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Satan[a] is an entity in the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
that seduces humans into sin. In Christianity
Christianity
and Islam, he is usually seen as a fallen angel, or a jinni, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who nevertheless allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh
Tanakh
as a heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of God
God
subordinate to Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period, possibly due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, Yahweh
Yahweh
grants the satan (referred to as Mastema) authority over a group of fallen angels to tempt humans to sin and punish them. In the Synoptic Gospels, Satan
Satan
tempts Jesus
Jesus
in the desert and is identified as the cause of illness and temptation. Satan
Satan
is described in the New Testament
New Testament
as the "ruler of the demons" and "the god of this age". In the Book of Revelation, Satan
Satan
appears as a Great Red Dragon, who is defeated by Michael the Archangel and cast down from Heaven. He is later bound for one thousand years, but is briefly set free before being ultimately defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In Christianity, Satan
Satan
is also known as the Devil
Devil
and, although the Book of Genesis does not mention him, he is often identified with the serpent in the Garden
Garden
of Eden. Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, but, since the ninth century, he has often been shown in Christian art
Christian art
with horns, cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, and a tail, often naked and holding a pitchfork. These are an amalgam of traits derived from various pagan deities, including Pan, Poseidon, and Bes. In medieval times, Satan
Satan
played a minimal role in Christian theology
Christian theology
and was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern period, Satan's significance greatly increased as beliefs such as demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the Age of Enlightenment, belief in the existence of Satan
Satan
became harshly criticized. Nonetheless, belief in Satan
Satan
has persisted, particularly in the Americas. In the Quran, Shaitan, also known as Iblis, is an entity made of fire who was cast out of Heaven because he refused to bow before the newly-created Adam
Adam
and incites humans and jinn to sin by infecting their minds with waswās ("evil suggestions"). Although Satan
Satan
is generally viewed as evil, some groups have very different beliefs. In Theistic Satanism, Satan
Satan
is considered a deity who is either worshipped or revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan
Satan
is a symbol of virtuous characteristics and liberty.[1][2] Satan
Satan
appears frequently in Christian
Christian
literature, most notably in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, variants of the Faust
Faust
legend, John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
and Paradise Regained, and the poems of William Blake. He continues to appear in film, television, and music.

Contents

1 Historical development

1.1 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

1.1.1 Book of Job 1.1.2 Book of Zechariah

1.2 Second Temple
Second Temple
period

2 Judaism

2.1 Rabbinical Judaism 2.2 Modern Judaism

3 Christianity

3.1 Names 3.2 New Testament

3.2.1 Gospels, Acts, and epistles 3.2.2 Book of Revelation

3.3 After the New Testament

3.3.1 Theology 3.3.2 Iconography 3.3.3 Demonic possession and witchcraft

4 Islam

4.1 Quran 4.2 Islamic tradition

4.2.1 Affiliation 4.2.2 Other traditions

5 Bahá'í Faith 6 Satanism

6.1 Theistic Satanism 6.2 Atheistic Satanism

7 Allegations of worship 8 In culture

8.1 In art and literature 8.2 In film and television 8.3 In music

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Historical development Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

Balaam
Balaam
and the Angel (1836) by Gustav Jäger. The angel in this incident is referred to as a "satan".[3]

The original Hebrew
Hebrew
term satan is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or "adversary",[4][5] which is used throughout the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible to refer to ordinary human adversaries,[6][5] as well as a specific supernatural entity.[6][5] The word is derived from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose".[7] When it is used without the definite article (simply satan), the word can refer to any accuser,[6] but when it is used with the definite article (ha-satan), it usually refers specifically to the heavenly accuser: the satan.[6] Ha- Satan
Satan
with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible: Job
Job
ch. 1–2 (10×)[8] and Zechariah 3:1–2 (3×).[9] Satan
Satan
without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the Septuagint
Septuagint
and "Satan" in the King James Version (KJV):

1 Chronicles 21:1, " Satan
Satan
stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10] Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan
Satan
stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis,[12] which mentions only a talking serpent[12] and does not identify the serpent with any supernatural entity.[12] The first occurrence of the word "satan" in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible in reference to a supernatural figure comes from Numbers 22:22,[13] which describes the Angel of Yahweh confronting Balaam
Balaam
on his donkey:[3] "Balaam's departure aroused the wrath of Elohim, and the Angel of Yahweh
Yahweh
stood in the road as a satan against him."[13] In 2 Samuel
Samuel
24, Yahweh
Yahweh
sends the "Angel of Yahweh" to inflict a plague against Israel
Israel
for three days, killing 70,000 people as punishment for David
David
having taken a census without his approval.[14] 1 Chronicles 21:1 repeats this story,[14] but replaces the "Angel of Yahweh" with an entity referred to as "a satan".[14] Some passages clearly refer to the satan, without using the word itself.[15] 1 Samuel
Samuel
2:12 describes the sons of Eli as "sons of Belial";[16] the later usage of this word makes it clearly a synonym for "satan".[16] In 1 Samuel
Samuel
16:14-23 Yahweh
Yahweh
sends a "troubling spirit" to torment King Saul
Saul
as a mechanism to ingratiate David
David
with the king.[17] In 1 Kings 22:19-25, the prophet Micaiah describes to King Ahab
Ahab
a vision of Yahweh
Yahweh
sitting on his throne surrounded by the Host of Heaven.[16] Yahweh
Yahweh
asks the Host which of them will lead Ahab astray.[16] A "spirit", whose name is not specified, but who is analogous to the satan, volunteers to be "a Lying Spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets".[16] Book of Job

The Examination of Job
Job
(c. 1821) by William Blake

The satan appears in the Book of Job, a poetic dialogue set within a prose framework,[18] which may have been written around the time of the Babylonian captivity.[18] In the text, Job
Job
is a righteous man favored by Yahweh.[18] Job
Job
1:6-8 describes the "sons of God" (bənê hāʼĕlōhîm) presenting themselves before Yahweh.[18] Yahweh
Yahweh
asks one of them, "the satan", where he has been, to which he replies that he has been patrolling the earth.[18] Yahweh
Yahweh
asks, "Have you considered My servant Job?"[18] The satan replies by urging Yahweh
Yahweh
to let him torture Job, promising that Job
Job
will abandon his faith at the first tribulation.[19] Yahweh
Yahweh
consents; the satan destroys Job's servants and flocks, yet Job
Job
refuses to condemn Yahweh.[19] The first scene repeats itself, with the satan presenting himself to Yahweh alongside the other "sons of God".[20] Yahweh
Yahweh
points out Job's continued faithfulness, to which the satan insists that more testing is necessary;[20] Yahweh
Yahweh
once again gives him permission to test Job.[20] In the end, Job
Job
remains faithful and righteous, and it is implied that the satan is shamed in his defeat.[21] Book of Zechariah Zechariah 3:1-7 contains a description of a vision dated to the middle of February of 519 BC,[22] in which an angel shows Zechariah a scene of Joshua the High Priest
Joshua the High Priest
dressed in filthy rags, representing the nation of Judah and its sins,[23] on trial with Yahweh
Yahweh
as the judge and the satan standing as the prosecutor.[23] Yahweh
Yahweh
rebukes the satan[23] and orders for Joshua to be given clean clothes, representing Yahweh's forgiveness of Judah's sins.[23] Second Temple
Second Temple
period

Map showing the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire, in which Jews lived during the early Second Temple
Second Temple
Period,[5] allowing Zoroastrian ideas about Angra Mainyu
Angra Mainyu
to influence the Jewish conception of Satan[5]

During the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, when Jews
Jews
were living in the Achaemenid Empire, Judaism was heavily influenced by Zoroastrianism, the religion of the Achaemenids.[24][5][25] Jewish conceptions of Satan
Satan
were impacted by Angra Mainyu,[5][26] the Zoroastrian god of evil, darkness, and ignorance.[5] In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha- Satan
Satan
in Job
Job
and Zechariah is translated by the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in the Greek New Testament
New Testament
from which the English word devil is derived.[27] Where satan is used to refer to human enemies in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, such as Hadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[27] The idea of Satan
Satan
as an opponent of God
God
and a purely evil figure seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during the Second Temple Period,[28] particularly in the apocalypses.[29] The Book of Enoch, which the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
have revealed to have been nearly as popular as the Torah,[30] describes a group of 200 angels known as the "Watchers", who are assigned to supervise the earth, but instead abandon their duties and have sexual intercourse with human women.[31] The leader of the Watchers is Semjâzâ[32] and another member of the group, known as Azazel, spreads sin and corruption among humankind.[32] The Watchers are ultimately sequestered in isolated caves across the earth[32] and are condemned to face judgement at the end of time.[32] The Book of Jubilees, written in around 150 BC,[33] retells the story of the Watchers' defeat,[34] but, in deviation from the Book of Enoch, Mastema, the "Chief of Spirits", intervenes before they are all sealed away, requesting for Yahweh
Yahweh
to let him keep some of them to become his workers.[35] Yahweh
Yahweh
acquiesces this request[35] and Mastema uses them to tempt humans into committing more sins, so that he may punish them for their wickedness.[36] Later, Mastema induces Yahweh
Yahweh
to test Abraham
Abraham
by ordering him to sacrifice Isaac.[36][37] The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to a Watcher called Satanael.[38] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of heaven[39] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful".[40] In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world.[41] The name Samael, which is used in reference to one of the fallen angels, later became a common name for Satan
Satan
in Jewish Midrash and Kabbalah.[42] Judaism Rabbinical Judaism

The sound of a shofar (pictured) is believed to symbolically confuse Satan.

Most Jews
Jews
do not believe in the existence of a supernatural omnimalevolent figure.[43] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as abstract.[44] The Rabbis usually interpreted the word satan as it is used in the Tanakh
Tanakh
as referring strictly to human adversaries[45] and rejected all of the Enochian writings mentioning Satan
Satan
as a literal, heavenly figure from the Biblical canon, making every attempt to root them out.[28] Nonetheless, the word satan has occasionally been metaphorically applied to evil influences,[46] such as the Jewish exegesis
Jewish exegesis
of the yetzer hara ("evil inclination") mentioned in Genesis 6:5.[47] Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job
Book of Job
generally follows the Talmud and Maimonides
Maimonides
in identifying "the satan" from the prologue as a metaphor for the yetzer hara and not an actual entity.[48] Satan
Satan
is rarely mentioned in Tannaitic literature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[29] According to a narration, the sound of the shofar, which is primarily intended to remind Jews
Jews
of the importance of teshuva, is also intended symbolically to "confuse the accuser" (Satan) and prevent him from rendering any litigation to God
God
against the Jews.[49] In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
presents Satan
Satan
as an agent of God whose function is to tempt humans into sinning so that he may accuse them in the heavenly court.[50] The Hasidic Jews
Jews
of the 18th century associated ha- Satan
Satan
with Baal
Baal
Davar.[51] Modern Judaism Each sect of Judaism has its own interpretation of Satan's identity. Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism
generally rejects the Talmudic interpretation of Satan
Satan
as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, and regard him as a literal agent of God.[52] Orthodox Judaism, on the other hand, outwardly embraces Talmudic teachings on Satan, and involves Satan
Satan
in religious life far more inclusively than other sects. Satan
Satan
is mentioned explicitly in some daily prayers, including during Shacharit
Shacharit
and certain post-meal benedictions, as described in Talmud[53] and the Jewish Code of Law.[54] In Reform Judaism, Satan
Satan
is generally seen in his Talmudic role as a metaphor for the yetzer hara and the symbolic representation of innate human qualities such as selfishness.[55] Christianity Main article: Devil
Devil
in Christianity Names

Beelzebub
Beelzebub
depicted in the 1863 edition of Jacques Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal

Lucifer
Lucifer
(1890) by Franz Stuck

The most common English synonym for "Satan" is "devil", which descends from Middle English
Middle English
devel, from Old English
Old English
dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of Latin
Latin
diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", from diaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through" + ballein "to hurl".[56] In the New Testament, the words Satan
Satan
and diabolos are used interchangeably as synonyms.[57][58] Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament
New Testament
to a Philistine
Philistine
god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al Zabul", meaning " Baal
Baal
the Prince".[59] The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
identify Satan
Satan
and Beelzebub
Beelzebub
as the same.[57] The name Abaddon
Abaddon
(meaning "place of destruction") is used six times in the Old Testament, mainly as a name for one the regions of Sheol.[60] Revelation 9:11 describes Abaddon, whose name is translated into Greek as Apollyon, meaning "the destroyer", as an angel who rules the Abyss.[61] In modern usage, Abaddon
Abaddon
is sometimes equated with Satan.[60] The name Heylel, meaning "morning star", was a name for Attar, the god of the planet Venus
Venus
in Canaanite mythology,[62] who attempted to scale the walls of the heavenly city,[63][62] but was vanquished by the god of the sun.[63] The name is used in Isaiah 14:12 in metaphorical reference to the king of Babylon.[63] Later tradition reinterpreted this passage as a reference to the fall of Satan.[64][65] The Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
translation of this passage renders Heylel as "Lucifer"[66] and this name continues to be used by some Christians as an alternative name for Satan.[66] In a similar vein, Ezekiel 28:12-15, a passage about a cherub in Eden which is primarily a polemic against Ithobaal II, the king of Tyre,[67] has also been interpreted by some Christians as simultaneously metaphorically alluding to the fall of Satan.[68] New Testament Gospels, Acts, and epistles

Sixteenth-century illustration by Simon Bening
Simon Bening
showing Satan approaching Jesus
Jesus
with a stone

The Temptation of Christ
Temptation of Christ
(1854) by Ary Scheffer

The three Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
all describe the temptation of Christ by Satan
Satan
in the desert (Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13).[69] Satan
Satan
first shows Jesus
Jesus
a stone and tells him to turn it into bread.[69] He also takes him to the pinnacle of the Temple in Jerusalem and commands Jesus
Jesus
to throw himself down so that the angels will catch him.[69] Satan
Satan
takes Jesus
Jesus
to the top of a tall mountain as well; there, he shows him the kingdoms of the earth and promises to give them all to him if he will bow down and worship him.[69] Each time Jesus
Jesus
rebukes Satan[69] and, after the third temptation, he is administered by the angels.[69] Satan's promise in Matthew 4:8-9 and Luke 4:6-7 to give Jesus
Jesus
all the kingdoms of the earth implies that all those kingdoms belong to him.[70] The fact that Jesus
Jesus
does not dispute Satan's promise indicates that the authors of those gospels believed this to be true.[70] Satan
Satan
plays a role in some of the parables of Jesus, namely the Parable of the Sower, the Parable of the Weeds, Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, and the Parable of the Strong Man.[71] According to the Parable of the Sower, Satan
Satan
"profoundly influences" those who fail to understand the gospel.[72] The latter two parables say that Satan's followers will be punished on Judgement Day, with the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats stating that the Devil, his angels, and the people who follow him will be consigned to "eternal fire".[73] When the Pharisees
Pharisees
accused Jesus
Jesus
of exorcising demons through the power of Beelzebub, Jesus
Jesus
responds by telling the Parable of the Strongman, saying: "how can someone enter a strong man's house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man? Then indeed he may plunder his house" (Matthew 12:29).[74] The strong man in this parable represents Satan.[75] The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
identify Satan
Satan
and his demons as the causes of illness,[70] including fever (Luke 4:39), leprosy (Luke 5:13), and arthritis (Luke 13:11-16),[70] while the Epistle
Epistle
to the Hebrews describes the Devil
Devil
as "him who holds the power of death" (Hebrews 2:14).[76] The author of Luke-Acts attributes more power to Satan
Satan
than both Matthew and Mark.[77] In Luke 22:31, Jesus
Jesus
grants Satan
Satan
the authority to test Peter and the other apostles.[78] Luke 22:3-6 states that Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot
betrayed Jesus
Jesus
because " Satan
Satan
entered" him[77] and, in Acts 5:3, Peter describes Satan
Satan
as "filling" Ananias's heart and causing him to sin.[79] The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
only uses the name Satan
Satan
three times.[80] In John 8:44, Jesus
Jesus
says that the Jews
Jews
are the children of the Devil
Devil
rather than the children of Abraham;[80] the same verse describes the Devil
Devil
as "a man-killer from the beginning"[80] and "a liar and the father of lying."[80][81] John 13:2 describes the Devil
Devil
as inspiring Judas to betray Jesus[82] and John 12:31-32 identifies Satan
Satan
as "the Archon of this Cosmos",[83] who is destined to be overthrown through Jesus's death and resurrection.[83] John 16:7-8 promises that the Holy Spirit will "accuse the World concerning sin, justice, and judgement", a role resembling that of the satan in the Old Testament.[84] Jude 1:9 refers to a dispute between Michael the Archangel and the Devil
Devil
over the body of Moses. Some interpreters understand this reference to be an allusion to the events described in Zechariah 3:1-2.[85][86] The classical theologian Origen
Origen
attributes this reference to the non-canonical Assumption of Moses.[87] According to James H. Charlesworth, there is no evidence the surviving book of this name ever contained any such content.[88] Others believe it to be in the lost ending of the book.[88][89] Throughout the New Testament, Satan
Satan
is referred to as a "tempter" (Matthew 4:3),[5] "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24),[90][5] "the God
God
of this Age" (2 Corinthians 4:4),[91] "the evil one" (1 John 5:18),[5] and "a roaring lion" (1 Peter 5:8).[90] Book of Revelation

St. Michael Vanquishing Satan
St. Michael Vanquishing Satan
(1518) by Raphael, depicting Satan
Satan
being cast out of heaven by Michael the Archangel, as described in Revelation 12:7-8

The Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
represents Satan
Satan
as the supernatural ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the ultimate cause of all evil in the world.[92] In Revelation 2:9-10, as part of the letter to the church at Smyrna, John of Patmos
John of Patmos
refers to the Jews
Jews
of Smyrna
Smyrna
as "a synagogue of Satan"[93] and warns that "the Devil
Devil
is about to cast some of you into prison as a test [peirasmos], and for ten days you will have affliction."[93] In Revelation 2:13-14, in the letter to the church of Pergamum, John warns that Satan
Satan
lives among the members of the congregation[94] and declares that "Satan's throne" is in their midst.[94] Pergamum
Pergamum
was the capital of the Roman Province of Asia[94] and "Satan's throne" may be referring to the monumental Pergamon Altar in the city, which was dedicated to the Greek god Zeus,[94] or to a temple dedicated to the Roman emperor Augustus.[94] Revelation 12:3 describes a vision of a Great Red Dragon with seven heads, ten horns, seven crowns, and a massive tail,[95] an image which is clearly inspired by the vision of the four beasts from the sea in the Book of Daniel[96] and the Leviathan
Leviathan
described in various Old Testament passages.[97] The Great Red Dragon knocks "a third of the sun... a third of the moon, and a third of the stars" out the sky[98] and pursues the Woman of the Apocalypse.[98] Revelation 12:7-9 declares: "And war broke out in Heaven. Michael and his angels fought against Dragon. Dragon and his angels fought back, but they were defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in Heaven. Dragon the Great was thrown down, that ancient serpent who is called Devil and Satan, the one deceiving the whole inhabited World - he was thrown down to earth and his angels were thrown down with him."[99] Then a voice booms down from Heaven heralding the defeat of "the Accuser" (ho Kantegor),[100] identifying the Satan
Satan
of Revelation with the satan of the Old Testament.[100] Despite the fact that the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
never mentions Satan,[12] Christians have traditionally interpreted the serpent in the Garden
Garden
of Eden as Satan
Satan
due to Revelation 12:7, which calls Satan
Satan
"that ancient serpent".[100][5] This verse, however, is probably intended to identify Satan
Satan
with the Leviathan,[100] a monstrous sea-serpent whose destruction by Yahweh
Yahweh
is prophesized in Isaiah 27:1.[97] The first recorded individual to identify Satan
Satan
with the serpent from the Garden of Eden was the second-century AD Christian
Christian
apologist Justin Martyr,[101][102] in chapters 45 and 79 of his Dialogue with Trypho.[102] Other early church fathers to mention this identification include Theophilus and Tertullian.[103] In Revelation 20:1-3, Satan
Satan
is bound with a chain and hurled into the Abyss,[104] where he is imprisoned for one thousand years.[104] In Revelation 20:7-10, he is set free and gathers his armies along with Gog and Magog
Gog and Magog
to wage war against the righteous,[104] but is defeated with fire from Heaven, and cast into the lake of fire.[104] After the New Testament Theology

Medieval miniature depicting Pope Sylvester II
Pope Sylvester II
consorting with Satan (c. 1460)

Detail of Satan
Satan
from Hans Memling's Triptych of Earthly Vanity and Divine Salvation (c. 1485)

For most Christians, Satan
Satan
is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God.[105] The early Christian
Christian
church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God".[106] According to the ransom theory of atonement, which was popular among early Christian
Christian
theologians,[107] Satan
Satan
gained power over humanity through Adam
Adam
and Eve's sin[107] and Christ's death on the cross was a ransom to Satan
Satan
in exchange for humanity's liberation.[107] This theory holds that Satan
Satan
was tricked by God[107][108] because Christ was not only free of sin, but also the incarnate Deity, whom Satan lacked the ability to enslave.[108] Saint Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons described a prototypical form of the ransom theory,[107] but the church father Origen
Origen
of Alexandria was the first to propose it in its fully developed form.[107] The theory was later expanded by theologians such as Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
and Rufinus of Aquileia.[107] In the eleventh century, Saint Anselm criticized the ransom theory, along with the associated Christus Victor
Christus Victor
theory,[107] resulting in the theory's decline in western Europe.[107] The theory has nonetheless retained some of its popularity in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[107] Satan
Satan
had minimal role in medieval Christian
Christian
theology,[109] but he frequently appeared as a recurring comedic stock character in late medieval mystery plays,[109] in which he was portrayed as a comic relief figure who "frolicked, fell, and farted in the background".[109] Jeffrey Burton Russell describes the medieval conception of Satan
Satan
as "more pathetic and repulsive than terrifying"[109][110] and he was seen as little more than a nuisance to God's overarching plan.[109] During the Early Modern Period, Christians gradually began to regard Satan
Satan
as increasingly powerful[111] and the fear of Satan's power became a dominant aspect of the worldview of Christians across Europe.[112][109] During the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
taught that, rather than trying to argue with Satan, Christians should avoid temptation altogether by seeking out pleasant company;[113] Luther especially recommended music as a safeguard against temptation, since the Devil
Devil
"cannot endure gaiety."[113] John Calvin
John Calvin
repeated a maxim from Saint Augustine that " Man
Man
is like a horse, with either God
God
or the devil as rider."[114]

The Genius of Evil
Evil
(1848) by Guillaume Geefs

The early English settlers of North America, especially the Puritans of New England, believed that Satan
Satan
"visibly and palpably" reigned in the New World.[115] John Winthrop
John Winthrop
claimed that the Devil
Devil
made rebellious Puritan women give birth to stillborn monsters with claws, sharp horns, and "on each foot three claws, like a young fowl."[116] Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather
wrote that devils swarmed around Puritan settlements "like the frogs of Egypt".[117] The Puritans
Puritans
believed that the Native Americans were worshippers of Satan[118] and described them as "children of the Devil".[115] Some settlers claimed to have seen Satan himself appear in the flesh at native ceremonies.[117] During the First Great Awakening, the "new light" preachers portrayed their "old light" critics as ministers of Satan.[119] By the time of the Second Great Awakening, Satan's primary role in American evangelicalism
American evangelicalism
was as the opponent of the evangelical movement itself,[120] who spent most of his time trying to hinder the ministries of evangelical preachers,[120] a role he has largely retained among present-day American fundamentalists.[121] Mormonism
Mormonism
developed its own views on Satan. According to the Book of Moses, the Devil
Devil
offered to be the redeemer of mankind for the sake of his own glory. Conversely, Jesus
Jesus
offered to be the redeemer of mankind so that his father's will would be done. After his offer was rejected, Satan
Satan
became rebellious and was subsequently cast out of heaven.[122] In the Book of Moses, Cain is said to have "loved Satan
Satan
more than God"[123] and conspired with Satan
Satan
to kill Abel. It was through this pact that Cain became a Master Mahan.[124] The Book of Moses
Moses
also says that Moses
Moses
was tempted by Satan
Satan
before calling upon the name of the "Only Begotten", which caused Satan
Satan
to depart. Douglas Davies
Douglas Davies
asserts that this text "reflects" the temptation of Jesus
Jesus
in the Bible.[125] Belief in Satan
Satan
and demonic possession remains strong among Christians in the United States[126][127][128] and Latin
Latin
America.[129] According to a 2013 poll conducted by YouGov, fifty-seven percent of people in the United States believe in a literal Devil,[126] compared to eighteen percent of people in Britain.[126] Fifty-one percent of Americans believe that Satan
Satan
has the power to possess people.[126] W. Scott Poole, author of Satan
Satan
in America: The Devil
Devil
We Know, has opined that "In the United States over the last forty to fifty years, a composite image of Satan
Satan
has emerged that borrows from both popular culture and theological sources" and that most American Christians do not "separate what they know [about Satan] from the movies from what they know from various ecclesiastical and theological traditions."[116] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
generally played down Satan
Satan
and exorcism during late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries,[129] but Pope Francis
Pope Francis
brought renewed focus on the Devil
Devil
in the early 2010s, stating, among many other pronouncements, that "The devil is intelligent, he knows more theology than all the theologians together."[129][130] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, liberal Christianity
Christianity
tends to view Satan
Satan
"as a [figurative] mythological attempt to express the reality and extent of evil in the universe, existing outside and apart from humanity but profoundly influencing the human sphere."[131] Bernard McGinn describes multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist
Antichrist
and Satan.[132] In the dualist approach, Satan
Satan
will become incarnate in the Antichrist, just as God became incarnate in Jesus.[132] However, in Orthodox Christian thought, this view is problematic because it is too similar to Christ's incarnation.[132] Instead, the "indwelling" view has become more accepted,[132] which stipulates that the Antichrist
Antichrist
is a human figure inhabited by Satan,[132] since the latter's power is not to be seen as equivalent to God's.[132] Iconography

Ancient Roman mosaic
Roman mosaic
showing a horned, goat-legged Pan holding a shepherd's crook. Much of Satan's traditional iconography is apparently derived from Pan.[133][134]

Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible or any early Christian
Christian
writings,[135][134] though Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
wrote that " Satan
Satan
disguises himself as an angel of light" (2 Corinthians 11:14).[136] The Devil
Devil
was never shown in early Christian artwork[135][134] and first appears in medieval art of the ninth century,[137] where he is shown with cloven hooves, hairy legs, the tail of a goat, pointed ears, a beard, a flat nose, and a set of horns.[133][134][109] In the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, Jesus separates sheep (representing the saved) from goats (representing the damned).[73] It is through this biblical passage that the Devil
Devil
became associated with goats.[138] Medieval Christians were known to adapt previously existing pagan iconography to suit depictions of Christian figures.[133][134] Much of Satan's traditional iconography is apparently derived from Pan,[133][134] a rustic, goat-legged fertility god in ancient Greek religion.[133][134] Early Christian
Christian
writers such as Saint Jerome
Jerome
equated the Greek satyrs and the Roman fauns, whom Pan resembled, with demons.[133][134] The Devil's pitchfork appears to have been adapted from the trident wielded by the Greek god Poseidon[134] and Satan's flame-like hair seems to have originated from the Egyptian god Bes.[134] By the High Middle Ages, Satan
Satan
and devils appear in all works of Christian
Christian
art: in paintings, sculptures, and on cathedrals.[139] Satan
Satan
is usually depicted naked,[134] but his genitals are rarely shown and are often covered by animal furs.[134] Some Christians associate Satan
Satan
with the number 666, which Revelation 13:18 describes as the Number of the Beast.[140] However, the beast mentioned in Revelation 13 is not Satan,[141] and the use of 666 in the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
has been interpreted as a reference to the Roman Emperor Nero, as 666 is the numeric value of his name in Hebrew.[140] Demonic possession and witchcraft Most early Christians firmly believed that Satan
Satan
and his demons had the power to possess humans[142] and exorcisms were widely practiced by Jews, Christians, and pagans alike.[142] Belief in demonic possession continued through the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
into the early modern period.[143][144] Exorcisms were seen as a display of God's power over Satan.[112] The vast majority of people who thought they were possessed by the Devil
Devil
did not suffer from hallucinations or other "spectacular symptoms",[145] but "complained of anxiety, religious fears, and evil thoughts."[145]

Painting from c. 1788 by Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
depicting Saint Francis Borgia performing an exorcism. During the early modern period, exorcisms were seen as displays of God's power over Satan.[112]

During the early modern period, witches were widely believed to engage in sexually explicit Satanic rituals with demons,[146] such as the one shown in this illustration by Martin van Maële
Martin van Maële
in the 1911 edition of Satanism
Satanism
and Witchcraft by Jules Michelet.

The Canon Episcopi, written in the eleventh century AD, condemns belief in witchcraft as heretical,[146] but also documents that many people at the time apparently believed in it.[146] Witches were believed to fly through the air on broomsticks,[146] consort with demons,[146] perform in "lurid sexual rituals" in the forests,[146] murder human infants and eat them as part of Satanic rites,[147] and engage in conjugal relations with demons.[111][147] In 1326, Pope John XXII issued the papal bull Super illius Specula,[148] which condemned folk divination practices as consultation with Satan.[148] By the 1430s, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
began to regard witchcraft as part of a vast conspiracy led by Satan
Satan
himself.[149] In the late fifteenth century, a series of witchcraft panics erupted in France and Germany.[148][149] In the mid-sixteenth century, the panic spread to England and Switzerland.[148] Both Protestants and Catholics alike firmly believed in witchcraft as a real phenomenon and supported its prosecution.[150] In the late 1500s, the Dutch demonologist Johann Weyer argued in his treatise De praestigiis daemonum
De praestigiis daemonum
that witchcraft did not exist,[151] but that Satan
Satan
promoted belief in it to lead Christians astray.[151] The panic over witchcraft intensified in the 1620s and continued until the end of the 1600s.[148] Brian Levack estimates that around 60,000 people were executed for witchcraft during the entire span of the witchcraft hysteria.[148] By the early 1600s, skeptics, including the English author Reginald Scot and the Anglican bishop John Bancroft, had begun to criticize the belief that demons still had the power to possess people.[152] This skepticism was bolstered by the belief that miracles only occurred during the Apostolic Age, which had long since ended.[153] Later, Enlightenment thinkers, such as David
David
Hume, Denis Diderot, and Voltaire, attacked the notion of Satan's existence altogether.[154] Voltaire
Voltaire
labelled John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
a "disgusting fantasy"[154] and declared that belief in Hell
Hell
and Satan
Satan
were among the many lies propagated by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to keep humanity enslaved.[154] Islam Main article: Iblis See also: Azazel
Azazel
§  Azazel
Azazel
in Islam The Arabic
Arabic
equivalent of the word Satan
Satan
is Shaitan
Shaitan
(شيطان, from the root šṭn شطن). The word itself is an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to both man ("al-ins", الإنس) and al-jinn (الجن), but it is also used in reference to Satan
Satan
in particular. In the Quran, Satan's name is Iblis
Iblis
( Arabic
Arabic
pronunciation: [ˈibliːs]), probably a derivative of the Greek word diabolos.[155] Muslims do not regard Satan
Satan
as the cause of evil, but as a tempter, who takes advantage of humans' inclinations toward self-centeredness.[156] Quran

Illustration from an Arabic
Arabic
manuscript of the Annals of al-Tabari showing Iblis
Iblis
refusing to prostrate before the newly-created Adam

Seven suras in the Quran
Quran
describe how God
God
ordered all the angels and Iblis
Iblis
to bow before the newly-created Adam.[5][157][155] All the angels bowed, but Iblis
Iblis
refused,[5][157][155] claiming to be superior to Adam
Adam
because he was made from fire; whereas Adam
Adam
was made from clay (7:12).[155] Consequently, God
God
expelled him from Paradise[5][155] and condemned him to Jahannam.[158][155] Iblis
Iblis
thereafter became a kafir, "an ungrateful disbeliever",[5] whose sole mission is to lead humanity astray.[5][159] God
God
allows Iblis
Iblis
to do this,[5][160] because He knows that the righteous will be able to resist Iblis's attempts to misguide them.[5] On Judgement Day, while the lot of Satan
Satan
remains in question,[161] those who followed him will be thrown into the fires of Jahannam.[158][155] After his banishment from Paradise, Iblis, who thereafter became known as Al- Shaitan
Shaitan
("the Demon"),[158] lured Adam and Eve into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree.[158][155][162] The primary characteristic of Satan, aside from his hubris and despair, is his ability to cast evil suggestions (waswās) into men and women.[163] 15:45 states that Satan
Satan
has no influence over the righteous,[164] but that those who fall in error are under his power.[164] 7:156 implies that those who obey God's laws are immune to the temptations of Satan.[164] 56:79 warns that Satan
Satan
tries to keep Muslims from reading the Quran[165] and 16:98-100 recommends reciting the Quran
Quran
as an antidote against Satan.[165] 35:6 refers to Satan
Satan
as the enemy of humanity[165] and 36:60 forbids humans from worshipping him.[165] In the Quranic retelling of the story of Job, Job
Job
knows that Satan
Satan
is the one tormenting him.[165] Islamic tradition

Illustration (c. 1522) of Iblis
Iblis
from a manuscript of the epic poem Shahnameh

Affiliation In the Quran, Satan
Satan
is apparently an angel,[155] but, in 18:50, he is described as "from the jinns".[155] This, combined with the fact that he describes himself as having been made from fire, posed a major problem for Muslims exegetes of the Quran,[155] who disagree on whether Satan
Satan
is a fallen angel or the leader of a group of evil jinn.[166] According to a hadith from Ibn Abbas, Iblis
Iblis
was actually an angel whom God
God
created out of fire. Ibn Abbas
Ibn Abbas
asserts that the word jinn could be applied to earthly jinn, but also to "fiery angels" like Satan.[167] Hasan of Basra, an eminent Muslim
Muslim
theologian who lived in the seventh century AD, was quoted as saying: " Iblis
Iblis
was not an angel even for the time of an eye wink. He is the origin of Jinn
Jinn
as Adam
Adam
is of Mankind."[168] The medieval Persian scholar Abu Al-Zamakhshari states that the words angels and jinn are synonyms.[169] Another Persian scholar, Al-Baydawi, instead argues that Satan
Satan
hoped to be an angel,[169] but that his actions made him a jinn.[169] Other Islamic scholars argue that Satan
Satan
was a jinn who was admitted into Paradise
Paradise
as a reward for his righteousness and, unlike the angels, was given the choice to obey or disobey God. When he was expelled from Paradise, Satan
Satan
blamed humanity for his punishment.[170] Concering the fiery origin of Iblis, Zakariya al-Qazwini
Zakariya al-Qazwini
and Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Ibshīhī[171] state that all supernatural creatures originated from fire but the angels from its light and the jinn from its blaze, thus fire denotes a disembodiment origin of all spiritual entities.[172] The Muslim
Muslim
historian Al-Tabari, who died in around 923 AD,[155] writes that, before Adam
Adam
was created, earthly jinn made of smokeless fire roamed the earth and spread corruption.[173] He further relates that Iblis
Iblis
was originally an angel named Azazil or Al-Harith,[174] from a group of angels, in contrast to the jinn, created from the fires of simoom,[175] who was sent by God
God
to confront the earthly jinn.[176][155] Azazil defeated the jinn in battle and drove them into the mountains,[176] but he became convinced that he was superior to humans and all the other angels, leading to his downfall.[176] In this account, Azazil's group of angels were called jinn because they guarded Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise).[177] In another tradition recorded by Al-Tabari, Satan
Satan
was one of the earthly jinn, who was taken captive by the angels[164][155] and brought to Heaven as a prisoner.[164][155] God
God
appointed him as judge over the other jinn and he became known as Al-Hakam.[164] He fulfilled his duty for a thousand years before growing negligent,[155] but was rehabilitated again and resumed his position until his refusal to bow before Adam.[155] Other traditions

A stoning of the Devil
Devil
from 1942

During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims almost unanimously accepted the historicity of a tradition known as the Satanic Verses.[178] According to this narrative, Muhammad was told by Satan to add words to the Quran
Quran
which would allow Muslims to pray for the intercession of pagan goddesses.[179] He mistook the words of Satan for divine inspiration.[178] Modern Muslims almost universally reject this story as heretical, as it calls the integrity of the Quran
Quran
into question.[180] On the third day of the Hajj, Muslim
Muslim
pilgrims to Mecca
Mecca
throw seven stones at a pillar known as the Jamrah al-’Aqabah, symbolizing the stoning of the Devil.[181] This ritual is based on the Islamic tradition that, when God
God
ordered Abraham
Abraham
to sacrifice his son Ishmael, Satan
Satan
tempted him three times not to do it, and, each time, Abraham responded by throwing seven stones at him.[181][182] The hadith teach that newborn babies cry because Satan
Satan
touches them while they are being born, and that this touch causes people to have an aptitude for sin.[183] This doctrine bears some similarities to the doctrine of original sin.[183] Muslim
Muslim
tradition holds that only Jesus and Mary were not touched by Satan
Satan
at birth.[183] However, when he was a boy, Muhammad's heart was literally opened by an angel, who removed a black clot that symbolized sin.[183]

Angels bow before the newly created Adam, but Iblis
Iblis
(top right on the picture) refuses to prostrate

Muslim
Muslim
tradition preserves a number of stories involving dialogues between Jesus
Jesus
and Iblis,[176] all of which are intended to demonstrate Jesus's virtue and Satan's depravity.[184] Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
records an Islamic retelling of Jesus's temptation by Satan
Satan
in the desert from the Synoptic Gospels.[176] Ahmad
Ahmad
quotes Jesus
Jesus
as saying, "The greatest sin is love of the world. Women are the ropes of Satan. Wine is the key to every evil."[184] Abu Uthman al-Jahiz credits Jesus
Jesus
with saying, "The world is Satan's farm, and its people are his plowmen."[176] Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
tells an anecdote about how Jesus
Jesus
went out one day and saw Satan
Satan
carrying ashes and honey;[185] when he asked what they were for, Satan
Satan
replied, "The honey I put on the lips of backbiters so that they achieve their aim. The ashes I put on the faces of orphans, so that people come to dislike them."[185] The thirteenth-century scholar Sibt ibn al-Jawzi states that, when Jesus asked him what truly broke his back, Satan
Satan
replied, "The neighing of horses in the cause of Allah."[185] According to Sufi mysticism, Iblis
Iblis
refused to bow to Adam
Adam
because he was fully devoted to God
God
alone and refused to bow to anyone else.[186][169] For this reason, Sufi masters regard Satan
Satan
and Muhammad as the two most perfect monotheists.[186] Sufis reject the concept of dualism[186][187] and instead believe in the unity of existence.[187] In the same way that Muhammad was the instrument of God's mercy,[186] Sufis regard Satan
Satan
as the instrument of God's wrath.[186] Muslims believe that Satan
Satan
is also the cause of deceptions originating from the mind and desires for evil. He is regarded as a cosmic force for separation, despair and spiritual envelopment. Muslims do distinguish between the satanic temptations and the murmurings of the bodily lower self (Nafs). The lower self commands the person to do a specific task or to fulfill a specific desire; whereas the inspirations of Satan
Satan
tempt the person to do evil in general and, after a person successfully resists his first suggestion, Satan returns with new ones.[188] If a Muslim
Muslim
feels that Satan
Satan
is inciting him to sin, he is advised to seek refuge with God
God
by reciting: "In the name of Allah, I seek refuge in you, from Satan
Satan
the outcast." Muslims are also obliged to "seek refuge" before reciting the Quran.[189] Bahá'í Faith In the Bahá'í Faith, Satan
Satan
is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths,[190][191] but signifies the lower nature of humans.[190][191] `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized as Satan
Satan
— the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside."[190][191] All other evil spirits described in various faith traditions—such as fallen angels, demons, and jinns—are also metaphors for the base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God.[192] Actions, that are described as "satanic" in some Bahá'í writings, denote humans deeds caused by selfish desires.[193] Satanism Main article: Satanism

Eliphas Levi's image of Baphomet
Baphomet
is embraced by LaVeyan Satanists as a symbol of duality, fertility, and the "powers of darkness", serving as the namesake of their primary insignia, the Sigil of Baphomet.[194]

Theistic Satanism Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as "devil worship",[195] views Satan
Satan
as a deity, whom individuals may supplicate to.[196][197] It consists of loosely affiliated or independent groups and cabals, which all agree that Satan
Satan
is a real entity.[198] Atheistic Satanism Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan
Satan
does not exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather as a symbol of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by humans over the course of time. In this religion, "Satan" is not viewed or depicted as a hubristic, irrational, and fraudulent creature, but rather is revered with Prometheus-like attributes, symbolizing liberty and individual empowerment. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an external metaphorical projection of the Satanist's highest personal potential.[199][200][201][202][203] In his essay "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter H. Gilmore, further expounds that "... Satan
Satan
is a symbol of Man
Man
living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind Satan
Satan
is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan
Satan
is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will".[204] LaVeyan Satanists embrace the original etymological meaning of the word "Satan" (Hebrew: שָּׂטָן satan, meaning "adversary"). According to Peter H. Gilmore, "The Church of Satan
Church of Satan
has chosen Satan as its primary symbol because in Hebrew
Hebrew
it means adversary, opposer, one to accuse or question. We see ourselves as being these Satans; the adversaries, opposers and accusers of all spiritual belief systems that would try to hamper enjoyment of our life as a human being."[205] Allegations of worship

A depiction of Santa Muerte

The main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of the Yazidis, Melek Taus, is similar to the devil in Christian
Christian
and Islamic traditions, as he refused to bow down before humanity. Therefore Christians and Muslims often consider Melek Taus
Melek Taus
to be Satan.[206] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism can be understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. In fact, there is no entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis.[207] In the Middle Ages, the Cathars, practitioners of a dualistic religion, were accused of worshipping Satan
Satan
by the Catholic Church. Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
stated in his work Vox in Rama
Vox in Rama
that the Cathars believed that God
God
had erred in casting Lucifer
Lucifer
out of heaven and that Lucifer
Lucifer
would return to reward his faithful. On the other hand, according to Catharism, the creator-god of the material world worshipped by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is actually Satan.[208] Wicca
Wicca
is a modern, syncretic Neopagan religion,[209] whose practitioners many Christians have incorrectly assumed to worship Satan.[209] In actuality, Wiccans do not believe in the existence of Satan
Satan
or any analogous figure[209] and have repeatedly and emphatically rejected the notion that they venerate such an entity.[209] The cult of the skeletal figure of Santa Muerte, which has grown exponentially in Mexico,[210][211] has been denounced by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as Devil-worship.[212] However, devotees of Santa Muerte view her as an angel of death created by God,[213] and many of them identify as Catholic.[214] Much modern folklore about Satanism
Satanism
does not originate from the actual beliefs or practices of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but rather from a mixture of medieval Christian
Christian
folk beliefs, political or sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[215][216][217][218] An example is the Satanic ritual abuse scare of the 1980s — beginning with the memoir Michelle Remembers — which depicted Satanism
Satanism
as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[216][217] This genre frequently describes Satan
Satan
as physically incarnating in order to receive worship.[218] In culture See also: Devil
Devil
in popular culture In art and literature

“ If he was once as handsome as he now is ugly and, despite that, raised his brows against his Maker, one can understand, how every sorrow has its source in him! ”

— Dante in Inferno, Canto XXXIV (Verse translation by Allen Mandelbaum)

“ Here we may reign secure, and in my choice to reign is worth ambition though in Hell: Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven. ”

—  Satan
Satan
in John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
Book I, lines 261-263

In Dante Alighieri's Inferno, Satan
Satan
appears as a giant demon, frozen mid-breast in ice at the center of the Ninth Circle of Hell.[219] Satan
Satan
has three faces and a pair of bat-like wings affixed under each chin.[220] In his three mouths, Satan
Satan
gnaws on Brutus, Judas Iscariot, and Cassius,[220] whom Dante regarded as having betrayed the "two greatest heroes of the human race":[221] Julius Caesar, the founder of the new order of government, and Jesus, the founder of the new order of religion.[221] As Satan
Satan
beats his wings, he creates a cold wind that continues to freeze the ice surrounding him and the other sinners in the Ninth Circle.[220] Dante and Virgil
Virgil
climb up Satan's shaggy legs until gravity is reversed and they fall through the earth into the southern hemisphere.[221] Satan
Satan
appears in several stories from The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
by Geoffrey Chaucer,[222] including "The Summoner's Prologue", in which a friar arrives in Hell
Hell
and sees no other friars,[223] but is told there are millions.[223] Then Satan
Satan
lifts his tail to reveal that all of the friars live inside his anus.[224] Chaucer's description of Satan's appearance is clearly based on Dante's.[223] The legend of Faust, recorded in the 1589 chapbook The History of the Damnable Life and the Deserved Death of Doctor John Faustus,[225] concerns a pact allegedly made by the German scholar Johann Georg Faust
Faust
with a demon named Mephistopheles
Mephistopheles
agreeing to sell his soul to Satan
Satan
in exchange for twenty-four years of earthly pleasure.[225] This chapbook became the source for Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus.[225] John Milton's epic poem Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
features Satan
Satan
as its main protagonist.[226][227] Milton portrays Satan
Satan
as a tragic antihero destroyed by his own hubris.[227] The poem, which draws extensive inspiration from Greek tragedy,[228] recreates Satan
Satan
as a complex literary character,[229] who dares to rebel against the "tyranny" of God,[230][231] in spite of God's own omnipotence.[230][232] The English poet and painter William Blake
William Blake
famously quipped that "The reason Milton wrote in fetters when he wrote of Angels & God, and at liberty when of Devils & Hell, is because he was a true poet and of the Devils party without knowing it."[233] Paradise
Paradise
Regained, the sequel to Paradise
Paradise
Lost, is a retelling of Satan's temptation of Jesus
Jesus
in the desert.[234] William Blake
William Blake
regarded Satan
Satan
as a model of rebellion against unjust authority[154] and features him in many of his poems and illustrations,[154] including his 1780 book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,[154] in which Satan
Satan
is celebrated as the ultimate rebel, the incarnation of human emotion and the epitome of freedom from all forms of reason and orthodoxy.[154] Based on the Biblical passages portraying Satan
Satan
as the accuser of sin,[235] Blake interpreted Satan as "a promulgator of moral laws."[235]

Detail of Satan
Satan
from The Last Judgement (c. 1583) by Jacob
Jacob
de Backer

Satan
Satan
Summoning his Legions (1790) by Thomas Lawrence

Satan
Satan
and Death with Sin Intervening (c. 1792 or 1802) by Henry Fuseli

The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the Sun
Sun
(c. 1805) by William Blake

Satan
Satan
Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(c. 1808) by William Blake, an illustration of John Milton's Paradise
Paradise
Lost

Satan
Satan
Arousing the Rebel Angels (c. 1808) by William Blake, an illustration of John Milton's Paradise
Paradise
Lost

Job's Evil
Evil
Dreams (1821) by William Blake

The Temptation of Christ
Temptation of Christ
by the Devil
Devil
(1860) by Félix- Joseph
Joseph
Barrias

Depiction of Satan
Satan
(c. 1866) by Gustave Doré

Illustration (1866) for John Milton's Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
by Gustave Doré, showing Satan's fall from heaven

Illustration (1866) by Gustave Doré
Gustave Doré
showing Satan
Satan
as the Prince of Hell, as portrayed in John Milton's Paradise
Paradise
Lost

Illustration (1866) by Gustave Doré
Gustave Doré
showing the angel Abdiel striking Satan
Satan
upon his "impious crest", as described in John Milton's Paradise Lost, Book VI

In film and television

Play media

The Haunted Castle (1896)

The Devil
Devil
is depicted as a vampire bat in Georges Méliès' The Haunted Castle (1896),[236] which is often considered the first horror film.[237] So-called "Black Masses" have been portrayed in sensationalist B-movies since the 1960s.[238] One of the first films to portray such a ritual was the 1965 film Eye of the Devil, also known as 13. Alex Sanders, a former black magician, served as a consultant on the film to ensure that the rituals portrayed in it were depicted accurately.[239] Over the next thirty years, the novels of Dennis Wheatley
Dennis Wheatley
and the films of Hammer Film Productions
Hammer Film Productions
both played a major role in shaping the popular image of Satanism.[238] The film version of Ira Levin's Rosemary's Baby established made Satanic themes a staple of mainstream horror fiction.[240] Later films such as The Exorcist (1973), The Omen
The Omen
(1976) and Angel Heart
Angel Heart
(1987) feature Satan
Satan
as an antagonist.[241] In music

Tartini's Dream (1824) by Louis-Léopold Boilly

References to Satan
Satan
in music can be dated back to the Middle Ages. During the fifth century, a musical interval called the tritone became known as "the devil in Music" and was banned by the Catholic Church.[242] Giuseppe Tartini
Giuseppe Tartini
was inspired to write his most famous work, the Violin Sonata in G minor, also known as "The Devil's Trill", after dreaming of the Devil
Devil
playing the violin. Tartini claimed that the sonata was a lesser imitation of what the Devil
Devil
had played in his dream.[243] Niccolò Paganini
Niccolò Paganini
was believed to have derived his musical talent from a deal with the Devil.[244] Charles Gounod's Faust features a narrative that involves Satan.[242] In the early 1900s, jazz and blues became known as the "Devil's Music" as they were considered "dangerous and unholy".[242] According to legend, blues musician Tommy Johnson was a terrible guitarist before exchanging his soul to the Devil
Devil
for a guitar. Later, Robert Johnson claimed that he had sold his soul in return for becoming a great blues guitarist.[245] Satanic symbolism appears in rock music from the 1960s. Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
assumes the role of Lucifer
Lucifer
in the Rolling Stones' "Sympathy for the Devil" (1968),[242] while Black Sabbath
Black Sabbath
portrayed the Devil
Devil
in numerous songs, including "War Pigs" (1970) and "N.I.B." (1970).[246] See also

Cernunnos Hades Hel Man
Man
of sin Prince of Darkness (Satan) Set (deity)

Notes

^ Hebrew: שָּׂטָן‎ satan, meaning "enemy" or "adversary"; Ancient Greek: Σατάν satan; Arabic: شيطان‎ shaitan, meaning "astray", "distant", or sometimes "devil"

References

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Hebrew
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Satan
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then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..." ^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.  ^ Catherine Beyer. "An Introduction to LaVeyan Satanism
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[History Channel]. YouTube. 12 January 2012.  ^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult and Their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1] ^ Birgül Açikyildiz The Yezidis: The History of a Community, Culture and Religion I.B.Tauris 2014 ISBN 978-0-857-72061-0 page 74 ^ James Wasserman The Templars and the Assassins: The Militia of Heaven Simon and Schuster 2001 ISBN 978-1-594-77873-5 page ^ a b c d Gallagher & Ashcraft 2006, p. 89. ^ Ramirez, Margaret. "'Saint Death' comes to Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Chicago. Retrieved 2009-10-07.  ^ "BBC News - Vatican declares Mexican Death Saint blasphemous". Bbc.co.uk. 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-12-05.  ^ Gray, Steven (2007-10-16). "Santa Muerte: The New God
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Satanism
are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and what is believed about Satanists. ^ a b Poole 2009, pp. 42–43. ^ Fowlie 1981, pp. 210–212. ^ a b c Fowlie 1981, p. 211. ^ a b c Fowlie 1981, p. 212. ^ Tambling 2017, pp. 47–50. ^ a b c Tambling 2017, p. 50. ^ Tambling 2016, p. 50. ^ a b c Kelly 2006, p. 268. ^ Verbart 1995, pp. 45–46. ^ a b Bryson 2004, pp. 77–79. ^ Bryson 2004, pp. 80–81. ^ Bryson 2004, pp. 77–78. ^ a b Kelly 2006, p. 272. ^ Bryson 2004, pp. 77–80. ^ Bryson 2004, p. 80. ^ Bryson 2004, p. 20. ^ Kelly 2006, p. 274. ^ a b Werner 1986, p. 61. ^ Prince 2004, p. 1. ^ Draven 2010, p. 148. ^ a b Ellis 2000, pp. 157–158. ^ Ellis 2000, p. 157. ^ Ellis 2000, p. 159. ^ Blue, Samantha. "The Devil
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We Used to Know: Portrayals of the Devil in Media". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-22.  ^ a b c d Watson, Tom. "The Devil's Chord: A History of Satanism
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Robert Johnson
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Today: An Encyclopedia of Religion, Folklore, and Popular Culture, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-759-4  Link, Luther (1995), The Devil: A Mask Without a Face, London, England: Reaktion Books, ISBN 0-948462-67-1  McMillan, M. E. (2011), The Meaning of Mecca: The Politi of Pilgrimage in Early Islam, London, England: Saqi Books, ISBN 978-0863564376  Osborn, Ian (1998), Tormenting Thoughts and Secret Rituals: The Hidden Epidemic of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, New York City, New York: Dell Publishing, ISBN 0-440-50847-9  Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul., 1973), pp. 187–190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!" Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.  Parker, Thomas Henry Louis (1995), Calvin: An Introduction to his Thought, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0664256029  Patmore, Hector M. (2012), Adam, Satan, and the King of Tyre: The Interpretation of Ezekiel 28:11-19 in Late Antiquity, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, ISBN 978-90-0420880-3  Peterson, Robert A. (2012), Salvation Accomplished by the Son: The Work of Christ, Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, ISBN 978-1-4335-2360-1  Pilch, John J. (1995), The Cultural World of Jesus: Sunday by Sunday, Volume 1, Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, ISBN 0-8146-2286-0  Plantinga, Richard J.; Thompson, Thomas J.; Lundberg, Matthew D. (2010), An Introduction to Christian
Christian
Theology, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-69037-9  Poole, W. Scott (2009), Satan
Satan
in America: The Devil
Devil
We Know, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, ISBN 978-1-4422-0062-3  Prince, Stephen (2004), The Horror Film, New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0-8135-3363-5  Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter, 1973), pp. 81–93 in JSTOR Rosica, The Rev. Thomas (20 July 2015), Why is Pope Francis
Pope Francis
so obsessed with the devil?, Turner Broadcasting System, CNN  Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil
Devil
in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.  Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil
Evil
from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity
Christianity
(1987) excerpt and text search Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian
Christian
Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search Russell, Jeffrey Burton (1984), Lucifer: The Devil
Devil
in the Middle Ages, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-9429-X  Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil
Devil
in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text search Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil
Evil
and the Power of Good in History (1992) excerpt and text search Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline Protestant; vol 3 pp 414–417 online Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell
Hell
(1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also popular culture Smith, Peter (2000), A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith, Oxford, UK: Oneworld, pp. 135–136, 304, ISBN 1-85168-184-1  Smith, Peter (2008), An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 112, ISBN 0-521-86251-5  Spignesi, Stephen J. (2003), The Italian 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Cultural, Scientific, and Politics, Past and Present, New York, New York: Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-2399-9  Stoddard, Ed (29 November 2007), Poll finds more Americans believe in devil than Darwin, Reuters  Tambling, Jeremy (2017), Histories of the Devil: From Marlowe to Mann and the Manichees, London, England: Palgrave Macmillan Publishers Ltd., doi:10.1057/978-1-137-51832-3, ISBN 978-1-137-51832-3  Thomsett, Michael C. (2011), Heresy in the Roman Catholic Church: A History, Jefferson, North Carolina: MacFarland & Company, Inc., ISBN 978-0-7864-4448-9  Tomashoff, Craig (13 November 2016), "From 'Touched by an Angel' to 'Lucifer': TV's Heavenly Creatures Are Evolving", The Hollywood Reporter, Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, retrieved 2017-12-22  van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; Willem, Pieter (1999), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (second ed.), Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2491-9  Verbart, André (1995), Fellowship in Paradise
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Lost: Vergil, Milton, Wordsworth, 97, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Atlanta, Georgia: Rodopi, ISBN 90-5183-882-4  Vicchio, Stephen J. (2008), Biblical Figures in the Islamic Faith, Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, ISBN 978-1-55635-304-8  Werner, Bette Charlene (1986), Blake's Vision of the Poetry of Milton: Illustrations to Six Poems, Cranbury, New Jersey, London, England, and Mississauga, Ontario: Associated University Presses, ISBN 0-8387-5084-2  Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt and text search

External links

Look up Satan
Satan
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Satan

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Satan.

Catholic Encyclopedia — "Devil" Jewish Encyclopedia — "Satan" The Internet Sacred Texts Archive hosts texts—scriptures, literature and scholarly works—on Satan, Satanism
Satanism
and related religious matters The Brotherhood of Satan’s perspective on Satan
Satan
and Lucifer.

v t e

Satan

In the Bible

Book of Job Book of Revelation Book of Zechariah Parable of the Sower Parable of the Strong Man Parable of the Tares Serpents in the Bible Temptation of Christ The Sheep and the Goats War in Heaven

Deuterocanonical works

Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Questions of Bartholomew

Other names & related figures

Abaddon Angra Mainyu Azazel Baphomet Belial Devil Ezekiel's cherub in Eden Iblis Lucifer Mastema Prince of Darkness Samael Samyaza Temeluchus Yetzer hara

In literature

Faust Goethe's Faust

Faust, Part One Faust, Part Two

Inferno

Dante's Satan

Johann Georg Faust Mephistopheles Paradise
Paradise
Lost Paradise
Paradise
Regained The Marriage of Heaven and Hell The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus The Summoner's Tale

Satanism

After School Satan Anton LaVey Black Mass Church of Satan Cutter v. Wilkinson First Satanic Church Greater and lesser magic Grotto Hail Satan LaVeyan Satanism Order of Nine Angles Palladists Psychic vampire Satan
Satan
Speaks! Satan
Satan
Takes a Holiday Sigil of Baphomet Temple of the Black Light Theistic Satanism The Devil's Notebook The infernal names The Mass of Saint-Sécaire The Satanic Bible The Satanic Rituals The Satanic Temple The Satanic Witch

v t e

New Testament
New Testament
people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man
Man
born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph
Joseph
of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph
Joseph
Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ ( Saul
Saul
or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil
Evil
ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (titl

.