Satan[a] is an entity in the
Abrahamic religions that seduces humans
into sin. In
Christianity and Islam, he is usually seen as a fallen
angel, or a jinni, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but
rebelled against God, who nevertheless allows him temporary power over
the fallen world and a host of demons.
A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the
Tanakh as a
heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of
God subordinate to
Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and
tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer.
During the intertestamental period, possibly due to influence from the
Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a
malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to
God. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees,
Yahweh grants the satan
(referred to as Mastema) authority over a group of fallen angels to
tempt humans to sin and punish them.
In the Synoptic Gospels,
Jesus in the desert and is
identified as the cause of illness and temptation.
Satan is described
New Testament as the "ruler of the demons" and "the god of this
age". In the Book of Revelation,
Satan appears as a Great Red Dragon,
who is defeated by Michael the Archangel and cast down from Heaven. He
is later bound for one thousand years, but is briefly set free before
being ultimately defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In
Satan is also known as the
Devil and, although the Book
of Genesis does not mention him, he is often identified with the
serpent in the
Garden of Eden.
Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, but, since the
ninth century, he has often been shown in
Christian art with horns,
cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, and a tail, often naked and
holding a pitchfork. These are an amalgam of traits derived from
various pagan deities, including Pan, Poseidon, and Bes. In medieval
Satan played a minimal role in
Christian theology and was used
as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern
period, Satan's significance greatly increased as beliefs such as
demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the
Age of Enlightenment, belief in the existence of
Satan became harshly
criticized. Nonetheless, belief in
Satan has persisted, particularly
in the Americas.
In the Quran, Shaitan, also known as Iblis, is an entity made of fire
who was cast out of Heaven because he refused to bow before the
Adam and incites humans and jinn to sin by infecting
their minds with waswās ("evil suggestions"). Although
generally viewed as evil, some groups have very different beliefs. In
Satan is considered a deity who is either
worshipped or revered. In LaVeyan Satanism,
Satan is a symbol of
virtuous characteristics and liberty.
Satan appears frequently
Christian literature, most notably in Dante Alighieri's Inferno,
variants of the
Faust legend, John Milton's
Paradise Lost and Paradise
Regained, and the poems of William Blake. He continues to appear in
film, television, and music.
1 Historical development
1.1.1 Book of Job
1.1.2 Book of Zechariah
Second Temple period
2.1 Rabbinical Judaism
2.2 Modern Judaism
3.2 New Testament
3.2.1 Gospels, Acts, and epistles
3.2.2 Book of Revelation
3.3 After the New Testament
Demonic possession and witchcraft
4.2 Islamic tradition
4.2.2 Other traditions
5 Bahá'í Faith
6.1 Theistic Satanism
6.2 Atheistic Satanism
7 Allegations of worship
8 In culture
8.1 In art and literature
8.2 In film and television
8.3 In music
9 See also
12 External links
Balaam and the Angel (1836) by Gustav Jäger. The angel in this
incident is referred to as a "satan".
Hebrew term satan is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or
"adversary", which is used throughout the
Hebrew Bible to refer
to ordinary human adversaries, as well as a specific
supernatural entity. The word is derived from a verb meaning
primarily "to obstruct, oppose". When it is used without the
definite article (simply satan), the word can refer to any accuser,
but when it is used with the definite article (ha-satan), it usually
refers specifically to the heavenly accuser: the satan.
Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic
Text, in two books of the
Job ch. 1–2 (10×) and
Zechariah 3:1–2 (3×).
Satan without the definite article is used
in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version (KJV):
1 Chronicles 21:1, "
Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there
standeth up an adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal
Psalm 109:6b "and let
Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV) or "let
an accuser stand at his right hand." (ESV, etc.)
The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis, which
mentions only a talking serpent and does not identify the serpent
with any supernatural entity. The first occurrence of the word
"satan" in the
Hebrew Bible in reference to a supernatural figure
comes from Numbers 22:22, which describes the Angel of Yahweh
Balaam on his donkey: "Balaam's departure aroused the
wrath of Elohim, and the Angel of
Yahweh stood in the road as a satan
against him." In 2
Yahweh sends the "Angel of Yahweh"
to inflict a plague against
Israel for three days, killing 70,000
people as punishment for
David having taken a census without his
approval. 1 Chronicles 21:1 repeats this story, but replaces
the "Angel of Yahweh" with an entity referred to as "a satan".
Some passages clearly refer to the satan, without using the word
Samuel 2:12 describes the sons of Eli as "sons of
Belial"; the later usage of this word makes it clearly a synonym
for "satan". In 1
Yahweh sends a "troubling
spirit" to torment King
Saul as a mechanism to ingratiate
the king. In 1 Kings 22:19-25, the prophet
Micaiah describes to
Ahab a vision of
Yahweh sitting on his throne surrounded by the
Host of Heaven.
Yahweh asks the Host which of them will lead Ahab
astray. A "spirit", whose name is not specified, but who is
analogous to the satan, volunteers to be "a Lying Spirit in the mouth
of all his Prophets".
Book of Job
The Examination of
Job (c. 1821) by William Blake
The satan appears in the Book of Job, a poetic dialogue set within a
prose framework, which may have been written around the time of
the Babylonian captivity. In the text,
Job is a righteous man
favored by Yahweh.
Job 1:6-8 describes the "sons of God" (bənê
hāʼĕlōhîm) presenting themselves before Yahweh.
one of them, "the satan", where he has been, to which he replies that
he has been patrolling the earth.
Yahweh asks, "Have you
considered My servant Job?" The satan replies by urging
let him torture Job, promising that
Job will abandon his faith at the
Yahweh consents; the satan destroys Job's
servants and flocks, yet
Job refuses to condemn Yahweh. The first
scene repeats itself, with the satan presenting himself to Yahweh
alongside the other "sons of God".
Yahweh points out Job's
continued faithfulness, to which the satan insists that more testing
Yahweh once again gives him permission to test
Job. In the end,
Job remains faithful and righteous, and it is
implied that the satan is shamed in his defeat.
Book of Zechariah
Zechariah 3:1-7 contains a description of a vision dated to the middle
of February of 519 BC, in which an angel shows Zechariah a scene
Joshua the High Priest
Joshua the High Priest dressed in filthy rags, representing the
nation of Judah and its sins, on trial with
Yahweh as the judge
and the satan standing as the prosecutor.
Yahweh rebukes the
satan and orders for Joshua to be given clean clothes,
representing Yahweh's forgiveness of Judah's sins.
Second Temple period
Map showing the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire, in which Jews
lived during the early
Second Temple Period, allowing Zoroastrian
Angra Mainyu to influence the Jewish conception of
Second Temple Period, when
Jews were living in the
Achaemenid Empire, Judaism was heavily influenced by Zoroastrianism,
the religion of the Achaemenids. Jewish conceptions of
Satan were impacted by Angra Mainyu, the Zoroastrian god of
evil, darkness, and ignorance. In the Septuagint, the Hebrew
Job and Zechariah is translated by the Greek word diabolos
(slanderer), the same word in the Greek
New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used to refer to
human enemies in the
Hebrew Bible, such as
Hadad the Edomite and Rezon
the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.
The idea of
Satan as an opponent of
God and a purely evil figure seems
to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during the Second Temple
Period, particularly in the apocalypses. The Book of Enoch,
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls have revealed to have been nearly as
popular as the Torah, describes a group of 200 angels known as the
"Watchers", who are assigned to supervise the earth, but instead
abandon their duties and have sexual intercourse with human women.
The leader of the Watchers is Semjâzâ and another member of the
group, known as Azazel, spreads sin and corruption among
humankind. The Watchers are ultimately sequestered in isolated
caves across the earth and are condemned to face judgement at the
end of time. The Book of Jubilees, written in around 150 BC,
retells the story of the Watchers' defeat, but, in deviation from
the Book of Enoch, Mastema, the "Chief of Spirits", intervenes before
they are all sealed away, requesting for
Yahweh to let him keep some
of them to become his workers.
Yahweh acquiesces this request
Mastema uses them to tempt humans into committing more sins, so
that he may punish them for their wickedness. Later, Mastema
Yahweh to test
Abraham by ordering him to sacrifice
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch,
contains references to a Watcher called Satanael. It is a
pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown authorship. The
text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was
cast out of heaven and an evil spirit who knew the difference
between what was "righteous" and "sinful". In the Book of Wisdom,
the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the
world. The name Samael, which is used in reference to one of the
fallen angels, later became a common name for
Satan in Jewish Midrash
The sound of a shofar (pictured) is believed to symbolically confuse
Jews do not believe in the existence of a supernatural
omnimalevolent figure. Traditionalists and philosophers in
medieval Judaism adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in
rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as abstract. The Rabbis
usually interpreted the word satan as it is used in the
referring strictly to human adversaries and rejected all of the
Enochian writings mentioning
Satan as a literal, heavenly figure from
the Biblical canon, making every attempt to root them out.
Nonetheless, the word satan has occasionally been metaphorically
applied to evil influences, such as the
Jewish exegesis of the
yetzer hara ("evil inclination") mentioned in Genesis 6:5.
Rabbinical scholarship on the
Book of Job
Book of Job generally follows the Talmud
Maimonides in identifying "the satan" from the prologue as a
metaphor for the yetzer hara and not an actual entity.
rarely mentioned in Tannaitic literature, but is found in Babylonian
aggadah. According to a narration, the sound of the shofar, which
is primarily intended to remind
Jews of the importance of teshuva, is
also intended symbolically to "confuse the accuser" (Satan) and
prevent him from rendering any litigation to
God against the Jews.
In Hasidic Judaism, the
Satan as an agent of God
whose function is to tempt humans into sinning so that he may accuse
them in the heavenly court. The Hasidic
Jews of the 18th century
Each sect of Judaism has its own interpretation of Satan's identity.
Conservative Judaism generally rejects the Talmudic interpretation of
Satan as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, and regard him as a literal
agent of God. Orthodox Judaism, on the other hand, outwardly
embraces Talmudic teachings on Satan, and involves
Satan in religious
life far more inclusively than other sects.
Satan is mentioned
explicitly in some daily prayers, including during
certain post-meal benedictions, as described in Talmud and the
Jewish Code of Law. In Reform Judaism,
Satan is generally seen in
his Talmudic role as a metaphor for the yetzer hara and the symbolic
representation of innate human qualities such as selfishness.
Devil in Christianity
Beelzebub depicted in the 1863 edition of Jacques Collin de Plancy's
Lucifer (1890) by Franz Stuck
The most common English synonym for "Satan" is "devil", which descends
Middle English devel, from
Old English dēofol, that in turn
represents an early Germanic borrowing of
Latin diabolus (also the
source of "diabolical"). This in turn was borrowed from Greek diabolos
"slanderer", from diaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through" +
ballein "to hurl". In the New Testament, the words
diabolos are used interchangeably as synonyms. Beelzebub,
meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew
New Testament to a
Philistine god whose original name has
been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al Zabul", meaning "
Synoptic Gospels identify
Beelzebub as the
same. The name
Abaddon (meaning "place of destruction") is used
six times in the Old Testament, mainly as a name for one the regions
of Sheol. Revelation 9:11 describes Abaddon, whose name is
translated into Greek as Apollyon, meaning "the destroyer", as an
angel who rules the Abyss. In modern usage,
Abaddon is sometimes
equated with Satan.
The name Heylel, meaning "morning star", was a name for Attar, the god
of the planet
Venus in Canaanite mythology, who attempted to scale
the walls of the heavenly city, but was vanquished by the god
of the sun. The name is used in Isaiah 14:12 in metaphorical
reference to the king of Babylon. Later tradition reinterpreted
this passage as a reference to the fall of Satan. The Latin
Vulgate translation of this passage renders Heylel as "Lucifer"
and this name continues to be used by some Christians as an
alternative name for Satan. In a similar vein, Ezekiel 28:12-15, a
passage about a cherub in Eden which is primarily a polemic against
Ithobaal II, the king of Tyre, has also been interpreted by some
Christians as simultaneously metaphorically alluding to the fall of
Gospels, Acts, and epistles
Sixteenth-century illustration by
Simon Bening showing Satan
Jesus with a stone
Temptation of Christ
Temptation of Christ (1854) by Ary Scheffer
Synoptic Gospels all describe the temptation of Christ by
Satan in the desert (Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke
Satan first shows
Jesus a stone and tells him to turn it
into bread. He also takes him to the pinnacle of the Temple in
Jerusalem and commands
Jesus to throw himself down so that the angels
will catch him.
Jesus to the top of a tall mountain as
well; there, he shows him the kingdoms of the earth and promises to
give them all to him if he will bow down and worship him. Each
Jesus rebukes Satan and, after the third temptation, he is
administered by the angels. Satan's promise in Matthew 4:8-9 and
Luke 4:6-7 to give
Jesus all the kingdoms of the earth implies that
all those kingdoms belong to him. The fact that
Jesus does not
dispute Satan's promise indicates that the authors of those gospels
believed this to be true.
Satan plays a role in some of the parables of Jesus, namely the
Parable of the Sower, the Parable of the Weeds, Parable of the Sheep
and the Goats, and the Parable of the Strong Man. According to the
Parable of the Sower,
Satan "profoundly influences" those who fail to
understand the gospel. The latter two parables say that Satan's
followers will be punished on Judgement Day, with the Parable of the
Sheep and the Goats stating that the Devil, his angels, and the people
who follow him will be consigned to "eternal fire". When the
Jesus of exorcising demons through the power of
Jesus responds by telling the Parable of the Strongman,
saying: "how can someone enter a strong man's house and plunder his
goods, unless he first binds the strong man? Then indeed he may
plunder his house" (Matthew 12:29). The strong man in this parable
Synoptic Gospels identify
Satan and his demons as the causes of
illness, including fever (Luke 4:39), leprosy (Luke 5:13), and
arthritis (Luke 13:11-16), while the
Epistle to the Hebrews
Devil as "him who holds the power of death" (Hebrews
2:14). The author of
Luke-Acts attributes more power to
both Matthew and Mark. In Luke 22:31,
authority to test Peter and the other apostles. Luke 22:3-6 states
Judas Iscariot betrayed
Jesus because "
Satan entered" him
and, in Acts 5:3, Peter describes
Satan as "filling" Ananias's heart
and causing him to sin. The
Gospel of John
Gospel of John only uses the name
Satan three times. In John 8:44,
Jesus says that the
Jews are the
children of the
Devil rather than the children of Abraham; the
same verse describes the
Devil as "a man-killer from the
beginning" and "a liar and the father of lying." John 13:2
Devil as inspiring Judas to betray Jesus and John
Satan as "the Archon of this Cosmos", who is
destined to be overthrown through Jesus's death and resurrection.
John 16:7-8 promises that the Holy Spirit will "accuse the World
concerning sin, justice, and judgement", a role resembling that of the
satan in the Old Testament.
Jude 1:9 refers to a dispute between Michael the Archangel and the
Devil over the body of Moses. Some interpreters understand this
reference to be an allusion to the events described in Zechariah
3:1-2. The classical theologian
Origen attributes this
reference to the non-canonical Assumption of Moses. According to
James H. Charlesworth, there is no evidence the surviving book of this
name ever contained any such content. Others believe it to be in
the lost ending of the book. Throughout the New Testament,
Satan is referred to as a "tempter" (Matthew 4:3), "the ruler of
the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the
God of this Age" (2
Corinthians 4:4), "the evil one" (1 John 5:18), and "a roaring
lion" (1 Peter 5:8).
Book of Revelation
St. Michael Vanquishing Satan
St. Michael Vanquishing Satan (1518) by Raphael, depicting
cast out of heaven by Michael the Archangel, as described in
Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation represents
Satan as the supernatural ruler of
Roman Empire and the ultimate cause of all evil in the world.
In Revelation 2:9-10, as part of the letter to the church at Smyrna,
John of Patmos
John of Patmos refers to the
Smyrna as "a synagogue of
Satan" and warns that "the
Devil is about to cast some of you into
prison as a test [peirasmos], and for ten days you will have
affliction." In Revelation 2:13-14, in the letter to the church of
Pergamum, John warns that
Satan lives among the members of the
congregation and declares that "Satan's throne" is in their
Pergamum was the capital of the Roman Province of Asia
and "Satan's throne" may be referring to the monumental Pergamon Altar
in the city, which was dedicated to the Greek god Zeus, or to a
temple dedicated to the Roman emperor Augustus.
Revelation 12:3 describes a vision of a Great Red Dragon with seven
heads, ten horns, seven crowns, and a massive tail, an image which
is clearly inspired by the vision of the four beasts from the sea in
the Book of Daniel and the
Leviathan described in various Old
Testament passages. The Great Red Dragon knocks "a third of the
sun... a third of the moon, and a third of the stars" out the sky
and pursues the Woman of the Apocalypse. Revelation 12:7-9
declares: "And war broke out in Heaven. Michael and his angels fought
against Dragon. Dragon and his angels fought back, but they were
defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in Heaven. Dragon
the Great was thrown down, that ancient serpent who is called Devil
and Satan, the one deceiving the whole inhabited World - he was thrown
down to earth and his angels were thrown down with him." Then a
voice booms down from Heaven heralding the defeat of "the Accuser" (ho
Kantegor), identifying the
Satan of Revelation with the satan of
the Old Testament.
Despite the fact that the
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis never mentions Satan,
Christians have traditionally interpreted the serpent in the
Satan due to Revelation 12:7, which calls
Satan "that ancient
serpent". This verse, however, is probably intended to
Satan with the Leviathan, a monstrous sea-serpent whose
Yahweh is prophesized in Isaiah 27:1. The first
recorded individual to identify
Satan with the serpent from the Garden
of Eden was the second-century AD
Christian apologist Justin
Martyr, in chapters 45 and 79 of his Dialogue with
Trypho. Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilus and Tertullian.
In Revelation 20:1-3,
Satan is bound with a chain and hurled into the
Abyss, where he is imprisoned for one thousand years. In
Revelation 20:7-10, he is set free and gathers his armies along with
Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog to wage war against the righteous, but is defeated
with fire from Heaven, and cast into the lake of fire.
After the New Testament
Medieval miniature depicting
Pope Sylvester II
Pope Sylvester II consorting with Satan
Satan from Hans Memling's Triptych of Earthly Vanity and
Divine Salvation (c. 1485)
For most Christians,
Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled
against God. The early
Christian church encountered opposition
from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it is blasphemy...to say
that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity
to do good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of
God, creating a rebellion in it, as if there were opposing factions
within the divine, including one that is hostile to God".
According to the ransom theory of atonement, which was popular among
Satan gained power over humanity
Adam and Eve's sin and Christ's death on the cross was a
Satan in exchange for humanity's liberation. This
theory holds that
Satan was tricked by God because Christ
was not only free of sin, but also the incarnate Deity, whom Satan
lacked the ability to enslave. Saint
Irenaeus of Lyons described
a prototypical form of the ransom theory, but the church father
Origen of Alexandria was the first to propose it in its fully
developed form. The theory was later expanded by theologians such
Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa and Rufinus of Aquileia. In the eleventh
century, Saint Anselm criticized the ransom theory, along with the
Christus Victor theory, resulting in the theory's
decline in western Europe. The theory has nonetheless retained
some of its popularity in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Satan had minimal role in medieval
Christian theology, but he
frequently appeared as a recurring comedic stock character in late
medieval mystery plays, in which he was portrayed as a comic
relief figure who "frolicked, fell, and farted in the
Jeffrey Burton Russell describes the medieval
Satan as "more pathetic and repulsive than
terrifying" and he was seen as little more than a nuisance
to God's overarching plan. During the Early Modern Period,
Christians gradually began to regard
Satan as increasingly
powerful and the fear of Satan's power became a dominant aspect
of the worldview of Christians across Europe. During the
Martin Luther taught that, rather than trying
to argue with Satan, Christians should avoid temptation altogether by
seeking out pleasant company; Luther especially recommended music
as a safeguard against temptation, since the
Devil "cannot endure
John Calvin repeated a maxim from Saint Augustine that
Man is like a horse, with either
God or the devil as rider."
The Genius of
Evil (1848) by Guillaume Geefs
The early English settlers of North America, especially the Puritans
of New England, believed that
Satan "visibly and palpably" reigned in
the New World.
John Winthrop claimed that the
rebellious Puritan women give birth to stillborn monsters with claws,
sharp horns, and "on each foot three claws, like a young fowl."
Cotton Mather wrote that devils swarmed around Puritan settlements
"like the frogs of Egypt". The
Puritans believed that the Native
Americans were worshippers of Satan and described them as
"children of the Devil". Some settlers claimed to have seen Satan
himself appear in the flesh at native ceremonies. During the
First Great Awakening, the "new light" preachers portrayed their "old
light" critics as ministers of Satan. By the time of the Second
Great Awakening, Satan's primary role in
American evangelicalism was
as the opponent of the evangelical movement itself, who spent
most of his time trying to hinder the ministries of evangelical
preachers, a role he has largely retained among present-day
Mormonism developed its own views on Satan. According to the Book of
Devil offered to be the redeemer of mankind for the sake of
his own glory. Conversely,
Jesus offered to be the redeemer of mankind
so that his father's will would be done. After his offer was rejected,
Satan became rebellious and was subsequently cast out of heaven.
In the Book of Moses, Cain is said to have "loved
Satan more than
God" and conspired with
Satan to kill Abel. It was through this
pact that Cain became a Master Mahan. The Book of
Moses also says
Moses was tempted by
Satan before calling upon the name of the
"Only Begotten", which caused
Satan to depart.
Douglas Davies asserts
that this text "reflects" the temptation of
Jesus in the Bible.
Satan and demonic possession remains strong among Christians
in the United States and
Latin America. According
to a 2013 poll conducted by YouGov, fifty-seven percent of people in
the United States believe in a literal Devil, compared to
eighteen percent of people in Britain. Fifty-one percent of
Americans believe that
Satan has the power to possess people. W.
Scott Poole, author of
Satan in America: The
Devil We Know, has opined
that "In the United States over the last forty to fifty years, a
composite image of
Satan has emerged that borrows from both popular
culture and theological sources" and that most American Christians do
not "separate what they know [about Satan] from the movies from what
they know from various ecclesiastical and theological
Catholic Church generally played down
exorcism during late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries,
Pope Francis brought renewed focus on the
Devil in the early
2010s, stating, among many other pronouncements, that "The devil is
intelligent, he knows more theology than all the theologians
together." According to the Encyclopædia Britannica,
Christianity tends to view
Satan "as a [figurative]
mythological attempt to express the reality and extent of evil in the
universe, existing outside and apart from humanity but profoundly
influencing the human sphere."
Bernard McGinn describes multiple traditions detailing the
relationship between the
Antichrist and Satan. In the dualist
Satan will become incarnate in the Antichrist, just as God
became incarnate in Jesus. However, in Orthodox Christian
thought, this view is problematic because it is too similar to
Christ's incarnation. Instead, the "indwelling" view has become
more accepted, which stipulates that the
Antichrist is a human
figure inhabited by Satan, since the latter's power is not to be
seen as equivalent to God's.
Roman mosaic showing a horned, goat-legged Pan holding a
shepherd's crook. Much of Satan's traditional iconography is
apparently derived from Pan.
Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible or any early
Christian writings, though
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle wrote that
Satan disguises himself as an angel of light" (2 Corinthians
Devil was never shown in early Christian
artwork and first appears in medieval art of the ninth
century, where he is shown with cloven hooves, hairy legs, the
tail of a goat, pointed ears, a beard, a flat nose, and a set of
horns. In the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, Jesus
separates sheep (representing the saved) from goats (representing the
damned). It is through this biblical passage that the
associated with goats. Medieval Christians were known to adapt
previously existing pagan iconography to suit depictions of Christian
figures. Much of Satan's traditional iconography is
apparently derived from Pan, a rustic, goat-legged fertility
god in ancient Greek religion. Early
Christian writers such
Jerome equated the Greek satyrs and the Roman fauns, whom Pan
resembled, with demons. The Devil's pitchfork appears to
have been adapted from the trident wielded by the Greek god
Poseidon and Satan's flame-like hair seems to have originated
from the Egyptian god Bes. By the High Middle Ages,
devils appear in all works of
Christian art: in paintings, sculptures,
and on cathedrals.
Satan is usually depicted naked, but his
genitals are rarely shown and are often covered by animal furs.
Some Christians associate
Satan with the number 666, which Revelation
13:18 describes as the Number of the Beast. However, the beast
mentioned in Revelation 13 is not Satan, and the use of 666 in
Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation has been interpreted as a reference to the
Roman Emperor Nero, as 666 is the numeric value of his name in
Demonic possession and witchcraft
Most early Christians firmly believed that
Satan and his demons had
the power to possess humans and exorcisms were widely practiced
by Jews, Christians, and pagans alike. Belief in demonic
possession continued through the
Middle Ages into the early modern
period. Exorcisms were seen as a display of God's power over
Satan. The vast majority of people who thought they were
possessed by the
Devil did not suffer from hallucinations or other
"spectacular symptoms", but "complained of anxiety, religious
fears, and evil thoughts."
Painting from c. 1788 by
Francisco Goya depicting Saint Francis
Borgia performing an exorcism. During the early modern period,
exorcisms were seen as displays of God's power over Satan.
During the early modern period, witches were widely believed to engage
in sexually explicit Satanic rituals with demons, such as the one
shown in this illustration by
Martin van Maële
Martin van Maële in the 1911 edition of
Satanism and Witchcraft by Jules Michelet.
The Canon Episcopi, written in the eleventh century AD, condemns
belief in witchcraft as heretical, but also documents that many
people at the time apparently believed in it. Witches were
believed to fly through the air on broomsticks, consort with
demons, perform in "lurid sexual rituals" in the forests,
murder human infants and eat them as part of Satanic rites, and
engage in conjugal relations with demons. In 1326, Pope John
XXII issued the papal bull Super illius Specula, which condemned
folk divination practices as consultation with Satan.
By the 1430s, the
Catholic Church began to regard witchcraft as part
of a vast conspiracy led by
Satan himself. In the late fifteenth
century, a series of witchcraft panics erupted in France and
Germany. In the mid-sixteenth century, the panic spread to
England and Switzerland. Both Protestants and Catholics alike
firmly believed in witchcraft as a real phenomenon and supported its
prosecution. In the late 1500s, the Dutch demonologist Johann
Weyer argued in his treatise
De praestigiis daemonum
De praestigiis daemonum that witchcraft
did not exist, but that
Satan promoted belief in it to lead
Christians astray. The panic over witchcraft intensified in the
1620s and continued until the end of the 1600s. Brian Levack
estimates that around 60,000 people were executed for witchcraft
during the entire span of the witchcraft hysteria.
By the early 1600s, skeptics, including the English author Reginald
Scot and the Anglican bishop John Bancroft, had begun to criticize the
belief that demons still had the power to possess people. This
skepticism was bolstered by the belief that miracles only occurred
during the Apostolic Age, which had long since ended. Later,
Enlightenment thinkers, such as
David Hume, Denis Diderot, and
Voltaire, attacked the notion of Satan's existence altogether.
Voltaire labelled John Milton's
Paradise Lost a "disgusting
fantasy" and declared that belief in
Satan were among
the many lies propagated by the
Catholic Church to keep humanity
Main article: Iblis
Azazel in Islam
Arabic equivalent of the word
Shaitan (شيطان, from
the root šṭn شطن). The word itself is an adjective (meaning
"astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be
applied to both man ("al-ins", الإنس) and al-jinn (الجن), but
it is also used in reference to
Satan in particular. In the Quran,
Satan's name is
Arabic pronunciation: [ˈibliːs]),
probably a derivative of the Greek word diabolos. Muslims do not
Satan as the cause of evil, but as a tempter, who takes
advantage of humans' inclinations toward self-centeredness.
Illustration from an
Arabic manuscript of the Annals of al-Tabari
Iblis refusing to prostrate before the newly-created Adam
Seven suras in the
Quran describe how
God ordered all the angels and
Iblis to bow before the newly-created Adam. All the
angels bowed, but
Iblis refused, claiming to be superior
Adam because he was made from fire; whereas
Adam was made from clay
God expelled him from Paradise and
condemned him to Jahannam.
Iblis thereafter became a kafir,
"an ungrateful disbeliever", whose sole mission is to lead humanity
Iblis to do this, because He knows
that the righteous will be able to resist Iblis's attempts to misguide
them. On Judgement Day, while the lot of
Satan remains in
question, those who followed him will be thrown into the fires of
Jahannam. After his banishment from Paradise, Iblis, who
thereafter became known as Al-
Shaitan ("the Demon"), lured Adam
and Eve into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree.
The primary characteristic of Satan, aside from his hubris and
despair, is his ability to cast evil suggestions (waswās) into men
and women. 15:45 states that
Satan has no influence over the
righteous, but that those who fall in error are under his
power. 7:156 implies that those who obey God's laws are immune to
the temptations of Satan. 56:79 warns that
Satan tries to keep
Muslims from reading the Quran and 16:98-100 recommends reciting
Quran as an antidote against Satan. 35:6 refers to
the enemy of humanity and 36:60 forbids humans from worshipping
him. In the Quranic retelling of the story of Job,
Job knows that
Satan is the one tormenting him.
Illustration (c. 1522) of
Iblis from a manuscript of the epic poem
In the Quran,
Satan is apparently an angel, but, in 18:50, he is
described as "from the jinns". This, combined with the fact that
he describes himself as having been made from fire, posed a major
problem for Muslims exegetes of the Quran, who disagree on
Satan is a fallen angel or the leader of a group of evil
jinn. According to a hadith from Ibn Abbas,
Iblis was actually an
God created out of fire.
Ibn Abbas asserts that the word
jinn could be applied to earthly jinn, but also to "fiery angels" like
Hasan of Basra, an eminent
Muslim theologian who lived in the seventh
century AD, was quoted as saying: "
Iblis was not an angel even for the
time of an eye wink. He is the origin of
Adam is of
Mankind." The medieval Persian scholar Abu
that the words angels and jinn are synonyms. Another Persian
scholar, Al-Baydawi, instead argues that
Satan hoped to be an
angel, but that his actions made him a jinn. Other Islamic
scholars argue that
Satan was a jinn who was admitted into
a reward for his righteousness and, unlike the angels, was given the
choice to obey or disobey God. When he was expelled from Paradise,
Satan blamed humanity for his punishment. Concering the fiery
origin of Iblis,
Zakariya al-Qazwini and Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad
Ibshīhī state that all supernatural creatures originated from
fire but the angels from its light and the jinn from its blaze, thus
fire denotes a disembodiment origin of all spiritual entities.
Muslim historian Al-Tabari, who died in around 923 AD, writes
Adam was created, earthly jinn made of smokeless fire
roamed the earth and spread corruption. He further relates that
Iblis was originally an angel named Azazil or Al-Harith, from a
group of angels, in contrast to the jinn, created from the fires of
simoom, who was sent by
God to confront the earthly
jinn. Azazil defeated the jinn in battle and drove them into
the mountains, but he became convinced that he was superior to
humans and all the other angels, leading to his downfall. In this
account, Azazil's group of angels were called jinn because they
Jannah (Paradise). In another tradition recorded by
Satan was one of the earthly jinn, who was taken captive by
the angels and brought to Heaven as a prisoner.
God appointed him as judge over the other jinn and he became known as
Al-Hakam. He fulfilled his duty for a thousand years before
growing negligent, but was rehabilitated again and resumed his
position until his refusal to bow before Adam.
A stoning of the
Devil from 1942
During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims almost unanimously
accepted the historicity of a tradition known as the Satanic
Verses. According to this narrative, Muhammad was told by Satan
to add words to the
Quran which would allow Muslims to pray for the
intercession of pagan goddesses. He mistook the words of Satan
for divine inspiration. Modern Muslims almost universally reject
this story as heretical, as it calls the integrity of the
On the third day of the Hajj,
Muslim pilgrims to
Mecca throw seven
stones at a pillar known as the Jamrah al-’Aqabah, symbolizing the
stoning of the Devil. This ritual is based on the Islamic
tradition that, when
Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael,
Satan tempted him three times not to do it, and, each time, Abraham
responded by throwing seven stones at him.
The hadith teach that newborn babies cry because
Satan touches them
while they are being born, and that this touch causes people to have
an aptitude for sin. This doctrine bears some similarities to the
doctrine of original sin.
Muslim tradition holds that only Jesus
and Mary were not touched by
Satan at birth. However, when he was
a boy, Muhammad's heart was literally opened by an angel, who removed
a black clot that symbolized sin.
Angels bow before the newly created Adam, but
Iblis (top right on the
picture) refuses to prostrate
Muslim tradition preserves a number of stories involving dialogues
Jesus and Iblis, all of which are intended to demonstrate
Jesus's virtue and Satan's depravity.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal records an
Islamic retelling of Jesus's temptation by
Satan in the desert from
the Synoptic Gospels.
Jesus as saying, "The greatest
sin is love of the world. Women are the ropes of Satan. Wine is the
key to every evil." Abu Uthman al-Jahiz credits
saying, "The world is Satan's farm, and its people are his
Al-Ghazali tells an anecdote about how
Jesus went out
one day and saw
Satan carrying ashes and honey; when he asked
what they were for,
Satan replied, "The honey I put on the lips of
backbiters so that they achieve their aim. The ashes I put on the
faces of orphans, so that people come to dislike them." The
Sibt ibn al-Jawzi states that, when Jesus
asked him what truly broke his back,
Satan replied, "The neighing of
horses in the cause of Allah."
According to Sufi mysticism,
Iblis refused to bow to
Adam because he
was fully devoted to
God alone and refused to bow to anyone
else. For this reason, Sufi masters regard
Muhammad as the two most perfect monotheists. Sufis reject the
concept of dualism and instead believe in the unity of
existence. In the same way that Muhammad was the instrument of
God's mercy, Sufis regard
Satan as the instrument of God's
Muslims believe that
Satan is also the cause of deceptions originating
from the mind and desires for evil. He is regarded as a cosmic force
for separation, despair and spiritual envelopment. Muslims do
distinguish between the satanic temptations and the murmurings of the
bodily lower self (Nafs). The lower self commands the person to do a
specific task or to fulfill a specific desire; whereas the
Satan tempt the person to do evil in general and,
after a person successfully resists his first suggestion, Satan
returns with new ones. If a
Muslim feels that
Satan is inciting
him to sin, he is advised to seek refuge with
God by reciting: "In the
name of Allah, I seek refuge in you, from
Satan the outcast." Muslims
are also obliged to "seek refuge" before reciting the Quran.
In the Bahá'í Faith,
Satan is not regarded as an independent evil
power as he is in some faiths, but signifies the lower
nature of humans.
`Abdu'l-Bahá explains: "This lower nature
in man is symbolized as
Satan — the evil ego within us, not an evil
personality outside." All other evil spirits described in
various faith traditions—such as fallen angels, demons, and
jinns—are also metaphors for the base character traits a human being
may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. Actions,
that are described as "satanic" in some Bahá'í writings, denote
humans deeds caused by selfish desires.
Main article: Satanism
Eliphas Levi's image of
Baphomet is embraced by LaVeyan Satanists as a
symbol of duality, fertility, and the "powers of darkness", serving as
the namesake of their primary insignia, the Sigil of Baphomet.
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as "devil worship", views
Satan as a deity, whom individuals may supplicate to. It
consists of loosely affiliated or independent groups and cabals, which
all agree that
Satan is a real entity.
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism,
Satan does not exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity,
but rather as a symbol of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be
permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. In this religion, "Satan" is not
viewed or depicted as a hubristic, irrational, and fraudulent
creature, but rather is revered with Prometheus-like attributes,
symbolizing liberty and individual empowerment. To adherents, he also
serves as a conceptual framework and an external metaphorical
projection of the Satanist's highest personal
potential. In his essay "Satanism: The Feared
Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter H.
Gilmore, further expounds that "...
Satan is a symbol of
Man living as
his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind
simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of
nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in
all living things.
Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped,
rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
LaVeyan Satanists embrace the original etymological meaning of the
word "Satan" (Hebrew: שָּׂטָן satan, meaning "adversary").
According to Peter H. Gilmore, "The
Church of Satan
Church of Satan has chosen Satan
as its primary symbol because in
Hebrew it means adversary, opposer,
one to accuse or question. We see ourselves as being these Satans; the
adversaries, opposers and accusers of all spiritual belief systems
that would try to hamper enjoyment of our life as a human being."
Allegations of worship
A depiction of Santa Muerte
The main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of the
Yazidis, Melek Taus, is similar to the devil in
Christian and Islamic
traditions, as he refused to bow down before humanity. Therefore
Christians and Muslims often consider
Melek Taus to be Satan.
However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism can be understood as a
remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. In fact, there is no
entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such
dualism is rejected by Yazidis.
In the Middle Ages, the Cathars, practitioners of a dualistic
religion, were accused of worshipping
Satan by the Catholic Church.
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX stated in his work
Vox in Rama
Vox in Rama that the Cathars
God had erred in casting
Lucifer out of heaven and that
Lucifer would return to reward his faithful. On the other hand,
according to Catharism, the creator-god of the material world
worshipped by the
Catholic Church is actually Satan.
Wicca is a modern, syncretic Neopagan religion, whose
practitioners many Christians have incorrectly assumed to worship
Satan. In actuality, Wiccans do not believe in the existence of
Satan or any analogous figure and have repeatedly and
emphatically rejected the notion that they venerate such an
entity. The cult of the skeletal figure of Santa Muerte, which
has grown exponentially in Mexico, has been denounced by the
Catholic Church as Devil-worship. However, devotees of Santa
Muerte view her as an angel of death created by God, and many of
them identify as Catholic.
Much modern folklore about
Satanism does not originate from the actual
beliefs or practices of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but rather
from a mixture of medieval
Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban
legends. An example is the Satanic ritual abuse
scare of the 1980s — beginning with the memoir Michelle Remembers
— which depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a
predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice. This genre
Satan as physically incarnating in order to
Devil in popular culture
In art and literature
If he was once as handsome as he now is ugly and, despite that, raised
his brows against his Maker, one can understand,
how every sorrow has its source in him!
— Dante in Inferno, Canto XXXIV (Verse translation by Allen
Here we may reign secure, and in my choice
to reign is worth ambition though in Hell:
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven.
Satan in John Milton's
Paradise Lost Book I, lines 261-263
In Dante Alighieri's Inferno,
Satan appears as a giant demon, frozen
mid-breast in ice at the center of the Ninth Circle of Hell.
Satan has three faces and a pair of bat-like wings affixed under each
chin. In his three mouths,
Satan gnaws on Brutus, Judas Iscariot,
and Cassius, whom Dante regarded as having betrayed the "two
greatest heroes of the human race": Julius Caesar, the founder of
the new order of government, and Jesus, the founder of the new order
of religion. As
Satan beats his wings, he creates a cold wind
that continues to freeze the ice surrounding him and the other sinners
in the Ninth Circle. Dante and
Virgil climb up Satan's shaggy
legs until gravity is reversed and they fall through the earth into
the southern hemisphere.
Satan appears in several stories from
The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey
Chaucer, including "The Summoner's Prologue", in which a friar
Hell and sees no other friars, but is told there are
Satan lifts his tail to reveal that all of the
friars live inside his anus. Chaucer's description of Satan's
appearance is clearly based on Dante's. The legend of Faust,
recorded in the 1589 chapbook The History of the Damnable Life and the
Deserved Death of Doctor John Faustus, concerns a pact allegedly
made by the German scholar Johann Georg
Faust with a demon named
Mephistopheles agreeing to sell his soul to
Satan in exchange for
twenty-four years of earthly pleasure. This chapbook became the
source for Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of the Life and
Death of Doctor Faustus.
John Milton's epic poem
Paradise Lost features
Satan as its main
protagonist. Milton portrays
Satan as a tragic antihero
destroyed by his own hubris. The poem, which draws extensive
inspiration from Greek tragedy, recreates
Satan as a complex
literary character, who dares to rebel against the "tyranny" of
God, in spite of God's own omnipotence. The
English poet and painter
William Blake famously quipped that "The
reason Milton wrote in fetters when he wrote of Angels & God, and
at liberty when of Devils & Hell, is because he was a true poet
and of the Devils party without knowing it."
the sequel to
Paradise Lost, is a retelling of Satan's temptation of
Jesus in the desert.
William Blake regarded
Satan as a model of rebellion against unjust
authority and features him in many of his poems and
illustrations, including his 1780 book The Marriage of Heaven and
Hell, in which
Satan is celebrated as the ultimate rebel, the
incarnation of human emotion and the epitome of freedom from all forms
of reason and orthodoxy. Based on the Biblical passages
Satan as the accuser of sin, Blake interpreted Satan
as "a promulgator of moral laws."
Satan from The Last Judgement (c. 1583) by
Jacob de Backer
Satan Summoning his Legions (1790) by Thomas Lawrence
Satan and Death with Sin Intervening (c. 1792 or 1802) by Henry Fuseli
The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the
Sun (c. 1805) by
Satan Watching the Caresses of
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve (c. 1808) by William
Blake, an illustration of John Milton's
Satan Arousing the Rebel Angels (c. 1808) by William Blake, an
illustration of John Milton's
Evil Dreams (1821) by William Blake
Temptation of Christ
Temptation of Christ by the
Devil (1860) by Félix-
Satan (c. 1866) by Gustave Doré
Illustration (1866) for John Milton's
Paradise Lost by Gustave Doré,
showing Satan's fall from heaven
Illustration (1866) by
Gustave Doré showing
Satan as the Prince of
Hell, as portrayed in John Milton's
Illustration (1866) by
Gustave Doré showing the angel
Satan upon his "impious crest", as described in John Milton's Paradise
Lost, Book VI
In film and television
The Haunted Castle (1896)
Devil is depicted as a vampire bat in Georges Méliès' The
Haunted Castle (1896), which is often considered the first horror
film. So-called "Black Masses" have been portrayed in
sensationalist B-movies since the 1960s. One of the first films
to portray such a ritual was the 1965 film Eye of the Devil, also
known as 13. Alex Sanders, a former black magician, served as a
consultant on the film to ensure that the rituals portrayed in it were
depicted accurately. Over the next thirty years, the novels of
Dennis Wheatley and the films of
Hammer Film Productions
Hammer Film Productions both played a
major role in shaping the popular image of Satanism.
The film version of Ira Levin's Rosemary's Baby established made
Satanic themes a staple of mainstream horror fiction. Later films
such as The Exorcist (1973),
The Omen (1976) and
Angel Heart (1987)
Satan as an antagonist.
Tartini's Dream (1824) by Louis-Léopold Boilly
Satan in music can be dated back to the Middle Ages.
During the fifth century, a musical interval called the tritone became
known as "the devil in Music" and was banned by the Catholic
Giuseppe Tartini was inspired to write his most famous
work, the Violin Sonata in G minor, also known as "The Devil's Trill",
after dreaming of the
Devil playing the violin. Tartini claimed that
the sonata was a lesser imitation of what the
Devil had played in his
Niccolò Paganini was believed to have derived his musical
talent from a deal with the Devil. Charles Gounod's Faust
features a narrative that involves Satan.
In the early 1900s, jazz and blues became known as the "Devil's Music"
as they were considered "dangerous and unholy". According to
legend, blues musician Tommy Johnson was a terrible guitarist before
exchanging his soul to the
Devil for a guitar. Later, Robert Johnson
claimed that he had sold his soul in return for becoming a great blues
guitarist. Satanic symbolism appears in rock music from the
Mick Jagger assumes the role of
Lucifer in the Rolling Stones'
"Sympathy for the Devil" (1968), while
Black Sabbath portrayed
Devil in numerous songs, including "War Pigs" (1970) and "N.I.B."
Man of sin
Prince of Darkness (Satan)
^ Hebrew: שָּׂטָן satan, meaning "enemy" or "adversary";
Ancient Greek: Σατάν satan; Arabic: شيطان shaitan,
meaning "astray", "distant", or sometimes "devil"
^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard
Petersen – 2009
^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35,
Kelly Warman-Stallings – 2012
^ a b Kelly 2006, pp. 15–16.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 1–13.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Campo 2009, p. 603.
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, pp. 1–13, 28–29.
^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the
Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia
^ Stephen M. Hooks – 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:1–2 the term here
carries the definite article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not
as a...the only place in the
Hebrew Bible where the term "Satan" is
unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The
Hebrew Bible in Its Context, Oxford University Press, 2009
^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-
p65 "However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it
Satan (without the definite article),"
Septuagint 108:6 κατάστησον ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν
ἁμαρτωλόν καὶ διάβολος στήτω ἐκ
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 14.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 16.
^ a b c Kelly 2006, p. 20.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 18–19.
^ a b c d e Kelly 2006, p. 19.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 18.
^ a b c d e f Kelly 2006, p. 21.
^ a b Kelly 2006, pp. 21–22.
^ a b c Kelly 2006, p. 22.
^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus
^ Kelly 2006, p. 23.
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 24.
^ Russell 1977, p. 102.
^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998,
page 152 "There are so many features that
Zoroastrianism seems to
share with the Judeo-
Christian tradition that it would be difficult to
... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is
when the Achaemenian Cyrus conquered
Babylon ..539 BC"
^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the
Indo-European roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press
of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 30.
^ a b Jackson,
David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark
International. pp. 2–4. ISBN 0826470890.
^ a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of
the Jewish religion (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
p. 651. ISBN 0199730040. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 42–43.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 34–35.
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 35.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 36.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 36–37.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 37.
^ a b Kelly 2006, pp. 37–40.
^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our
Author's Views: Demonology, by R.H. Charles.
2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of
Satanael: The Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A.
Orlov, Dark Mirrors:
Azazel and Satanael in Early Jewish Demonology
(Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85–106.
^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was
flying in the air continuously above the bottomless" –
2 Enoch 29:4
^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he
made Sotona from the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became
different from the angels, but his nature did not change his
intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful
2 Enoch 31:4
^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object
of the book, by A. T. S. Goodrick.
^ Alexander Altmann, Alfred L. Ivry, Elliot R. Wolfson, Allan Arkush
Perspectives on Jewish Thought and Mysticism Taylor & Francis 1998
ISBN 978-9-057-02194-7 page 268
^ Glustrom 1989, pp. 22–24.
^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of
satan's realm (1. paperback ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc.
of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
^ Based on the
Jewish exegesis of 1
Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 –
Oxford dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651
^ Glustrom 1989, p. 24.
^ "Satan". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George
Washington University The
Book of Job
Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy
2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us insight into the parallel
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden story and the
Job story alluded to ... both
Satan and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif
Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the imagination."
^ Ronald L. Eisenberg Dictionary of Jewish Terms: A Guide to the
Language of Judaism Taylor Trade Publications 2011
ISBN 978-1-589-79729-1 page 356
Rabbi Rachel Timoner Breath of Life:
God as Spirit in Judaism
Paraclete Press 2011 ISBN 978-1-557-25899-1
^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, © 1967
^ MJL Staff. "Do
Jews Believe in Satan?: In Jewish texts, the devil is
sometimes an adversary and sometimes an embodiment of evil". My Jewish
^ Talmud, b. Berakhot 46a.6
^ Newman, Yona (1999–2009), "Part 1 Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch Linear
Translation: The Laws of finger washing and the blessings after the
meal", yonanewman.org, archived from the original on
2016-05-18 CS1 maint: Date format (link)
^ "What Reform
Jews Believe: Central tenets of this faith, based on
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^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.
^ a b van der Toorn, Becking & Willem 1999, p. 731.
^ Revelation 12:9
^ van der Toorn, Becking & Willem 1999, pp. 154–155.
^ a b Guiley 2009, p. 1.
^ Revelation 9:11
^ a b Day 2002, pp. 171-172.
^ a b c Caird 1980, p. 225.
^ Kohler 1923, p. 5.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 98.
^ a b Kohler 1923, pp. 4–5.
^ Patmore 2012, p. 4.
^ Patmore 2012, pp. 52–53.
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^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 95.
^ Beekmann & Bolt 2012, p. 99-102.
^ Beekmann & Bolt 2012, p. 99-100.
^ a b Beekmann & Bolt 2012, p. 100-101.
^ Peterson 2012, p. 428.
^ Beekmann & Bolt 2012, p. 102.
^ Bass 2014, p. 113.
^ a b Kelly 2006, pp. 95–96.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 102, 142.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 106.
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 107.
^ Almond 2004, p. 11.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 109.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 112.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 112–113.
^ Peter H. Davids; Douglas J. Moo; Robert Yarbrough (5 April 2016). 1
and 2 Peter, Jude, 1, 2, and 3 John. Zondervan. p. 240.
^ R. C. Lucas; Christopher Green (2 May 2014). The Message of 2 Peter
& Jude. InterVarsity Press. pp. 168–.
^ "ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth;
Minucius Felix; Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second".
^ a b James Charlesworth Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, p. 76, Google
^ The Assumption of Moses: a critical edition with commentary By
Johannes Tromp. P270
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 271.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 66.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 144.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 142.
^ a b c d e Kelly 2006, p. 143.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 149–150.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 150.
^ a b Kelly 2006, pp. 150–151.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 151.
^ Kelly 2006, pp. 151–152.
^ a b c d Kelly 2006, p. 152.
^ Poole 2009, pp. 7–8.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 176.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 117.
^ a b c d Garland 2006.
^ Ginther 2009, p. 10.
^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Eddy & Beilby 2008, p. 86.
^ a b Plantinga, Thompson & Lundberg 2010.
^ a b c d e f g Poole 2009, p. 8.
^ Russell 1984, p. 225.
^ a b Poole 2009, pp. 8–9.
^ a b c Ferber 2004, p. 3.
^ a b Bainton 1978, p. 377.
^ Parker 1995, p. 56.
^ a b Poole 2009, p. 16.
^ a b Turner, Matthew Paul (2014-02-16). "Why American Christians Love
Satan". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
^ a b Poole 2009, p. 17.
^ Poole 2009, pp. 15–16.
^ Poole 2009, p. 37.
^ a b Poole 2009, pp. 37–43.
^ Poole 2009, pp. 44–45.
^ Davies 2010, pp. 158.
^ Davies 2010, pp. 119.
^ a b c d Jordan 2013.
^ Stoddard 2007.
^ Poole 2009, p. xvii-xix, 3.
^ a b c Faiola 2014.
^ Rosica 2015.
^ "Satan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
^ a b c d e f Cabinet 2001.
^ a b c d e f Link 1995, pp. 44–45.
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^ Chambers 2014, p. 89.
^ Link 1995, p. 72.
^ Pilch 1995, p. 167.
^ Link 1995, pp. 45–46.
^ a b Schorn, Joel (October 2013). "What is 666 in the Bible?". U.S.
Catholic. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
^ Skatssoon, Judy (2006-06-06). "Why 666 is a devil of a day". ABC
News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
^ a b Ferguson 2003, p. 237.
^ Almond 2004, pp. 1–7.
^ Ferber 2004, pp. 1–3.
^ a b Osborn 1998, p. 213.
^ a b c d e f Thomsett 2011, p. 131.
^ a b Thomsett 2011, p. 133.
^ a b c d e f Poole 2009, p. 9.
^ a b Thomsett 2011, p. 132.
^ Thomsett 2011, p. 130.
^ a b Levack 2015.
^ Almond 2004, p. 7.
^ Almond 2004, p. 8.
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^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Kelly 2006, p. 185.
^ Charles Mathewes Understanding Religious Ethics John Wiley &
Sons 2010 ISBN 978-1-405-13351-7 page 248
^ a b Vicchio 2008, p. 175.
^ a b c d Vicchio 2008, p. 181.
^ [Quran 17:62]
^ [Quran 17:63–64]
^ Annemarie Schimmel Gabriel's Wing: A Study Into the Religious Ideas
of Sir Muhammad Iqbal Brill Archive 1963 page 212
^ [Quran 7:20–22]
^ Georges Tamer
Islam and Rationality: The Impact of al-Ghazālī.
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^ Vicchio 2008, pp. 175–178.
Tafsir al-Qur'an al-adhim (Interpretation of the Great Qur'an) - Ibn
Kathir - commentary of surat al baqarah
^ The Beginning and the End -
Ibn Kathir - Volume I, also the Koranic
commentary of the same author
^ a b c d Vicchio 2008, p. 183.
^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn
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^ Vicchio 2008, pp. 175–176.
^ Vicchio 2008, pp. 183–184.
^ Brannon Wheeler Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran
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^ Allen 2015, pp. 80–81.
^ a b Ahmed 2017, p. 3.
^ Militarev, Alexander; Kogan, Leonid (2005), Semitic Etymological
Animal Names, Alter Orient und Altes Testament, 278/2,
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^ Ahmed 2017, p. 1.
^ a b McMillan 2011.
^ "A step-by-step guide to Hajj". Al Jazeera. August 30, 2017.
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^ a b c d Jabbour 2014.
^ a b Vicchio 2008, pp. 184–185.
^ a b c Vicchio 2008, p. 185.
^ a b c d e Geoffroy 2010, p. 150.
^ a b Ahmadi & Ahmadi 1998, p. 79.
^ Michael Anthony Sells. Early Islamic Mysticism: Sufi, Qurʼan,
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^ Patrick Sookhdeo Understanding Islamic Theology BookBaby 2014
^ a b c ʻAbduʾl-Bahá 1982, pp. 294–295.
^ a b c Smith 2000, pp. 135–136, 304.
^ Smith 2008, p. 112.
^ Peter Smith An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith Cambridge University
Press 2008 ISBN 978-0-521-86251-6 page 112
^ Lewis 2001, pp. 20–21.
^ "Cerro Rico:
Devil worship on the man-eating mountain". BBC
^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West.
p. 82. ISBN 9780567082695. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn
Press, 8 Mar 2011, p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the
devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "
Theistic Satanism then
becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme
god and his rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic,
controntational view is modified by other theistic Satanists who do
not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom
^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
^ Catherine Beyer. "An Introduction to
LaVeyan Satanism and the Church
of Satan". About.com Religion & Spirituality.
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "What, The Devil?".
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "F.A.Q. Fundamental Beliefs".
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Religious Requirements and
Practices - churchofsatan.com". churchofsatan.com.
^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45,
Jesper Aagaard Petersen, 2009
^ High Priest, Magus Peter H. Gilmore. "Satanism: The Feared
Church of Satan
Church of Satan [History Channel]. YouTube. 12 January
^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a
Secret Cult and Their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. 
^ Birgül Açikyildiz The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture
and Religion I.B.Tauris 2014 ISBN 978-0-857-72061-0 page 74
^ James Wasserman The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of
Heaven Simon and Schuster 2001 ISBN 978-1-594-77873-5 page
^ a b c d Gallagher & Ashcraft 2006, p. 89.
^ Ramirez, Margaret. "'Saint Death' comes to Chicago". Chicago
Tribune. Chicago. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
^ "BBC News - Vatican declares Mexican Death Saint blasphemous".
Bbc.co.uk. 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
^ Gray, Steven (2007-10-16). "Santa Muerte: The New
God in Town".
Time.com. Chicago: Time. Retrieved 2009-10-07.
^ Cadiz Klemack, John (2012-04-24). "Saint or Satan?: "Angel of Death"
Worshipped in LA". NBC. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
^ Cadiz Klemack, John (2016-06-07). "Mexicans worship cult of 'Saint
Death'". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in
Film, Carrol Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 92–98
^ a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by
Jan Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694–695
^ a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by
Bill Ellis, University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths
about groups accused of Satanism, "...such myths are already pervasive
in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped
organize concerns and beliefs". Accusations of
Satanism are traced
from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic Ritual Abuse
panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern
Satanists believe and what is believed about Satanists.
^ a b Poole 2009, pp. 42–43.
^ Fowlie 1981, pp. 210–212.
^ a b c Fowlie 1981, p. 211.
^ a b c Fowlie 1981, p. 212.
^ Tambling 2017, pp. 47–50.
^ a b c Tambling 2017, p. 50.
^ Tambling 2016, p. 50.
^ a b c Kelly 2006, p. 268.
^ Verbart 1995, pp. 45–46.
^ a b Bryson 2004, pp. 77–79.
^ Bryson 2004, pp. 80–81.
^ Bryson 2004, pp. 77–78.
^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 272.
^ Bryson 2004, pp. 77–80.
^ Bryson 2004, p. 80.
^ Bryson 2004, p. 20.
^ Kelly 2006, p. 274.
^ a b Werner 1986, p. 61.
^ Prince 2004, p. 1.
^ Draven 2010, p. 148.
^ a b Ellis 2000, pp. 157–158.
^ Ellis 2000, p. 157.
^ Ellis 2000, p. 159.
^ Blue, Samantha. "The
Devil We Used to Know: Portrayals of the Devil
in Media". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
^ a b c d Watson, Tom. "The Devil's Chord: A History of
Popular Music". Crack Magazine. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
^ "The Devil's Trill". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 3,
^ Spignesi 2003, p. 281.
^ Lewis, John (2011-06-15). "
Robert Johnson sells his souls to the
devil". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
^ Irwin, William. "
Black Sabbath and the Secret of Scary Music".
Psychology Today. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
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Ahmad, Shahab (2017), Before Orthodoxy: The
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Ahmadi, Nader; Ahmadi, Fereshteh (1998), Iranian Islam: The Concept of
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Bainton, Roland H. (1978) , Here I Stand: A Life of Martin
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Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's
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Bass, Justin (2014), The Battle for the Keys: Revelation 1:18 and
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Beekmann, Sharon; Bolt, Peter G. (2012), Silencing Satan: Handbook of
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Bryson, Michael (2004), The Tyranny of Heaven: Milton's Rejection of
God as King, Cranbury, New Jersey, London, England, and Mississauga,
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Cabinet, Kristofer Widholm and Bernard McGinn (2001). "Antichrist: An
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Caird, George Bradford (1980), The Language and Imagery of the Bible,
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The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1913), pp. 29–33 in
Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II.
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Davies, Douglas J. (2010). Fallen
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Day, John (2002) ,
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Empson, William. Milton's
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Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy:
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Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006), Introduction to New
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David E. (2006), Hebrews - Revelation, The Expositor's Bible
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Satan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Satan
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Satan.
Catholic Encyclopedia — "Devil"
Jewish Encyclopedia — "Satan"
The Internet Sacred Texts Archive hosts texts—scriptures, literature
and scholarly works—on Satan,
Satanism and related religious matters
The Brotherhood of Satan’s perspective on
Satan and Lucifer.
In the Bible
Book of Job
Book of Revelation
Book of Zechariah
Parable of the Sower
Parable of the Strong Man
Parable of the Tares
Serpents in the Bible
Temptation of Christ
The Sheep and the Goats
War in Heaven
Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve with Satan
Adam and Eve
Questions of Bartholomew
Other names & related figures
Ezekiel's cherub in Eden
Prince of Darkness
Faust, Part One
Faust, Part Two
Johann Georg Faust
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus
The Summoner's Tale
After School Satan
Church of Satan
Cutter v. Wilkinson
First Satanic Church
Greater and lesser magic
Order of Nine Angles
Satan Takes a Holiday
Sigil of Baphomet
Temple of the Black Light
The Devil's Notebook
The infernal names
The Mass of Saint-Sécaire
The Satanic Bible
The Satanic Rituals
The Satanic Temple
The Satanic Witch
New Testament people
Life in the New Testament
Anna the Prophetess
Blind man (Bethsaida)
Man born blind ("Celidonius")
Penitent thief ("Dismas")
Impenitent thief ("Gestas")
John the Baptist
Joseph of Arimathea
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary, mother of James
Mary of Bethany
Mary of Clopas
Son of Nain's widow
Nicodemus ben Gurion)
Simon, brother of Jesus
Simon of Cyrene
Simon the Leper
Simon the Pharisee
Female disciples of Jesus
James of Alphaeus (James the Less)
James of Zebedee
Simon the Zealot
Ananias son of Nedebeus
James, brother of Jesus
Judas of Galilee
cousin of Barnabas
Mary, mother of (John) Mark
Silas / Silvanus
Herod the Great
Euodia and Syntyche
John the Presbyter
Whore of Babylon
People and things in the Quran
Allâh ("The God")
Allah found in the Quran
Beings in Paradise
Ghilmān or Wildān
The baqarah (cow) of Israelites
The dhi’b (wolf) that
Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')
‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one")
Mârid ("Rebellious one")
Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)
‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise)
Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (
Solomon son of David)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (
John the Baptist
John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the
Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (
Joseph son of Jacob)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (
Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (
Abraham Friend of God)
Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?)
Saul or Gideon?)
Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)
People of Prophets
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Pharaoh of Moses' time)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)
Adam's immediate relatives
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd))
Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Implied or not specified
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath)
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah's Ark
Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
People of Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of Noah
Tribes, ethnicities or families
A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')
People of Saba’ or Sheba
Thamûd (people of Saleh)
Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")
Rûm (literally "The Romans")
Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel)
Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood")
Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah)
Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.)
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Wives of Muhammad
Household of Salih
People of Fir'aun
Current Ummah of
Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Anṣār Muslims of
Medina who helped Muhammad and his Meccan
followers, literally 'Helpers')
People of Mecca
Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)
Children of Ayyub
Dead son of Sulaiman
Qabil/Cain (son of Adam)
Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh)
Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut)
Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog)
Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)
Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Aus & Khazraj
People of Quba
Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi)
People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of
Abraham and Lot
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed")
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")
Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")
Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwah
‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)
Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden')
Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")
Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabîl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of
Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il
Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Paradise of Shaddad
Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred")
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The
Place-of-Prostration The Farthest")
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred
Mosque of Mecca)
Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet's Mosque
Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Forbidden fruit of Adam
Bushes, trees or plants
Plants of Sheba
Līnah (Tender palm tree)
Nakhl (date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Gospel of Jesus)
Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")
Objects of people or beings
Heavenly Food of
Staff of Musa
Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of Israfil
Idols of Israelites:
The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites
Idols of Noah's people:
Idols of Quraysh:
Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ
Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)
Water or fluid)
River or sea)
Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates")
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Uhud
Conquest of Mecca
Incident of Ifk
Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of
Marib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada')
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name
/ Biblical name (titl