Mansur Zubin Mehta Mario Miranda Kelucharan Mohapatra Raghunath Mohapatra Jasraj
Jasraj
Motiram Benode Behari Mukherjee Hrishikesh Mukherjee Rajinikanth Ram Narayan D. K. Pattammal K. Shankar Pillai Balwant Moreshwar Purandare Akkineni Nageswara Rao Kaloji Narayana Rao Satyajit Ray S. H. Raza Zohra Sehgal Uday Shankar Ravi Shankar V. Shantaram Shivkumar Sharma Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman M. S. Subbulakshmi K. G. Subramanyan Kapila Vatsyayan Homai Vyarawalla K. J. Yesudas Civil Service Bimala Prasad Chaliha Naresh Chandra T. N. Chaturvedi Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri Suranjan Das Rajeshwar Dayal Basanti Devi P. N. Dhar Jyotindra Nath Dixit M. S. Gill Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim H. V. R. Iyengar Bhola Nath Jha Dattatraya Shridhar Joshi Ajudhiya Nath Khosla Rai Krishnadasa V. Krishnamurthy P. Prabhakar Kumaramangalam Pratap Chandra Lal K. B. Lall Sam Manekshaw Om Prakash Mehra Mohan Sinha Mehta M. G. K. Menon Brajesh Mishra Sumati Morarjee A. Ramasamy Mudaliar Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan Braj Kumar Nehru Bhairab Dutt Pande Ghananand Pande Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit T. V. Rajeswar C. R. Krishnaswamy Rao Pattadakal Venkanna R. Rao V. K. R. V. Rao Khusro Faramurz Rustamji Harish Chandra Sarin Binay Ranjan Sen Homi Sethna Arjan Singh Harbaksh Singh Kirpal Singh Manmohan Singh Tarlok Singh Lallan Prasad Singh Balaram Sivaraman Chandrika Prasad Srivastava T. Swaminathan Arun Shridhar Vaidya Dharma Vira Narinder Nath Vohra Literature and Education V. S. R. Arunachalam Jagdish Bhagwati Satyendra Nath Bose Tara Chand Suniti Kumar Chatterji D. P. Chattopadhyaya Bhabatosh Datta Avinash Dixit Mahasweta Devi John Kenneth Galbraith Sarvepalli Gopal Lakshman Shastri Joshi Kaka Kalelkar Dhondo Keshav Karve Gopinath Kaviraj Kuvempu O. N. V. Kurup Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Sitakant Mahapatra John Mathai Kotha Satchidananda Murthy Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri Bal Ram Nanda R. K. Narayan P. Parameswaran Amrita Pritam K. N. Raj C. Rangarajan Raja Rao Ramoji Rao Hormasji Maneckji Seervai Rajaram Shastri Kalu Lal Shrimali Govindbhai Shroff Khushwant Singh Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh Premlila Vithaldas Thackersey Mahadevi Varma Bashir Hussain Zaidi Medicine Jasbir Singh Bajaj B. K. Goyal Purshotam Lal A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar S. I. Padmavati Autar Singh Paintal Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti Balu Sankaran V. Shanta Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar Prakash Narain Tandon Brihaspati Dev Triguna M. S. Valiathan Other Sunderlal Bahuguna B. K. S. Iyengar Rambhadracharya Ravi Shankar Jaggi Vasudev Public Affairs L. K. Advani Montek Singh Ahluwalia Aruna Asaf Ali Fazal Ali Adarsh Sein Anand Madhav Shrihari Aney Parkash Singh Badal Sikander Bakht Milon K. Banerji Mirza Hameedullah Beg P. N. Bhagwati Raja Chelliah Chandra Kisan Daphtary Niren De C. D. Deshmukh Anthony Lancelot Dias Uma Shankar Dikshit Kazi Lhendup Dorjee P. B. Gajendragadkar Benjamin Gilman Ismaïl Omar Guelleh Zakir Husain V. R. Krishna Iyer Jagmohan Lakshmi Chand Jain Aditya Nath Jha Murli Manohar Joshi Mehdi Nawaz Jung Ali Yavar Jung Vijay Kelkar Hans Raj Khanna V. N. Khare Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai Jivraj Narayan Mehta V. K. Krishna Menon Hirendranath Mukherjee Ajoy Mukherjee Pranab Mukherjee Padmaja Naidu Gulzarilal Nanda Govind Narain Fali Sam Nariman Hosei Norota Nanabhoy Palkhivala K. Parasaran Hari Vinayak Pataskar Sunder Lal Patwa Sharad Pawar Naryana Raghvan Pillai Sri Prakasa N. G. Ranga Ravi Narayana Reddy Y. Venugopal Reddy Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq Lakshmi Sahgal P. A. Sangma M. C. Setalvad Karan Singh Nagendra Singh Swaran Singh Walter Sisulu Soli Sorabjee Kalyan Sundaram Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi Atal Bihari Vajpayee M. N. Venkatachaliah Kottayan Katankot Venugopal Jigme Dorji Wangchuck Science and Engineering V. K. Aatre Salim Ali Norman Borlaug Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Rajagopala Chidambaram Charles Correa Satish Dhawan Anil Kakodkar A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan Har Gobind Khorana Daulat Singh Kothari Verghese Kurien Raghunath Anant Mashelkar G. Madhavan Nair Roddam Narasimha Jayant Narlikar Rajendra K. Pachauri Benjamin Peary Pal Yash Pal I. G. Patel Venkatraman Ramakrishnan K. R. Ramanathan Raja Ramanna C. R. Rao C. N. R. Rao Palle Rama Rao Udupi Ramachandra Rao Vikram Sarabhai Man Mohan Sharma Obaid Siddiqi E. Sreedharan M. R. Srinivasan George Sudarshan M. S. Swaminathan Social Work Baba Amte Pandurang Shastri Athavale Janaki Devi
Devi
Bajaj Mirabehn Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Durgabai Deshmukh Nanaji Deshmukh Nirmala Deshpande Mohan Dharia U. N. Dhebar Valerian Gracias Veerendra Heggade Mary Clubwala Jadhav Gaganvihari Lallubhai Mehta Usha Mehta Sister Nirmala Nellie Sengupta Sports Viswanathan Anand Edmund Hillary Sachin Tendulkar Trade and Industry Dhirubhai Ambani Ghanshyam Das Birla Ashok Sekhar Ganguly Karim Al Hussaini Aga Khan Lakshmi Mittal Anil Manibhai Naik N. R. Narayana Murthy M. Narasimham Prithvi Raj Singh Oberoi Azim Premji Prathap C. Reddy J. R. D. Tata Ratan Tata

Portal Category WikiProject

vte Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
award recipients (1960–1969)1960 Haridas Siddhanta Bagish Rabindra Nath Chaudhuri Nilakantha Das Rajeshwar Shastri Dravid Kazi Nazrul Islam Hafiz Ali Khan Bal Krishna Sharma Naveen Ayyadevara Kaleswara Rao Acharya Shivpujan Sahay Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar 1961 Rustomji Bomanji Billimoria Seth Govind Das Verrier Elwin Niranjan Das Gulhati L. Venkatakrishna Iyer Rai Krishnadas Sumitranandan Pant Svetoslav Roerich Bhagwan Sahay Bindeshwari Prasad Verma K. Venkataraman Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia 1962 Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar Prem Chandra Dhanda Asaf Ali Asghar Fyzee Bade Ghulam Ali Khan Daulat Singh Kothari Mithan Jamshed Lam Sudhansu Sobhan Maitra Sisir Kumar Mitra Tarabai Modak Niaz Fatehpuri Jal Ratanji Patel Narayan Sitaram Phadke V. Raghavan Dukhan Ram T. S. Soundram Mahankali Seetharama Rao Moturi Satyanarayana Sitaram Seksaria Santosh Kumar Sen Tarlok Singh Raja Radhika Raman Sinha 1963 Makhanlal Chaturvedi Omeo Kumar Das Nitish Chandra Laharry Badri Nath Prasad Kanuri Lakshmana Rao Rahul Sankrityayan Ramanlal Gokaldas Saraiya T. R. Seshadri Sardar Harnarain Singh Ramkumar Verma 1964 Sheikh Abdullah Nuruddin Ahmed Rafiuddin Ahmed Jacob Chandy Kunji Lal Dubey Tushar Kanti Ghosh Dara Nusserwanji Khurody Anukul
Anukul
Chandra Mukherjee Jnanendra Nath Mukherjee Bhola Nath Mullik R. K. Narayan Chintaman Govind Pandit Tribhuvandas Kishibhai Patel Bal Gandharva T. N. Ramachandran Khushwant Lal Wig 1965 Joginder Singh Dhillon Bhalchandra Babaji Dikshit Narasinh Narayan Godbole Nawang Gombu Sonam Gyatso Kashmir Singh Katoch Akbar Ali Khan S. L. Kirloskar Mohan Singh Kohli Pratap Chandra Lal Mohammad Mujeeb Jayant Narlikar Ramaswamy Rajaram K. R. Ramanathan Satyajit Ray Triguna Sen Harbaksh Singh Vrindavan Lal Verma Manikya Lal Verma 1966 Babubhai Maneklal Chinai Puliyur Krishnaswamy Duraiswami Verghese Kurien Zubin Mehta K. P. Kesava Menon Mannathu Padmanabha Pillai K. Shankar Pillai Vikram Sarabhai Vinayak Sitaram Sarwate Homi Sethna Jodh Singh Haribhau Upadhyaya 1967 Mulk Raj Anand Tara Cherian Krishna Kanta Handique Akshay Kumar Jain Pupul Jayakar Ali Akbar Khan D. P. Kohli Ramanathan Krishnan C. K. Lakshmanan S. I. Padmavati D. C. Pavate Datto Vaman Potdar B. Shiva Rao Khwaja Ghulam Saiyidain Mihir Sen Ravi Shankar M. L. Vasanthakumari 1968 Acharya Vishva Bandhu Prabhu Lal Bhatnagar Mary Clubwala Jadhav K. Shivaram Karanth Bismillah Khan Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar Sam Manekshaw Mansukhlal Atmaram Master M. G. K. Menon Waman Bapuji Metre Gujarmal Modi Murugappa Channaveerappa Modi Benjamin Peary Pal Brahm Prakash Manikonda Chalapathi Rau C. R. Rao Radhanath Rath Mariadas Ruthnaswamy Firaq Gorakhpuri Shripad Damodar Satwalekar G. Sankara Kurup Periyasaamy Thooran Mamidipudi Venkatarangayya 1969 Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay Rahim-ud-in Khan Dagar Mohanlal
Mohanlal
Lallubhai Dantwala Keshavrao Krishnarao Datey Keshav Prasad Goenka Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer Vithalbhai Jhaveri Prithviraj Kapoor Kesarbai Kerkar Krishna Kripalani Adinath Lahiri Gobind Behari Lal Kasturbhai Lalbhai Lata Mangeshkar V. K. Narayana Menon Saghar Nizami Nanasaheb Parulekar Yashwant Dinkar Pendharkar Vitthal Laxman Phadke Raja Rao Niharranjan Ray Prafulla Kumar Sen Haroon Khan Sherwani Naval Tata S. S. Vasan # Posthumous conferral 1954–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–2019 vte Ramon Magsaysay Award winners of India Amitabha Chowdhury Anshu Gupta Aruna Roy Arun Shourie Arvind Kejriwal Baba Amte Banoo Jehangir Coyaji Bezwada Wilson Bharat Vatwani B. G. Verghese Chandi Prasad Bhatt C. D. Deshmukh Dara Nusserwanji Khurody Ela Bhatt Gour Kishore Ghosh Harish Hande Jockin Arputham James Michael Lyngdoh Jayaprakash Narayan Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Kiran Bedi Kulandei Francis K. V. Subbanna Lakshmi Chand Jain Laxminarayan Ramdas Mabelle Arole Mahasweta Devi Mahesh Chandra Mehta Manibhai Desai Mandakini Amte Mother Teresa M. S. Subbulakshmi M. S. Swaminathan Nileema Mishra Palagummi Sainath Pandurang Shastri Athavale Prakash Amte P. K. Sethi Rajendra Singh Ravi Shankar R. K. Laxman Rajanikant Arole Sanjiv Chaturvedi Satyajit Ray Sombhu Mitra Sandeep Pandey Shantha Sinha Sonam Wangchuk T. M. Krishna T. N. Seshan Tribhuvandas Kishibhai Patel V. Shanta Verghese Kurien Vinoba Bhave List of Ramon Magsaysay Award winners vteSangeet Natak Akademi fellows1954–1960 Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (1954) Karaikudi Sambasiva Iyer (1954) Prithviraj Kapoor
Prithviraj Kapoor
(1954) Anjanibai Malpekar
Anjanibai Malpekar
(1958) 1961–1980 Gopeshwar Banerjee (1962) D. Annaswami Bhagavathar (1962) Uday Shankar
Uday Shankar
(1962) Papanasam Sivan (1962) Swami Prajnanananda (1963) Shrikrishna Narayan Ratanjankar (1963) Pichu Sambamoorthi (1963) Mama Warerkar (1963) T. L. Venkatarama Aiyar (1964) C. Saraswathi Bai (1964) Birendra Kishore Roy Choudhury (1964) B. R. Deodhar (1964) V. Raghavan (1964) P. V. Rajamannar (1964) Vinayak Narayan Patwardhan (1965) Ganesh Hari Ranade (1965) Dilipkumar Roy (1965) Jaideva Singh (1965) D. G. Vyas (1965) Ashutosh Bhattacharya (1966) E. Krishna Iyer (1966) Sombhu Mitra
Sombhu Mitra
(1966) Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar
Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar
(1966) Ebrahim Alkazi
Ebrahim Alkazi
(1967) Rukmini Devi
Devi
Arundale (1967) Musiri Subramania Iyer
Musiri Subramania Iyer
(1967) Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
(1967) P. K. Kunju Kurup (1967) Shambhu Maharaj (1967) V. Satyanarayana Sarma
V. Satyanarayana Sarma
(1967) Adya Rangacharya 'Shriranga' (1967) Kali
Kali
Charan Patnaik (1968) K. C. D. Brahaspati (1970) Kapila Vatsyayan
Kapila Vatsyayan
(1970) Dilip Chandra Vedi (1970) Tarapada Chakraborty
Tarapada Chakraborty
(1972) Krishnarao Phulambrikar (1972) Rallapalli Ananta Krishna Sharma
Rallapalli Ananta Krishna Sharma
(1972) K. Shivaram Karanth
K. Shivaram Karanth
(1973) Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
(1974) Jnan Prakash Ghosh (1974) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
(1974) T. Balasaraswati
Balasaraswati
(1975) Zubin Mehta
Zubin Mehta
(1975) Rasiklal Chhotalal Parikh (1975) Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
(1975) Embar S. Vijayaraghavachariar (1975) Santidev Ghosh
Santidev Ghosh
(1976) Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer
Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer
(1976) Hirjibhai Rustomji Doctor (1977) Tinuvengadu Subramania Pillai (1978) B. Puttaswamayya (1978) P. L. Deshpande
P. L. Deshpande
(1979) D. T. Joshi (1979) Sumati Mutatkar (1979) T. P. Kuppiah Pillai (1979) V. K. Narayana Menon (1980) 1981–2000 Mani Madhava Chakyar
Mani Madhava Chakyar
(1982) Mallikarjun Mansur
Mallikarjun Mansur
(1982) M. Kirupanandawari (1984) Chandravadan Mehta (1984) Siyaram Tiwari (1984) V. V. Swarna Venkatesa Deekshithar (1986) Komal Kothari (1986) S. Ramanathan (1986) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1986) Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
(1989) Utpal Dutt
Utpal Dutt
(1990) Ram Gopal (1990) Alain Daniélou
Alain Daniélou
(1991) Kelucharan Mohapatra
Kelucharan Mohapatra
(1991) T. S. Parthasarathy (1991) Ali Akbar Khan
Ali Akbar Khan
(1992) D. K. Pattammal
D. K. Pattammal
(1992) Prem Lata Sharma (1992) Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad
(1993) Mrinalini Sarabhai (1993) Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(1994) Yehudi Menuhin
Yehudi Menuhin
(1994) Maheswar Neog (1994) Vilayat Khan
Vilayat Khan
(1995) Ammannur Madhava Chakyar
Ammannur Madhava Chakyar
(1996) Gangubai Hangal
Gangubai Hangal
(1996) Habib Tanvir
Habib Tanvir
(1996) Badal Sarkar
Badal Sarkar
(1997) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(1998) Birju Maharaj
Birju Maharaj
(1998) K. P. Kittappa Pillai (1998) Vijay Tendulkar
Vijay Tendulkar
(1998) 2001–present M. Balamuralikrishna
M. Balamuralikrishna
(2001) B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
(2001) Vempati Chinna Satyam
Vempati Chinna Satyam
(2001) Shanno Khurana (2002) Kavalam Narayana Panicker
Kavalam Narayana Panicker
(2002) Chandralekha (2004) Annapurna Devi
Devi
(2004) Bindhyabasini Devi
Devi
(2004) Ramankutty Nair
Ramankutty Nair
(2004) Zohra Sehgal
Zohra Sehgal
(2004) Tapas Sen (2004) Rohini Bhate (2006) T. N. Krishnan
T. N. Krishnan
(2006) Kishan Maharaj (2006) Gursharan Singh (2006) N. Khelchandra Singh (2006) Sushil Kumar Saxena (2007) Khaled Choudhury (2008) Sitara Devi
Devi
(2008) Bhupen Hazarika
Bhupen Hazarika
(2008) R. C. Mehta (2008) Kishori Amonkar
Kishori Amonkar
(2009) Jasraj
Jasraj
(2009) Lalgudi Jayaraman
Lalgudi Jayaraman
(2009) Yamini Krishnamurthy
Yamini Krishnamurthy
(2009) Shriram Lagoo (2009) Kamlesh Dutt Tripathi (2009) Girija Devi
Devi
(2010) T. K. Murthy (2010) Nataraja Ramakrishna (2010) M. Chandrasekaran
M. Chandrasekaran
(2011) Hariprasad Chaurasia
Hariprasad Chaurasia
(2011) Kalamandalam Gopi
Kalamandalam Gopi
(2011) Chandrashekhara Kambara
Chandrashekhara Kambara
(2011) Heisnam Kanhailal (2011) Mukund Lath (2011) Shivkumar Sharma
Shivkumar Sharma
(2011) Rajkumar Singhajit Singh
Rajkumar Singhajit Singh
(2011) Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman
Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman
(2011) Padma Subrahmanyam
Padma Subrahmanyam
(2011) N. Rajam (2012) Ratan Thiyam
Ratan Thiyam
(2012) T. H. Vinayakram
T. H. Vinayakram
(2012) Mahesh Elkunchwar (2013) Kanak Rele
Kanak Rele
(2013) R. Sathyanarayana (2013) Tulsidas Borkar
Tulsidas Borkar
(2014) S. R. Janakiraman (2014) Vijay Kumar Kichlu (2014) M. S. Sathyu
M. S. Sathyu
(2014) C. V. Chandrasekhar (2015)

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