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AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA, the SASKATOON, PACIFIC SERVICEBERRY, WESTERN SERVICEBERRY, ALDER-LEAF SHADBUSH, DWARF SHADBUSH, CHUCKLEY PEAR, or WESTERN JUNEBERRY, is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America
North America
from Alaska
Alaska
across most of western Canada
Canada
and in the western and north-central United States . Historically, it was also called PIGEON BERRY. It grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 m (8,530 ft) elevation in California and 3,400 m (11,200 ft) in the Rocky Mountains, and is a common shrub in the forest understory.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Varieties * 4 Cultivation and uses * 5 Diseases and pests * 6 Nutrients * 7 Polyphenols * 8 References

ETYMOLOGY

The name saskatoon derives from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina (misâskwatômin NI sg, saskatoonberry, misâskwatômina NI pl saskatoonberries). The city of Saskatoon
Saskatoon
, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, is named after this berry.

The species name alnifolia is a feminine adjective . It is a compound of the Latin
Latin
word for "alder ", alnus, and the word for "leaf", folium.

DESCRIPTION

It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that most often grows to 1–8 m (3–26 ft), rarely to 10 m or 33 ft, in height. Its growth form spans from suckering and forming colonies to clumped.

The leaves are oval to nearly circular, 2–5 cm (3⁄4–2 in) long and 1–4.5 cm (1⁄2–1 3⁄4 in) broad, on a 0.5–2 cm (1⁄4–3⁄4 in) leaf stem , margins toothed mostly above the middle.

As with all species in the genus Amelanchier, the flowers are white, with five quite separate petals. In A. alnifolia, they are about 2–3 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄4 in) across, and appear on short racemes of three to 20 somewhat crowded together, in spring while the new leaves are still expanding.

The fruit is a small purple pome 5–15 mm (3⁄16–19⁄32 in) in diameter, ripening in early summer in the coastal areas and late summer further inland.

VARIETIES

The three varieties are:

* A. a. var. alnifolia. Northeastern part of the species' range. * A. a. var. pumila (Nutt.) A.Nelson. Rocky Mountains , Sierra Nevada . * A. a. var. semiintegrifolia (Hook.) C.L.Hitchc. Pacific coastal regions, Alaska
Alaska
to northwestern California.

CULTIVATION AND USES

Seedlings are planted with 13–20 feet (4.0–6.1 m) between rows and 1.5–3 feet (0.46–0.91 m) between plants. An individual bush may bear fruit 30 or more years.

Saskatoons are adaptable to most soil types with exception of poorly drained or heavy clay soils lacking organic matter. Shallow soils should be avoided, especially if the water table is high or erratic. Winter hardiness is exceptional, but frost can damage blooms as late as May. Large amounts of sunshine are needed for fruit ripening.

With a sweet, nutty taste, the fruits have long been eaten by Canada's aboriginal people , fresh or dried. They are well known as an ingredient in pemmican , a preparation of dried meat to which saskatoon berries are added as flavour and preservative . They are also often used in pies , jam , wines , cider , beers , and sugar-infused berries similar to dried cranberries used for cereals , trail mix , and snack foods .

In 2004, the British Food Standards Agency suspended saskatoon berries from retail sales pending safety testing; the ban eventually was lifted after pressure from the European Union .

DISEASES AND PESTS

A. alnifolia is susceptible to cedar-apple rust , entomosporium leaf spot , fireblight , brown rot , cytospora canker, powdery mildew , and blackleaf. Problem insects include aphids , thrips , mites , bud moths , Saskatoon
Saskatoon
sawflies , and pear slug sawflies.

NUTRIENTS

The 5- to 15-mm-diameter pomes ripen in early summer. Resembling blueberries, the fruit have a waxy bloom . Saskatoons picked near Wainwright, Alberta.

NUTRIENTS IN RAW SASKATOON BERRIES

NUTRIENT VALUE PER 100 G % DAILY VALUE

Energy 85 kcal

Total dietary fiber 5.9 g 20%

Sugars, total 11.4 g 8%

Calcium
Calcium
42 mg 4%

Magnesium
Magnesium
24 mg 6%

Iron
Iron
1 mg 12%

Manganese
Manganese
1.4 mg 70%

Potassium
Potassium
162 mg 3%

Sodium
Sodium
0.5 mg 0%

Vitamin C 3.6 mg 4%

Vitamin A 11 IU 1%

Vitamin E 1.1 mg 7%

Folate 4.6 µg 1%

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
3.5 mg > 100%

Panthothenic acid 0.3 mg 6%

Pyridoxine 0.03 mg 2%

Biotin 20 µg 67%

Saskatoon
Saskatoon
berries contain significant amounts of total dietary fiber , riboflavin and biotin , and the dietary minerals , iron and manganese , a nutrient profile similar to the content of blueberries.

POLYPHENOLS

Also similar in composition to blueberries, saskatoons have total polyphenol content of 452 mg per 100 g (average of 'Smoky' and 'Northline' cultivars ), flavonols (61 mg) and anthocyanins (178 mg), although others have found the phenolic values to be either lower in the 'Smoky' cultivar or higher. Quercetin
Quercetin
, cyanidin , delphinidin , pelargonidin , petunidin , peonidin , and malvidin were present in saskatoon berries.

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA .

* ^ A B C Germplasm Resources Information Network: Amelanchier alnifolia * ^ Schorger, A.W. 1955. The Passenger Pigeon; its natural history and extinction. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. * ^ A B C D E Plants of British Columbia: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia * ^ A B C D Jepson Flora: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia * ^ Dyrness, C. T.; Acker, S. A. (2010). "Ecology of Common Understory Plants in Northwestern Oregon and Southwestern Washington Forests" (PDF). H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2011. * ^ "saskatoon". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ Jacobson, Arthur Lee (1996). North American Landscape Trees. Berkeley, CA USA: Ten Speed Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-89815-813-3 . Records: 42' x 3'3" x 43', Beacon Rock State Park, WA (1993); 27' x 3'9" x 22', Douglas County, OR (1975) * ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
list of taxa * ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia var. alnifolia * ^ Jepson Flora: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia var. pumila * ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia var. pumila * ^ Jepson Flora: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia * ^ University of Maine: Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia var. semiintegrifolia * ^ A B Introduction to Saskatoons * ^ St-Pierre, R. G. Growing Saskatoons - A Manual For Orchardists * ^ A B C D E F Mazza, G. (2005). "Compositional and Functional Properties of Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Berry and Blueberry". International Journal of Fruit
Fruit
Science. 5 (3): 101–120. doi :10.1300/J492v05n03_10 . ISSN 1553-8362 . * ^ Mazza G, Davidson CG. Saskatoon
Saskatoon
berry: A fruit crop for the prairies. p. 516-519. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York, 1993. * ^ Government of Manitoba - Ministry of Agriculture: Saskatoon Berries * ^ St-Pierre RG. Growing saskatoons - a manual for orchardists * ^ "Britain plucks saskatoon berries from store shelves". CBC News. 2004-07-07. Retrieved 2015-07-22. * ^ A B "Juneberries – Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia". Carrington REC. Retrieved 13 May 2017. * ^ Ozga; Saeed, A; Wismer, W; Reinecke, DM (2007). "Characterization of cyanidin- and quercetin-derived flavonoids and other phenolics in mature saskatoon fruits ( Amelanchier
Amelanchier
alnifolia Nutt.)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (25): 10414–24. doi :10.1021/jf072949b . PMID 17994693 . * ^ Hosseinian; Beta, T (2007). " Saskatoon
Saskatoon
and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (26): 10832–8. doi :10.1021/jf072529m . PMID 18052240 . * ^ Bakowska-barczak; Marianchuk, M; Kolodziejczyk, P (2007). "Survey of bioactive components in Western Canadian berries". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 85 (11): 1139–52. doi :10.1139/y07-102 . PMID 18066116 .

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