Satanism is a group of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on
Satan. Contemporary religious practice of
Satanism began with the
founding of the Church of
Satan in 1966, although a few historical
precedents exist. Prior to the public practice,
Satanism existed primarily as an accusation by various Christian
groups toward perceived ideological opponents, rather than a
self-identity. Satanism, and the concept of Satan, has also been used
by artists and entertainers for symbolic expression.
Accusations that various groups have been practicing
been made throughout much of Christian history. During the Middle
Inquisition attached to the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church alleged
that various heretical Christian sects and groups, such as the Knights
Templar and the Cathars, performed secret Satanic rituals. In the
subsequent Early Modern period, belief in a widespread Satanic
conspiracy of witches resulted in mass trials of alleged witches
across Europe and the North American colonies. Accusations that
Satanic conspiracies were active and that they were behind events such
Protestantism (and conversely, the Protestant claim that the Pope
was the Antichrist) and the
French Revolution continued to be made in
Christendom during the eighteenth to the twentieth century. The idea
of a vast Satanic conspiracy reached new heights with the influential
Taxil hoax of France in the 1890s, which claimed that Freemasonry
worshiped Satan, Lucifer, and
Baphomet in their rituals. In the 1980s
and 1990s, the
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse hysteria spread through the United
States and United Kingdom, amid fears that groups of Satanists were
regularly sexually abusing and murdering children in their rites. In
most of these cases, there is no corroborating evidence that any of
those accused of
Satanism were actually practitioners of a Satanic
religion or guilty of the allegations levelled at them.
Since the 19th century, various small religious groups have emerged
that identify as Satanists or use Satanic iconography. Satanist groups
that appeared after the 1960s are widely diverse, but two major trends
Satanism and atheistic Satanism. Theistic Satanists
Satan as a supernatural deity, viewing him not as omnipotent
but rather as a patriarch. In contrast, atheistic Satanists regard
Satan as merely a symbol of certain human traits.
Satanism is predominantly an American
phenomenon, the ideas spreading elsewhere with the effects of
globalization and the Internet. The Internet spreads awareness of
other Satanists, and is also the main battleground for Satanist
Satanism started to reach
Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe in
the 1990s, in time with the fall of the Soviet Union, and most
Poland and Lithuania, predominantly Roman Catholic
2 Antagonism towards Satanism
2.1 Medieval and Early Modern Christendom
2.2 18th to 20th century Christendom
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse hysteria
3 Artistic Satanism
3.1 Literary Satanism
3.2 Rock music
4 Religious Satanism
4.1 Forerunners and early forms
4.2 Rationalistic Satanism
LaVeyan Satanism and the Church of Satan
4.2.2 First Satanic Church
4.2.3 The Satanic Temple
4.3 Theistic Satanism
4.3.2 Order of Nine Angles
4.3.3 Temple of Set
4.4 Reactive Satanism
4.6 Legal recognition
5 See also
7 External links
Saint Wolfgang and the Devil, by Michael Pacher.
In their study of Satanism, the religious studies scholars Asbjørn
Dyrendal, James R. Lewis, and Jesper Aa. Petersen stated that the term
Satanism "has a history of being a designation made by people against
those whom they dislike; it is a term used for 'othering'". The
Satanism is an invention of Christianity, for it relies
upon the figure of Satan, a character deriving from Christian
Elsewhere, Petersen noted that "
Satanism as something others do is
very different from
Satanism as a self-designation". Eugene
Gallagher noted that, as commonly used,
Satanism was usually "a
polemical, not a descriptive term".
The word "Satan" was not originally a proper name but rather an
ordinary noun meaning "the adversary"; in this context it appears at
several points in the Old Testament. For instance, in the Book of
David is presented as the satan ("adversary") of the
Philistines, while in the
Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers the term appears as a verb,
when God sent an angel to satan ("to oppose") Balaam. Prior to the
composition of the New Testament, the idea developed within Jewish
Satan was the name of an angel who had rebelled
against God and had been cast out of Heaven along with his followers;
this account would be incorporated into contemporary texts like the
Book of Enoch. This
Satan was then featured in parts of the New
Testament, where he was presented as a figure who tempted humans to
commit sin; in the
Book of Matthew
Book of Matthew and the Book of Luke, he attempted
Jesus of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth as the latter fasted in the wilderness.
The word "Satanism" was adopted into English from the French
satanisme. The terms "Satanism" and "Satanist" are first recorded
as appearing in the English and French languages during the sixteenth
century, when they were used by Christian groups to attack other,
rival Christian groups. In a Roman Catholic tract of 1565, the
author condemns the "heresies, blasphemies, and sathanismes [sic]" of
the Protestants. In an Anglican work of 1559,
other Protestant sects are condemned as "swarmes of Satanistes
[sic]". As used in this manner, the term "Satanism" was not used
to claim that people literally worshipped Satan, but rather presented
the view that through deviating from what the speaker or writer
regarded as the true variant of Christianity, they were regarded as
being essentially in league with the Devil. During the nineteenth
century, the term "Satanism" began to be used to describe those
considered to lead a broadly immoral lifestyle, and it was only in
the late nineteenth century that it came to be applied in English to
individuals who were believed to consciously and deliberately venerate
Satan. This latter meaning had appeared earlier in the Swedish
language; the Lutheran Bishop
Laurentius Paulinus Gothus
Laurentius Paulinus Gothus had described
devil-worshipping sorcerers as Sathanister in his Ethica Christiana,
produced between 1615 and 1630.
Antagonism towards Satanism
Historical and anthropological research suggests that nearly all
societies have developed the idea of a sinister and anti-human force
that can hide itself within society. This commonly involves a
belief in witches, a group of individuals who invert the norms of
their society and seek to harm their community, for instance by
engaging in incest, murder, and cannibalism. Allegations of
witchcraft may have different causes and serve different functions
within a society. For instance, they may serve to uphold social
norms, to heighten the tension in existing conflicts between
individuals, or to scapegoat certain individuals for various
Another contributing factor to the idea of
Satanism is the concept
that there is an agent of misfortune and evil who operates on a cosmic
scale, something usually associated with a strong form of ethical
dualism that divides the world clearly into forces of good and forces
of evil. The earliest such entity known is Angra Mainyu, a figure
that appears in the Persian religion of Zoroastrianism. This
concept was also embraced by
Judaism and early Christianity, and
although it was soon marginalised within Jewish thought, it gained
increasing importance within early Christian understandings of the
cosmos. While the early Christian idea of the
Devil was not well
developed, it gradually adapted and expanded through the creation of
folklore, art, theological treatises, and morality tales, thus
providing the character with a range of extra-Biblical
Medieval and Early Modern Christendom
Title illustration of
Johannes Praetorius (writer)
Johannes Praetorius (writer) Blocksbergs
Verrichtung (1668) showing many traditional features of the medieval
See also: European witchcraft, Maleficium (sorcery), and Witch-cult
Christianity expanded throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and
Europe, it came into contact with a variety of other religions, which
it regarded as "pagan". Christian theologians claimed that the gods
and goddesses venerated by these "pagans" were not genuine divinities,
but were actually demons. However, they did not believe that
"pagans" were deliberately devil-worshippers, instead claiming that
they were simply misguided. In Christian iconography, the Devil
and demons were given the physical traits of figures from Classical
mythology such as the god Pan, fauns, and satyrs.
Those Christian groups regarded as heretics by the Roman Catholic
Church were treated differently, with theologians arguing that they
were deliberately worshipping the Devil. This was accompanied by
claims that such individuals engaged in incestuous sexual orgies,
murdered infants, and committed acts of cannibalism, all stock
accusations that had previously been levelled at Christians themselves
in the Roman Empire. The first recorded example of such an
accusation being made within Western
Christianity took place in
Toulouse in 1022, when two clerics were tried for allegedly venerating
a demon. Throughout the middle ages, this accusation would be
applied to a wide range of Christian heretical groups, including the
Paulicians, Bogomils, Cathars, Waldensians, and the Hussites. The
Knights Templar were accused of worshipping an idol known as Baphomet,
Lucifer having appeared at their meetings in the form of a
cat. As well as these Christian groups, these claims were also
made about Europe's Jewish community. In the thirteenth century,
there were also references made to a group of "Luciferians" led by a
woman named Lucardis which hoped to see
Satan rule in Heaven.
References to this group continued into the fourteenth century,
although historians studying the allegations concur that these
Luciferians were likely a fictitious invention.
Within Christian thought, the idea developed that certain individuals
could make a pact with Satan. This may have emerged after
observing that pacts with gods and goddesses played a role in various
pre-Christian belief systems, or that such pacts were also made as
part of the Christian cult of saints. Another possibility is that
it derives from a misunderstanding of Augustine of Hippo's
condemnation of augury in his On the Christian Doctrine, written in
the late fourth century. Here, he stated that people who consulted
augurs were entering "quasi pacts" (covenants) with demons. The
idea of the diabolical pact made with demons was popularised across
Europe in the story of Faust, likely based in part on the real life
Johann Georg Faust.
The Obscene Kiss, an illustration of witches kissing the Devil's anus
from Francesco Maria Guazzo's
Compendium Maleficarum (1608).
As the late medieval gave way to the early modern period, European
Christendom experienced a schism between the established Roman
Catholic Church and the breakaway Protestant movement. In the ensuing
Reformation and Counter-Reformation, both Catholics and Protestants
accused each other of deliberately being in league with Satan. It
was in this context that the terms "Satanist" and "Satanism"
The early modern period also saw fear of Satanists reach its
"historical apogee" in the form of the witch trials of the fifteenth
to the eighteenth centuries. This came about as the accusations
which had been levelled at medieval heretics, among them that of
devil-worship, were applied to the pre-existing idea of the witch, or
practitioner of malevolent magic. The idea of a conspiracy of
Satanic witches was developed by educated elites, although the concept
of malevolent witchcraft was a widespread part of popular belief and
folkloric ideas about the night witch, the wild hunt, and the dance of
the fairies were incorporated into it. The earliest trials took
place in Northern Italy and France, before spreading it out to other
areas of Europe and to Britain's North American colonies, being
carried out by the legal authorities in both Catholic and Protestant
regions. Between 30,000 and 50,000 individuals were executed as
accused Satanic witches. Most historians agree that the majority
of those persecuted in these witch trials were innocent of any
Devil worship. However, in their summary of the
evidence for the trials, the historians Geoffrey Scarre and John
Callow thought it "without doubt" that some of those accused in the
trials had been guilty of employing magic in an attempt to harm their
enemies, and were thus genuinely guilty of witchcraft.
In seventeenth-century Sweden, a number of highway robbers and other
outlaws living in the forests informed judges that they venerated
Satan because he provided more practical assistance than God. The
historian of religion
Massimo Introvigne regarded these practices as
18th to 20th century Christendom
During the eighteenth century, gentleman's social clubs became
increasingly prominent in Britain and Ireland, among the most
secretive of which were the Hellfire Clubs, which were first reported
in the 1720s. The most famous of these groups was the Order of the
Knights of Saints Francis, which was founded circa 1750 by the
Sir Francis Dashwood
Sir Francis Dashwood and which assembled first at his
West Wycombe and later in Medmenham Abbey. A number of
contemporary press sources portrayed these as gatherings of atheist
Christianity was mocked and toasts were made to the
Devil. Beyond these sensationalist accounts, which may not be
accurate portrayals of actual events, little is known about the
activities of the Hellfire Clubs. Introvigne suggested that they
may have engaged in a form of "playful Satanism" in which
invoked "to show a daring contempt for conventional morality" by
individuals who neither believed in his literal existence nor wanted
to pay homage to him.
Stanislas de Guaita
Stanislas de Guaita drew the original goat pentagram, which first
appeared in the book "La Clef de la Magie Noire", in 1897. This symbol
would later become synonymous with Baphomet, and is commonly referred
to as the Sabbatic Goat.
French Revolution of 1789 dealt a blow to the hegemony of the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church in parts of Europe, and soon a number of
Catholic authors began making claims that it had been masterminded by
a conspiratorial group of Satanists. Among the first to do so was
French Catholic priest Jean-Baptiste Fiard, who publicly claimed that
a wide range of individuals, from the
Jacobins to tarot card readers,
were part of a Satanic conspiracy. Fiard's ideas were furthered by
Alexis-Vincent-Charles Berbiguier, who devoted a lengthy book to this
conspiracy theory; he claimed that Satanists had supernatural powers
allowing them to curse people and to shapeshift into both cats and
fleas. Although most of his contemporaries regarded Berbiguier as
mad, his ideas gained credence among many occultists, including
Stanislas de Guaita, a Cabalist who used them for the basis of his
book, The Temple of Satan.
In the early 20th century, the British novelist Dennis Wheatley
produced a range of influential novels in which his protagonists
battled Satanic groups. At the same time, non-fiction authors like
Montague Summers and Rollo Ahmed published books claiming that Satanic
groups practicing black magic were still active across the world,
although they provided no evidence that this was the case. During
the 1950s, various British tabloid newspapers repeated such claims,
largely basing their accounts on the allegations of one woman, Sarah
Jackson, who claimed to have been a member of such a group. In
1973, the British Christian Doreen Irvine published From
Christ, in which she claimed to have been a member of a Satanic group
that gave her supernatural powers, such as the ability to levitate,
before she escaped and embraced Christianity. In the United States
during the 1960s and 1970s, various Christian preachers—the most
Mike Warnke in his 1972 book The Satan-Seller—claimed
that they had been members of Satanic groups who carried out sex
rituals and animal sacrifices before discovering Christianity.
According to Gareth Medway in his historical examination of Satanism,
these stories were "a series of inventions by insecure people and hack
writers, each one based on a previous story, exaggerated a little more
Other publications made allegations of
Satanism against historical
figures. The 1970s saw the publication of the Romanian Protestant
preacher Richard Wurmbrand's book in which he argued—without
corroborating evidence—that the socio-political theorist Karl Marx
had been a Satanist.
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse hysteria
Main article: Satanic ritual abuse
At the end of the twentieth century, a moral panic developed around
claims regarding a Devil-worshipping cult that made use of sexual
abuse, murder, and cannibalism in its rituals, with children being
among its victims. Initially, the alleged perpetrators of such
crimes were labelled "witches", although the term "Satanist" was soon
adopted as a favoured alternative, and the phenomenon itself came
to be called "the
Satanism Scare". Promoters of the claims alleged
that there was a conspiracy of organised Satanists who occupied
prominent positions throughout society, from the police to
politicians, and that they had been powerful enough to cover up their
Preceded by some significant but isolated episodes in the 1970s, a
Satanism scare exploded in the 1980s in the
United States and
Canada and was subsequently exported towards England, Australia, and
other countries. It was unprecedented in history. It surpassed even
the results of Taxil's propaganda, and has been compared with the most
virulent periods of witch hunting. The scare started in 1980 and
declined slowly between 1990... and 1994, when official British and
American reports denied the real existence of ritual satanic crimes.
Particularly outside the U.S. and U.K., however, its consequences are
still felt today.
Sociologist of religion Massimo Introvigne, 2016
One of the primary sources for the scare was Michelle Remembers, a
1980 book by the Canadian psychiatrist
Lawrence Pazder in which he
detailed what he claimed were the repressed memories of his patient
(and wife) Michelle Smith. Smith had claimed that as a child she had
been abused by her family in Satanic rituals in which babies were
Satan himself appeared. In 1983, allegations were
made that the McMartin family—owners of a preschool in
California—were guilty of sexually abusing the children in their
care during Satanic rituals. The allegations resulted in a lengthy and
expensive trial, in which all of the accused would eventually be
cleared. The publicity generated by the case resulted in similar
allegations being made in various other parts of the United
A prominent aspect of the Satanic Scare was the claim by those in the
developing "anti-Satanism" movement that any child's claim about
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse must be true, because children would not lie.
Although some involved in the anti-
Satanism movement were from Jewish
and secular backgrounds, a central part was played by
fundamentalist and evangelical forms of Christianity, in particular
Pentecostalism, with Christian groups holding conferences and
producing books and videotapes to promote belief in the
conspiracy. Various figures in law enforcement also came to be
promoters of the conspiracy theory, with such "cult cops" holding
various conferences to promote it. The scare was later imported to
the United Kingdom through visiting evangelicals and became popular
among some of the country's social workers, resulting in a range
of accusations and trials across Britain.
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse hysteria died down between 1990 and 1994.
In the late 1980s, the Satanic Scare had lost its impetus following
increasing scepticism about such allegations, and a number of
those who had been convicted of perpetrating
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse saw
their convictions overturned. In 1990, an agent of the U.S.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Ken Lanning, revealed that he had
investigated 300 allegations of
Satanic ritual abuse
Satanic ritual abuse and found no
Satanism or ritualistic activity in any of them. In
the UK, the Department of Health commissioned the anthropologist Jean
La Fontaine to examine the allegations of SRA. She noted that
while approximately half did reveal evidence of genuine sexual abuse
of children, none revealed any evidence that Satanist groups had been
involved or that any murders had taken place. She noted three
examples in which lone individuals engaged in child molestation had
created a ritual performance to facilitate their sexual acts, with the
intent of frightening their victims and justifying their actions, but
that none of these child molestors were involved in wider Satanist
groups. By the 21st century, hysteria about
Satanism has waned in
most Western countries, although allegations of Satanic ritual abuse
continued to surface in parts of continental Europe and Latin
Satan in Paradise Lost, as illustrated by Gustave Doré
From the late seventeenth through to the nineteenth century, the
Satan was increasingly rendered unimportant in Western
philosophy and ignored in Christian theology, while in folklore he
came to be seen as a foolish rather than a menacing figure. The
development of new values in the Age of Enlightenment—in particular
those of reason and individualism—contributed to a shift in how many
Europeans viewed Satan. In this context, a number of individuals
Satan out of the traditional Christian narrative and "reread and
reinterpreted" him "in light of their own time and their own
interests", in turn generating "new and different portraits of
The shifting view of
Satan owes many of its origins to John Milton's
Paradise Lost (1667), in which
Satan features as the
protagonist. Milton was a Puritan and had never intended for his
Satan to be a sympathetic one. However, in portraying
Satan as a victim of his own pride who rebelled against God he
humanized him and also allowed him to be interpreted as a rebel
against tyranny. This was how Milton's
Satan was understood by
later readers like the publisher Joseph Johnson, and the anarchist
philosopher William Godwin, who reflected it in his 1793 book Enquiry
Concerning Political Justice.
Paradise Lost gained a wide
readership in the eighteenth century, both in Britain and in
continental Europe, where it had been translated into French by
Voltaire. Milton thus became "a central character in rewriting
Satanism" and would be viewed by many later religious Satanists as a
"de facto Satanist".
The nineteenth century saw the emergence of what has been termed
"literary Satanism" or "romantic Satanism". According to Van
Luijk, this cannot be seen as a "coherent movement with a single
voice, but rather as a post factum identified group of sometimes
widely divergent authors among whom a similar theme is found". For
the literary Satanists,
Satan was depicted as benevolent and sometimes
heroic figure, with these more sympathetic portrayals
proliferating in the art and poetry of many romanticist and decadent
figures. For these individuals,
Satanism was not a religious
belief or ritual activity, but rather a "strategic use of a symbol and
a character as part of artistic and political expression".
Among the romanticist poets to adopt this view of
Satan was the
English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, who had been influenced by
Milton. In his poem Laon and Cythna, Shelley praised the
"Serpent", a reference to Satan, as a force for good in the
universe. Another was Shelley's fellow British poet Lord Byron,
who included Satanic themes in his 1821 play Cain, which was a
dramatization of the Biblical story of Cain and Abel. These more
positive portrayals also developed in France; one example was the 1823
work Eloa by Alfred de Vigny.
Satan was also adopted by the French
poet Victor Hugo, who made the character's fall from Heaven a central
aspect of his La Fin de Satan, in which he outlined his own
cosmogony. Although the likes of Shelley and Byron promoted a
positive image of
Satan in their work, there is no evidence that any
of them performed religious rites to venerate him, and thus it is
problematic to regard them as religious Satanists.
Radical left-wing political ideas had been spread by the American
Revolution of 1765–83 and the
French Revolution of 1789–99, and
the figure of Satan, who was interpreted as having rebelled against
the tyranny imposed by God, was an appealing one for many of the
radical leftists of the period. For them,
Satan was "a symbol for
the struggle against tyranny, injustice, and oppression... a mythical
figure of rebellion for an age of revolutions, a larger-than-life
individual for an age of individualism, a free thinker in an age
struggling for free thought". The French anarchist Pierre-Joseph
Proudhon, who was a staunch critic of Christianity, embraced
a symbol of liberty in several of his writings. Another prominent
19th century anarchist, the Russian Mikhail Bakunin, similarly
described the figure of
Satan as "the eternal rebel, the first
freethinker and the emancipator of worlds" in his book God and the
State. These ideas likely inspired the American feminist activist
Moses Harman to name his anarchist periodical
Lightbearer. The idea of this "Leftist Satan" declined during the
twentieth century, although it was used on occasion by authorities
within the Soviet Union, who portrayed
Satan as a symbol of freedom
During the 1960s and 1970s, several rock bands—namely the American
Coven and the British Black Widow—employed the imagery of Satanism
and witchcraft in their work. References to
Satan also appeared
in the work of those rock bands which were pioneering the heavy metal
genre in Britain during the 1970s.
Black Sabbath for instance
made mention of
Satan in their lyrics, although several of the band's
members were practicing Christians and other lyrics affirmed the power
of the Christian God over Satan. In the 1980s, greater use of
Satanic imagery was made by heavy metal bands like Slayer, Kreator,
Sodom, and Destruction. Bands active in the subgenre of death
metal—among them Deicide, Morbid Angel, and Entombed—also adopted
Satanic imagery, combining it with other morbid and dark imagery, such
as that of zombies and serial killers.
Heavy metal singer
King Diamond is a member of the Church of Satan
Satanism would come to be more closely associated with the subgenre of
black metal, in which it was foregrounded over the other themes
that had been used in death metal. A number of black metal
performers incorporated self-injury into their act, framing this as a
manifestation of Satanic devotion. The first black metal band,
Venom, proclaimed themselves to be Satanists, although this was more
an act of provocation than an expression of genuine devotion to the
Devil. Satanic themes were also used by the black metal bands
Bathory and Hellhammer. However, the first black metal act to
more seriously adopt
Satanism was Mercyful Fate, whose vocalist, King
Diamond, joined the Church of Satan. More often than not
musicians associating themselves with black metal say they do not
believe in legitimate Satanic ideology and often profess to being
atheists, agnostics, or religious skeptics.
In contrast to King Diamond, various black metal Satanists sought to
distance themselves from LaVeyan Satanism, for instance by referring
to their beliefs as "devil worship". These individuals regarded
Satan as a literal entity, and in contrast to LaVey's views, they
Satanism with criminality, suicide, and terror. For
Christianity was regarded as a plague which required
eradication. Many of these individuals—such as Varg Vikernes
and Euronymous—were Norwegian, and influenced by the strong
anti-Christian views of this milieu, between 1992 and 1996 around
fifty Norwegian churches were destroyed in arson attacks. Within
the black metal scene, a number of musicians later replaced Satanic
themes with those deriving from Heathenry, a form of modern
See also: Contemporary Religious Satanism
Rather than being one single form of religious Satanism, there are
instead multiple different religious Satanisms, each with different
ideas about what being a Satanist entails. The historian of
religion Ruben van Luijk used a "working definition" in which Satanism
was regarded as "the intentional, religiously motivated veneration of
Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen believed that it was not a single
movement, but rather a milieu. They and others have nevertheless
referred to it as a new religious movement. They believed that
there was a family resemblance that united all of the varying groups
in this milieu, and that most of them were self religions.
They argued that there were a set of features that were common to the
groups in this Satanic milieu: these were the positive use of the term
"Satanist" as a designation, an emphasis on individualism, a genealogy
that connects them to other Satanic groups, a transgressive and
antinomian stance, a self-perception as an elite, and an embrace of
values such as pride, self-reliance, and productive
Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen argued that the groups within the
Satanic milieu could be divided into three groups: reactive Satanists,
rationalist Satanists, and esoteric Satanists. They saw reactive
Satanism as encompassing "popular Satanism, inverted Christianity, and
symbolic rebellion" and noted that it situates itself in opposition to
society while at the same time conforming to society's perspective of
Satanism is used to describe the trend in the
Satanic milieu which is atheistic, sceptical, materialistic, and
Satanism instead applied to those forms which
are theistic and draw upon ideas from other forms of Western
esotericism, Modern Paganism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
Forerunners and early forms
Eliphas Levi's Sabbatic Goat (known as The Goat of Mendes or Baphomet)
has become one of the most common symbols of Satanism.
The first person to promote a Satanic philosophy was the Pole
Stanislaw Przybyszewski, who promoted a Social Darwinian
The use of the term "Lucifer" was also taken up by the French
ceremonial magician Eliphas Levi, who has been described as a
"Romantic Satanist". During his younger days, Levi used "Lucifer"
in much the same manner as the literary romantics. As he moved
toward a more politically conservative outlook in later life, he
retained the use of the term, but instead applied it as to what he
believed was a morally neutral facet of the Absolute. In his book
Ritual of High Magic, published in two volumes between 1854
and 1856, Levi offered the symbol of Baphomet. He claimed that
this was a figure who had been worshipped by the Knights Templar.
According to Introvigne, this image gave "the Satanists their most
popular symbol ever".
Levi was not the only occultist who wanted to use the term "Lucifer"
without adopting the term "Satan" in a similar way. The early
Theosophical Society held to the view that "Lucifer" was a force that
aided humanity's awakening to its own spiritual nature. In
keeping with this view, the Society began production of a journal
"Satan" was also used within the esoteric system propounded by Danish
occultist Carl William Hansen, who used the pen name "Ben
Kadosh". Hansen was involved in a variety of esoteric groups,
including Martinism, Freemasonry, and the Ordo Templi Orientis,
drawing on ideas from various groups to establish his own
philosophy. In one pamphlet, he provided a "Luciferian"
interpretation of Freemasonry. Kadosh's work left little
influence outside of Denmark.
Aleister Crowley was not a Satanist, but used Satanic rhetoric and
Both during his life and after it, the British occultist Aleister
Crowley has been widely described as a Satanist, usually by
detractors. Crowley stated he did not consider himself a Satanist, nor
did he worship Satan, as he did not accept the Christian world view in
Satan was believed to exist. He nevertheless used Satanic
imagery, for instance by describing himself as "the Beast 666" and
referring to the
Whore of Babylon
Whore of Babylon in his work, while in later life he
sent "Antichristmas cards" to his friends. Dyrendel, Lewis, and
Petersen noted that despite the fact that Crowley was not a Satanist,
he "in many ways embodies the pre-Satanist esoteric discourse on Satan
Satanism through his lifestyle and his philosophy", with his
"image and thought" becoming an "important influence" on the later
development of religious Satanism.
In 1928 the
Fraternitas Saturni (FS) was established in Germany; its
founder, Eugen Grosche, published Satanische Magie ("Satanic Magic")
that same year. The group connected
Satan to Saturn, claiming
that the planet related to the Sun in the same manner that Lucifer
relates to the human world.
In 1932 an esoteric group known as the Brotherhood of the Golden Arrow
was established in Paris, France by Maria de Naglowska, a Russian
occultist who had fled to France following the Russian
Revolution. She promoted a theology centred on what she called
the Third Term of the Trinity consisting of Father, Son, and Sex, the
latter of which she deemed to be most important. Her early
disciples, who underwent what she called "Satanic Initiations",
included models and art students recruited from bohemian circles.
The Golden Arrow disbanded after Naglowska abandoned it in 1936.
According to Introvigne, hers was "a quite complicated Satanism, built
on a complex philosophical vision of the world, of which little would
survive its initiator".
In 1969 a Satanic group based in Toledo, Ohio, part of the United
States, came to public attention. Called the Our Lady of Endor Coven,
it was led by a man named Herbert Sloane, who described his Satanic
tradition as the Ophite Cultus Satanas and alleged that it had been
established in the 1940s. The group offered a Gnostic
interpretation of the world in which the creator God was regarded as
evil and the Biblical Serpent presented as a force for good who had
delivered salvation to humanity in the Garden of Eden. Sloane's
claims that his group had a 1940s origin remain unproven; it may be
that he falsely claimed older origins for his group to make it appear
older than Anton LaVey's Church of
Satan which had been established in
None of these groups had any real impact on the emergence of the later
Satanic milieu in the 1960s.
LaVeyan Satanism and the Church of Satan
LaVeyan Satanism and Church of Satan
The Sigil of Baphomet, the official insignia of the Church of Satan
and LaVeyan Satanism.
Anton LaVey, who has been referred to as "The Father of
Satanism", synthesized his religion through the establishment of
the Church of
Satan in 1966 and the publication of The Satanic Bible
in 1969. LaVey's teachings promoted "indulgence", "vital existence",
"undefiled wisdom", "kindness to those who deserve it",
"responsibility to the responsible" and an "eye for an eye" code of
ethics, while shunning "abstinence" based on guilt, "spirituality",
"unconditional love", "pacifism", "equality", "herd mentality" and
"scapegoating". In LaVey's view, the Satanist is a carnal, physical
and pragmatic being, where enjoyment of physical existence and an
undiluted view of this-worldly truth are promoted as the core values
of Satanism, propagating a naturalistic worldview that sees mankind as
animals existing in an amoral universe.
LaVey believed that the ideal Satanist should be individualistic and
non-conformist, rejecting what he called the "colorless existence"
that mainstream society sought to impose on those living within
it. He praised the human ego for encouraging an individual's
pride, self-respect, and self-realization and accordingly believed in
satisfying the ego's desires. He expressed the view that
self-indulgence was a desirable trait, and that hate and
aggression were not wrong or undesirable emotions but that they were
necessary and advantageous for survival. Accordingly, he praised
the seven deadly sins as virtues which were beneficial for the
individual. The anthropologist Jean La Fontaine highlighted an
article that appeared in The Black Flame, in which one writer
described "a true Satanic society" as one in which the population
consists of "free-spirited, well-armed, fully-conscious,
self-disciplined individuals, who will neither need nor tolerate any
external entity 'protecting' them or telling them what they can and
Sociologist James R. Lewis noted that "LaVey was directly responsible
for the genesis of
Satanism as a serious religious (as opposed to a
purely literary) movement". Scholars agree that there is no
reliably documented case of Satanic continuity prior to the founding
of the Church of Satan. It was the first organized church in
modern times to be devoted to the figure of Satan, and according
to Faxneld and Petersen, the Church represented "the first public,
highly visible, and long-lasting organization which propounded a
coherent satanic discourse". LaVey's book, The Satanic Bible, has
been described as the most important document to influence
contemporary Satanism. The book contains the core principles of
Satanism, and is considered the foundation of its philosophy and
dogma. Petersen noted that it is "in many ways the central text
of the Satanic milieu", with Lap similarly testifying to its
dominant position within the wider Satanic movement.
Bromley calls it "iconoclastic" and "the best-known and most
influential statement of Satanic theology." Eugene V. Gallagher
says that Satanists use LaVey's writings "as lenses through which they
view themselves, their group, and the cosmos." He also states: "With a
clear-eyed appreciation of true human nature, a love of ritual and
pageantry, and a flair for mockery, LaVey's Satanic Bible promulgated
a gospel of self-indulgence that, he argued, anyone who
dispassionately considered the facts would embrace."
A number of religious studies scholars have described LaVey's Satanism
as a form of "self-religion" or "self-spirituality", with
religious studies scholar Amina Olander Lap arguing that it should be
seen as being both part of the "prosperity wing" of the
New Age movement and a form of the Human Potential
Movement. The anthropologist Jean La Fontaine described it as
having "both elitist and anarchist elements", also citing one occult
bookshop owner who referred to the Church's approach as "anarchistic
hedonism". In The Invention of Satanism, Dyrendal and Petersen
theorized that LaVey viewed his religion as "an antinomian
self-religion for productive misfits, with a cynically carnivalesque
take on life, and no supernaturalism". The sociologist of
religion James R. Lewis even described
LaVeyan Satanism as "a blend of
Epicureanism and Ayn Rand's philosophy, flavored with a pinch of
ritual magic." The historian of religion Mattias Gardell
described LaVey's as "a rational ideology of egoistic hedonism and
Nevill Drury characterised LaVeyan
Satanism as "a religion of self-indulgence". It has also been
described as an "institutionalism of Machiavellian
Prominent Church leader
Blanche Barton described
Satanism as "an
alignment, a lifestyle". LaVey and the Church espoused the view
that "Satanists are born, not made"; that they are outsiders by
their nature, living as they see fit, who are self-realized in a
religion which appeals to the would-be Satanist's nature, leading them
to realize they are Satanists through finding a belief system that is
in line with their own perspective and lifestyle. Adherents to
the philosophy have described
Satanism as a non-spiritual religion of
the flesh, or "...the world's first carnal religion". LaVey used
Christianity as a negative mirror for his new faith, with LaVeyan
Satanism rejecting the basic principles and theology of Christian
belief. It views
Christianity – alongside other major
religions, and philosophies such as humanism and liberal democracy –
as a largely negative force on humanity; LaVeyan Satanists perceive
Christianity as a lie which promotes idealism, self-denigration, herd
behavior, and irrationality. LaVeyans view their religion as a
force for redressing this balance by encouraging materialism, egoism,
stratification, carnality, atheism, and social Darwinism. LaVey's
Satanism was particularly critical of what it understands as
Christianity's denial of humanity's animal nature, and it instead
calls for the celebration of, and indulgence in, these desires.
In doing so, it places an emphasis on the carnal rather than the
Practitioners do not believe that
Satan literally exists and do not
worship him. Instead,
Satan is viewed as a positive archetype
embracing the Hebrew root of the word "Satan" as "adversary", who
represents pride, carnality, and enlightenment, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be motivated by a "dark evolutionary force of
entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for
survival and propagation inherent in all living things". The
Devil is embraced as a symbol of defiance against the Abrahamic faiths
which LaVey criticized for what he saw as the suppression of
humanity's natural instincts. Moreover,
Satan also serves as a
metaphorical external projection of the individual's godhood. LaVey
espoused the view that "god" is a creation of man, rather than man
being a creation of "god". In his book, The Satanic Bible, the
Satanist's view of god is described as the Satanist's true "self"—a
projection of his or her own personality—not an external deity.
Satan is used as a representation of personal liberty and
individualism. LaVey explained that the gods worshiped by other
religions are also projections of man's true self. He argues that
man's unwillingness to accept his own ego has caused him to
externalize these gods so as to avoid the feeling of narcissism that
would accompany self-worship. The current High Priest of the
Church of Satan, Peter H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...
a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates [...]
Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of
power inside each human to be tapped at will. The Church of Satan
Satan as its primary symbol because in Hebrew it means
adversary, opposer, one to accuse or question. We see ourselves as
being these Satans; the adversaries, opposers and accusers of all
spiritual belief systems that would try to hamper enjoyment of our
life as a human being." The term "Theistic Satanism" has been
described as "oxymoronic" by the church and its High Priest. The
Satan rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations who
claim to be Satanists, dubbing them reverse-Christians,
Devil worshipers, atheistic or otherwise, and
maintains a purist approach to
Satanism as expounded by LaVey.
First Satanic Church
Main article: First Satanic Church
After LaVey's death in 1997, the Church of
Satan was taken over by a
new administration and its headquarters were moved to New York.
LaVey's daughter, the High Priestess Karla LaVey, felt this to be a
disservice to her father's legacy. The
First Satanic Church
First Satanic Church was
re-founded on October 31, 1999 by
Karla LaVey to carry on the legacy
of her father. She continues to run it out of San Francisco,
The Satanic Temple
Main article: The Satanic Temple
The Satanic Temple
The Satanic Temple is an American religious and political activist
organization based in Salem, Massachusetts. The organization actively
participates in public affairs that have manifested in several public
political actions and efforts at lobbying, with a focus
on the separation of church and state and using satire against
Christian groups that it believes interfere with personal
freedom. According to Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen, the group
were "rationalist, political pranksters". Their pranks are
designed to highlight religious hypocrisy and advance the cause of
secularism. In one of their actions, they performed a "Pink Mass"
over the grave of the mother of the evangelical Christian and
prominent anti-LGBT preacher Fred Phelps; the Temple claimed that the
mass converted the spirit of Phelps' mother into a lesbian.
The Satanic Temple
The Satanic Temple does not believe in a supernatural Satan, as they
believe that this encourages superstition that will keep them from
being "malleable to the best current scientific understandings of the
material world". The Temple uses the literary
Satan as metaphor to
construct a cultural narrative which promotes pragmatic skepticism,
rational reciprocity, personal autonomy, and curiosity.
thus used as a symbol representing "the eternal rebel" against
arbitrary authority and social norms.
Main article: Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism (also known as traditional Satanism, Spiritual
Devil worship) is a form of
Satanism with the primary
Satan is an actual deity or force to revere or
worship. Other characteristics of theistic
Satanism may include a
belief in magic, which is manipulated through ritual, although that is
not a defining criterion, and theistic Satanists may focus solely on
A version of the symbol of Lucifer, used by some modern Satanists
Main article: Luciferianism
Luciferianism can be understood best as a belief system or
intellectual creed that venerates the essential and inherent
characteristics that are affixed and commonly given to Lucifer.
Luciferianism is often identified as an auxiliary creed or movement of
Satanism, due to the common identification of
Lucifer with Satan. Some
Luciferians accept this identification and/or consider
Lucifer as the
"light bearer" and illuminated aspect of Satan, giving them the name
of Satanists and the right to bear the title. Others reject it, giving
the argument that
Lucifer is a more positive and easy-going ideal than
Satan. They are inspired by the ancient myths of Egypt, Rome and
Gnosticism and traditional Western occultism.
Order of Nine Angles
Main article: Order of Nine Angles
One of the principal symbols of the ONA
According to the group's own claims, the
Order of Nine Angles
Order of Nine Angles was
established in Shropshire, Western England during the late 1960s, when
a Grand Mistress united a number of ancient pagan groups active in the
area. This account states that when the Order's Grand Mistress
migrated to Australia, a man known as "Anton Long" took over as the
new Grand Master. From 1976 onward he authored an array of texts
for the tradition, codifying and extending its teachings, mythos, and
structure. Various academics have argued that Long is the
pseudonym of British Neo-Nazi activist
David Myatt, an allegation
that Myatt has denied. The ONA arose to public attention in the
early 1980s, spreading its message through magazine articles over
the following two decades. In 2000, it established a presence on
the internet, later adopting social media to promote its
The ONA is a secretive organization, and lacks any central
administration, instead operating as a network of allied Satanic
practitioners, which it terms the "kollective". It consists
largely of autonomous cells known as "nexions". The majority of
these are located in Britain, Ireland, and Germany, although others
are located elsewhere in Europe, and in Russia, Egypt, South Africa,
Brazil, Australia, and the United States.
The ONA describe their occultism as "Traditional Satanism". The
ONA's writings encourage human sacrifice, referring to their
victims as opfers. According to the Order's teachings, such
opfers must demonstrate character faults that mark them out as being
worthy of death, and accordingly the ONA insists that children
must never be victims. No ONA cell have admitted to carrying out
a sacrifice in a ritualised manner, but rather Order members have
joined the police and military in order to carry out such
killings. Faxneld described the Order as "a dangerous and extreme
form of Satanism", while religious studies scholar Graham Harvey
claimed that the ONA fit the stereotype of the Satanist "better than
other groups" by embracing "deeply shocking" and illegal acts.
Temple of Set
Main article: Temple of Set
Temple of Set
Temple of Set is an initiatory occult society claiming to be the
world's leading left-hand path religious organization. It was
established in 1975 by Michael A. Aquino and certain members of the
priesthood of the Church of Satan, who left because of
administrative and philosophical disagreements. ToS deliberately
self-differentiates from CoS in several ways, most significantly in
theology and sociology. The philosophy of the
Temple of Set
Temple of Set may
be summed up as "enlightened individualism"—enhancement and
improvement of oneself by personal education, experiment and
initiation. This process is necessarily different and distinctive for
each individual. The members do not agree on whether Set is "real" or
not, and they're not expected to.
The Temple presents the view that the name
Satan was originally a
corruption of the name Set. The Temple teaches that Set is a real
entity, the only real god in existence, with all others created
by the human imagination. Set is described as having given
humanity—through the means of non-natural evolution—the "Black
Flame" or the "Gift of Set", a questioning intellect which sets the
species apart from other animals. While Setians are expected to
revere Set, they do not worship him. Central to Setian philosophy
is the human individual, with self-deification presented as the
In 2005 Petersen noted that academic estimates for the Temple's
membership varied from between 300 and 500, and Granholm
suggested that in 2007 the Temple contained circa 200 members.
The American serial killer
Richard Ramirez was a reactive Satanist.
Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen used the term "reactive Satanism" to
describe one form of modern religious Satanism. They described this as
an adolescent and anti-social means of rebelling in a Christian
society, by which an individual transgresses cultural boundaries.
They believed that there was two tendencies within reactive Satanism:
one, "Satanic tourism", was characterised by the brief period of time
in which an individual was involved, while the other, the "Satanic
quest", was typified by a longer and deeper involvement.
The researcher Gareth Medway noted that in 1995 he encountered a
British woman who stated that she had been a practicing Satanist
during her teenage years. She had grown up in a small mining village,
and had come to believe that she had psychic powers. After hearing
Satanism in some library books, she declared herself a Satanist
and formulated a belief that
Satan was the true god. After her teenage
years she abandoned
Satanism and became a chaos magickian.
Some reactive Satanist are teenagers or mentally disturbed individuals
who have engaged in criminal activities. During the 1980s and
1990s, several groups of teenagers were apprehended after sacrificing
animals and vandalising both churches and graveyards with Satanic
imagery. Introvigne expressed the view that these incidents were
"more a product of juvenile deviance and marginalization than
Satanism". In a few cases the crimes of these reactive Satanists
have included murder. In 1970, two separate groups of teenagers—one
led by Stanley Baker in
Big Sur and the other by Steven Hurd in Los
Angeles—killed a total of three people and consumed parts of their
corpses in what they later claimed were sacrifices devoted to
Satan. In 1984, a U.S. group called the Knights of the Black
Circle killed one of its own members, Gary Lauwers, over a
disagreement regarding the group's illegal drug dealing; group members
later related that Lauwers' death was a sacrifice to Satan. The
American serial killer
Richard Ramirez for instance claimed that he
was a Satanist; during his 1980s killing spree he left an inverted
pentagram at the scene of each murder and at his trial called out
Dyrendal, Lewis, and Petersen observed that from surveys of Satanists
conducted in the early 21st century, it was clear that the Satanic
milieu was "heavily dominated by young males". They nevertheless
noted that census data from New Zealand suggested that there may be a
growing proportion of women becoming Satanists. In comprising
more men than women,
Satanism differs from most other religious
communities, including most new religious communities. Most
Satanists came to their religion through reading, either online or
books, rather than through being introduced to it through personal
contacts. Many practitioners do not claim that they converted to
Satanism, but rather state that they were born that way, and only
later in life confirmed that
Satanism served as an appropriate label
for their pre-existing worldviews. Others have stated that they
had experiences with supernatural phenomena that led them to embracing
Satanism. A number reported feelings of anger at the hypocrisy of
many practicing Christians and expressed the view that the
monotheistic Gods of
Christianity and other religions are unethical,
citing issues such as the problem of evil. For some
Satanism gave a sense of hope, including for those who
had been physically and sexually abused.
The surveys revealed that atheistic Satanists appeared to be in the
majority, although the numbers of theistic Satanists appeared to grow
over time. Beliefs in the afterlife varied, although the most
popular afterlife views were reincarnation and the idea that
consciousness survives bodily death. The surveys also
demonstrated that most recorded Satanists practiced magic,
although there were differing opinions as to whether magical acts
operated according to etheric laws or whether the effect of magic was
purely psychological. A number described performing cursing, in
most cases as a form of vigilante justice. Most practitioners
conduct their religious observances in a solitary manner, and never or
rarely meet fellow Satanists for rituals. Rather, the primary
interaction that takes place between Satanists is online, on websites
or via email. From their survey data, Dyrendal, Lewis, and
Petersen noted that the average length of involvement in the Satanic
milieu was seven years. A Satanist's involvement in the movement
tends to peak in the early twenties and drops off sharply in their
thirties. A small proportion retain their allegiance to the
religion into their elder years. When asked about their political
views, the largest proportion of Satanists identified as apolitical or
non-aligned, while only a small percentage identified as conservative
despite the conservative views of prominent Satanists like LaVey and
Marilyn Manson. A small minority of Satanists expressed support
for the far right; conversely, over two-thirds expressed negative or
extremely negative views about
Nazism and Neo-Nazism.
In 2004 it was claimed that
Satanism was allowed in the Royal Navy of
the British Armed Forces, despite opposition from
Christians. In 2016, under a Freedom of Information
Navy Command Headquarters
Navy Command Headquarters stated that "we do not
recognise satanism as a formal religion, and will not grant facilities
or make specific time available for individual worship".
In 2005, the Supreme Court of the
United States debated in the case of
Cutter v. Wilkinson
Cutter v. Wilkinson over protecting minority religious rights of
prison inmates after a lawsuit challenging the issue was filed to
them. The court ruled that facilities that accept federal
funds cannot deny prisoners accommodations that are necessary to
engage in activities for the practice of their own religious
Contemporary Religious Satanism
Devil in popular culture
Satanic ritual abuse
^ B.A. Robinson (March 2006). "Religious Satanism, 16th-century
Satanism, Satanic Dabbling, etc". Ontario Consultants on Religious
Tolerance. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
^ Gilmore, Peter. "Science and Satanism". Point of Inquiry Interview.
Retrieved 9 December 2013.
^ a b Jesper Aagaard Petersen (2009). "Introduction: Embracing Satan".
Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate
Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1.
^ Alisauskiene, Milda (2009). "The Peculiarities of Lithuanian
Satanism". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious
Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing.
Satanism stalks Poland". BBC News. 2000-06-05.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 7.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 16.
^ Petersen 2012, p. 92.
^ Gallagher 2006, p. 151.
^ Medway 2001, p. 51; Van Luijk 2016, p. 19.
^ Medway 2001, p. 51.
^ Medway 2001, p. 52.
^ Medway 2001, p. 53.
^ a b c Medway 2001, p. 9.
^ a b Medway 2001, p. 257; Van Luijk 2016, p. 2.
^ a b c d Van Luijk 2016, p. 2.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 44.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 13–14.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 14.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 16.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 15.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 19.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 20.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 19; Van Luijk 2016,
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 21.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 21–22.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 23.
^ a b Van Luijk 2016, p. 24.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 24–26.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 25–26.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 25.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 28.
^ Medway 2001, p. 126.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 28–29.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 29–31.
^ Medway 2001, p. 57.
^ Medway 2001, p. 58.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 57–58.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 60–63.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 35.
^ a b c Van Luijk 2016, p. 36.
^ Medway 2001, p. 133; Van Luijk 2016, p. 37.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 38.
^ Medway 2001, p. 70.
^ Scarre & Callow 2001, p. 2.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 44–45.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 58–59; Van Luijk 2016, p. 66.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 66–67.
^ a b Van Luijk 2016, p. 66.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 60–61.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 71.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 71–73.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 74–78.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 84–85.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 85–86.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 266–267.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 141–142.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 143–149.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 159–161.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 164–170.
^ Medway 2001, p. 161.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 262–263; Introvigne 2016, p. 66.
^ a b La Fontaine 2016, p. 13.
^ a b La Fontaine 2016, p. 15.
^ La Fontaine 2016, p. 13; Introvigne 2016, p. 381.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 372.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 175–177; Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen
2016, pp. 115–116; Introvigne 2016, pp. 374–376.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 178–183; Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen
2016, pp. 116–120; Introvigne 2016, pp. 405–406.
^ Medway 2001, p. 183.
^ La Fontaine 2016, p. 16.
^ Medway 2001, p. 369; La Fontaine 2016, p. 15.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 191–195.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 220–221.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 234–248.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 210–211.
^ a b Medway 2001, p. 213.
^ Medway 2001, p. 249.
^ La Fontaine 2016, pp. 13–14.
^ Medway 2001, p. 118; La Fontaine 2016, p. 14.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 456.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 29.
^ a b c Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 28.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 28; Van Luijk 2016,
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 28, 30.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 30.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 28, 30; Van Luijk
2016, pp. 69–70.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 70.
^ a b Van Luijk 2016, p. 73.
^ a b Van Luijk 2016, p. 108.
^ Van Luijk 2016, p. 69.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 31.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 71–72.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 97–98.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 74–75.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 105–107.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 77–79.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 117–119.
^ Van Luijk 2016, pp. 119–120.
^ a b Van Luijk 2016, p. 120.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 66.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 462–463.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 467.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 467–468.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 468.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 468–469.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 469.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 470.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 472–473.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 471.
^ "Death to False
Satanism NOISEY". NOISEY. Retrieved
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 480.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 479.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 482.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 479–481.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 481.
^ Introvigne 2016, pp. 503–504.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 3.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 4.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 3; Introvigne 2016,
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 7–9.
^ a b c Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 5.
^ a b c Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 6.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 36.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 107.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 37.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 37; Introvigne 2016,
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 105.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 37–38.
^ a b c Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 38.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 39.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 39; Introvigne 2016,
^ Hutton 1999, p. 175; Dyrendal 2012, pp. 369–370.
^ Hutton 1999, p. 175.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 42.
^ Medway 2001, p. 18; Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016,
^ a b Medway 2001, p. 18.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 45.
^ Introvigne 2016, p. 277.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 49–50; Introvigne
2016, p. 278.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 49–50; Introvigne
2016, p. 280.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 50; Introvigne 2016,
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 46.
^ "Contemporary Religious Satanism". google.com.
^ Dyrendal 2013, p. 129.
^ Lap 2013, p. 92.
^ Maxwell-Stuart 2011, p. 198.
^ Lap 2013, p. 94.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 288; Schipper 2010, p. 107.
^ La Fontaine 1999, p. 97.
^ Lewis 2001, p. 5.
^ Contemporary Esotericism, Asprem & Granholm 2014, p. 75.
^ a b Lewis 2002, p. 5.
^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 81.
^ Lewis 2003, p. 116.
^ Lewis 2003, p. 105.
^ Petersen 2013, p. 232.
^ Lap 2013, p. 85.
^ Bromley 2005, pp. 8127–8128.
^ Gallagher 2005, p. 6530.
^ Harvey 1995, p. 290; Partridge 2004, p. 82; Petersen 2009,
pp. 224–225; Schipper 2010, p. 108; Faxneld & Petersen
2013, p. 79.
^ Lap 2013, p. 84.
^ a b c La Fontaine 1999, p. 96.
^ The Invention of
Satanism & Asbjorn Dyrendal, Jesper Aa.
Petersen, James R. Lewis 2016, p. 70.
^ Lewis 2002, p. 2.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 288.
^ Drury 2003, p. 188.
^ Taub & Nelson 1993, p. 528.
^ La Fontaine 1999, p. 99.
^ Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology & Petersen
2009, p. 9.
^ The Devil's Party:
Satanism in Modernity & Faxneld, Petersen
2013, p. 129.
Satanism Today & Lewis 2001, p. 330.
^ Who's? Right: Mankind, Religions & The End Times &
Warman-Stallings 2012, p. 35.
^ a b Schipper 2010, p. 109.
^ a b Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 80.
^ Lewis 2001b, p. 50.
^ Controversial New Religions, Lewis & Petersen 2014, p. 408.
^ Wright 1993, p. 143.
^ Cavaglion & Sela-Shayovitz 2005, p. 255.
^ LaVey 2005, pp. 44–45.
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Satanism: The Feared
^ The Church of
Satan [History Channel]. YouTube. 12 January
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "F.A.Q. Fundamental Beliefs".
^ Ohlheiser, Abby (7 November 2014). "The Church of
Satan wants you to
stop calling these 'devil worshiping' alleged murderers Satanists".
The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
^ Massoud Hayoun (2013-12-08). "Group aims to put 'Satanist' monument
near Oklahoma capitol Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. Retrieved
^ "Satanists petition to build monument on Oklahoma state capitol
grounds Washington Times Communities". The Washington Times.
2013-12-09. Retrieved 2014-03-25.
^ a b Bugbee, Shane (2013-07-30). "Unmasking Lucien Greaves, Leader of
the Satanic Temple VICE United States". Vice.com. Retrieved
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 219.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 220.
^ Oppenheimer, Mark (July 10, 2015). "A Mischievous Thorn in the Side
of Conservative Christianity". The New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-07-11.
^ "FAQ". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
^ "What does
Satan mean to the Satanic Temple? - CNN". CNN. Retrieved
^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West.
p. 82. ISBN 9780567082695. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
^ a b Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218; Senholt 2013, p. 256.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 218; Senholt 2013, p. 256;
Monette 2013, p. 87.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 216; Senholt 2013, p. 268;
Faxneld 2013a, p. 207.
^ Ryan 2003, p. 53; Senholt 2013, p. 267.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 293.
^ a b Senholt 2013, p. 256.
^ Monette 2013, p. 107.
^ Kaplan 2000, p. 236.
^ a b c Monette 2013, p. 88.
^ Faxneld 2013a, p. 207; Faxneld 2013b, p. 88; Senholt 2013,
p. 250; Sieg 2013, p. 252.
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, pp. 218–219; Baddeley 2010,
^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 219.
^ Kaplan 2000, p. 237; Ryan 2003, p. 54.
^ Harvey 1995, p. 292; Kaplan 2000, p. 237.
^ Monette 2013, p. 114.
^ Faxneld 2013a, p. 207.
^ Harvey 1995, p. 292.
^ Aquino, Michael (2002). Church of
Satan (PDF). San Francisco: Temple
of Set. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-12.
^ a b Harvey, Graham (2009). "Satanism: Performing Alterity and
Othering". In Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Contemporary Religious
Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Ashgate Publishing.
^ Gardell 2003, p. 390.
^ Petersen 2005, p. 436; Harvey 2009, p. 32.
^ Granholm 2009, pp. 93–94; Granholm 2013, p. 218.
^ La Fontaine 1999, p. 102; Gardell 2003, p. 291; Petersen
2005, p. 436.
^ Granholm 2009, p. 94.
^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 7.
^ Petersen 2005, p. 435.
^ Granholm 2009, p. 93; Granholm 2013, p. 223.
^ Medway 2001, pp. 362–365.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 130.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 445.
^ a b Introvigne 2016, p. 446.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 122.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 138.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 158.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 146.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 142.
^ a b Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 143.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 202–204.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 200–201.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 179–180.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 181–182.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 183.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 209.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 210–212.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, pp. 151, 153.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 153.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 157.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 159.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 160.
^ Dyrendal, Lewis & Petersen 2016, p. 171.
^ Royal Navy to allow devil worship CNN
^ Carter, Helen. The devil and the deep blue sea: Navy gives blessing
to sailor Satanist. The Guardian
^ Navy approves first ever Satanist BBC News
^ Ministry of Defence Request for Information. Navy Command FOI
Section, 7 January 2016.
^ Linda Greenhouse (March 22, 2005). "Inmates Who Follow
Wicca Find Unlikely Ally". The New York Times.
^ "Before high court: law that allows for religious rights". The
Christian Science Monitor.
^ Johnson, M. Alex (May 31, 2005). "Court upholds prisoners' religious
rights". MSNBC. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
Cutter v. Wilkinson
Cutter v. Wilkinson 544 U.S. 709 (2005)". Oyez. Retrieved 7 October
Baddeley, Gavin (2010).
Lucifer Rising: Sin,
Devil Worship & Rock
n' Roll (third ed.). London: Plexus.
Dyrendal, Asbjørn (2012). "
Satan and the Beast: The Influence of
Aleister Crowley on Modern Satanism". In Henrik Bogdan and Martin P.
Aleister Crowley and Western Esotericism. Oxford and New
York: Oxford University Press. pp. 369–394.
ISBN 978-0-19-986309-9. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
Dyrendal, Asbjørn; Lewis, James R.; Petersen, Jesper Aa. (2016). The
Invention of Satanism. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Faxneld, Per (2013a). "Post-Satanism, Left-Hand Paths, and Beyond:
Visiting the Margins". The Devil's Party:
Satanism in Modernity. Per
Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen (editors). Oxford: Oxford
University Press. pp. 205–208.
——— (2013b). "Secret Lineages and De Facto
Satanists: Anton LaVey's Use of Esoteric Tradition". Contemporary
Esotericism. Egil Asprem and Kennet Granholm (editors). Durham:
Acumen. pp. 72–90. ISBN 978-1-317-54357-2.
Faxneld, Per; Petersen, Jesper Aagaard (2013). "Introduction: At the
Devil's Crossroads". In Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard Petersen
(eds.). The Devil's Party:
Satanism in Modernity. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. pp. 3–18.
ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
Gallagher, Eugene (2006). "
Satanism and the Church of Satan".
Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Eugene V.
Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft (editors). Greenwood.
pp. 151–168. ISBN 978-0313050787.
Gardell, Matthias (2003). Gods of the Blood: The Pagan Revival and
White Separatism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric
Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0.
Granholm, Kennet (2009). "Embracing Others than Satan: The Multiple
Princes of Darkness in the Left-Hand Path Milieu". In Jesper Aagard
Petersen (ed.). Contemporary Religious Satanism: A Critical Anthology.
Farnham: Ashgate. pp. 85–101.
ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
——— (2013). "The Left-Hand Path and Post-Satanism:
Temple of Set
Temple of Set and the
Evolution of Satanism". In Per Faxneld and
Jesper Aagaard Petersen (eds.). The Devil's Party:
Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 209–228.
ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
Harvey, Graham (1995). "
Satanism in Britain Today". Journal of
Contemporary Religion. 10 (3): 283–296.
——— (2009). "Satanism: Performing Alterity and
Othering". In Jesper Aagard Petersen (ed.). Contemporary Religious
Satanism: A Critical Anthology. Farnham: Ashgate. pp. 27–40.
ISBN 978-0-7546-5286-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
Hutton, Ronald (1999). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern
Pagan Witchcraft. New York: Oxford University Press.
Introvigne, Massimo (2016). Satanism: A Social History. Leiden and
Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-9004288287.
Kaplan, Jeffrey (2000). "Order of Nine Angles". Encyclopedia of White
Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right. Jeffrey Kaplan
(editor). Lanham: AltaMira Press. pp. 235–238.
La Fontaine, Jean (1999). "
Satanism and Satanic Mythology". In Bengt
Ankarloo and Stuart Clark (eds.). The Athlone History of Witchcraft
and Magic in Europe Volume 6: The Twentieth Century. London: Athlone.
pp. 94–140. ISBN 0-485-89006-2. CS1 maint: Uses
editors parameter (link)
La Fontaine, Jean (2016). Witches and Demons: A Comparative
Witchcraft and Satanism. New York and Oxford: Berhahn.
Medway, Gareth J. (2001). Lure of the Sinister: The Unnatural History
of Satanism. New York and London: New York University Press.
Monette, Connell (2013). Mysticism in the 21st Century. Wilsonville,
Oregon: Sirius Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-940964-00-3.
Petersen, Jesper Aagaard (2005). "Modern Satanism: Dark Doctrines and
Black Flames". In James R. Lewis and Jesper Aagaard Petersen (eds.).
Controversial New Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
pp. 423–457. ISBN 978-0-19-515683-6. CS1 maint: Uses
editors parameter (link)
Ryan, Nick (2003). Homeland: Into a World of Hate. Edinburgh and
London: Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84018-465-5.
Scarre, Geoffrey; Callow, John (2001).
Witchcraft and Magic in
Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Europe (second ed.). Basingstoke:
Palgrave. ISBN 9780333920824.
Schipper, Bernd U. (2010). "From Milton to Modern Satanism: The
History of the
Devil and the Dynamics between Religion and
Literature". Journal of Religion in Europe. 3 (1): 103–124.
Senholt, Jacob C. (2013). "Secret Identities in the Sinister
Tradition: Political Esotericism and the Convergence of Radical Islam,
Satanism, and National Socialism in the Order of Nine Angles". The
Satanism in Modernity. Per Faxneld and Jesper Aagaard
Petersen (editors). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
pp. 250–274. ISBN 978-0-19-977924-6.
Sieg, George (2013). "Angular Momentum: From Traditional to
Satanism in the Order of Nine Angles". International
Journal for the Study of New Religions. 4 (2): 251–283.
Van Luijk, Ruben (2016). Children of Lucifer: The Origins of Modern
Religious Satanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Satanism.
Religious Tolerance page on Satanism
Satanism at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Witchcraft and magic
North American witchcraft
South American witchcraft
Cloak of invisibility
Folklore and mythology
Witch of Endor
Major historic treatises
Summis desiderantes affectibus
Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484)
Malleus Maleficarum (1487)
The Discoverie of
Compendium Maleficarum (1608)
A Guide to Grand-Jury Men
A Guide to Grand-Jury Men (1627)
The Discovery of Witches
The Discovery of Witches (1647)
Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants
New religious movements
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis
Church of Divine Science
Satan (LaVeyan Satanism)
Church of Scientology
Church of the SubGenius
Friends of Man
International Society for Krishna Consciousness
Invitation to Life
Latter Day Saints
Maha Bodhi Society
Nation of Islam
New Apostolic Church
The New Church
Pilgrims of Arès
The Process Church
Sathya Sai Baba
Seventh-day Adventist Church
Shri Ram Chandra Mission
Temple of Set
True Buddha School
Unification Church (Family Federation for World Peace and Unification
· Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity)
Unitarian Universalist Association
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God
Universal White Brotherhood
The Way International
Word of Faith
World Mission Society Church of God
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Herbert W. Armstrong
Sathya Sai Baba
Mary Baker Eddy
Hak Ja Han
L. Ron Hubbard
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Sun Myung Moon
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Charles Taze Russell
Joseph Franklin Rutherford
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
Joseph W. Tkach
Ellen G. White
African initiated church
Classifications of religious movements
Hindu reform movements
Japanese new religions
INFORM (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)
Academic study of new religious movements
Journal of Contemporary Religion
Sociology of religion
Christian countercult movement
Persecution of Ahmadis
Persecution of Bahá'ís
Persecution of Falun Gong
Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses
In popular culture
New religious movements