Sarracenia range (all species)
Sarracenia trap insects using pitchers with nectar and slippery
footing around the lip The anatomy of S. purpurea
SARRACENIA (/ˌsærəˈsiːniə/ or /ˌsærəˈsɛniə/ ) is a genus
comprising 8 to 11 species of North American pitcher plants , commonly
called TRUMPET PITCHERS. The genus belongs to the family
Sarraceniaceae , which also contain the closely allied genera
Sarracenia is a genus of carnivorous plants indigenous to the eastern
seaboard of the
United States ,
Texas , the
Great Lakes area and
southeastern Canada, with most species occurring only in the
United States (only S. purpurea occurs in cold-temperate
regions). The plant's leaves have evolved into a funnel or pitcher
shape in order to trap insects .
The plant attracts its insect prey with secretions from extrafloral
nectaries on the lip of the pitcher leaves, as well as a combination
of the leaves' color and scent. Slippery footing at the pitcher's rim,
aided in at least one species by a narcotic drug lacing the nectar,
causes insects to fall inside, where they die and are digested by the
plant with proteases and other enzymes.
* 1 Description
* 1.1 Carnivorous mechanism
* 1.2 Flowers and seeds
* 1.3 Growth cycle
* 1.4 Genetics
* 2 Range and habitat
* 3 Environmental status
* 4 Taxonomy
* 4.1 McPherson and below it the top of the tube usually has a
rolled lip (the peristome ) which secretes nectar and scents. The hood
itself frequently produces nectar too, but in lesser quantities.
The inside of the pitcher tube, depending on the species, can be
divided into three to five distinguishable zones: zone 1 is the
operculum (or hood), zone 2 is the peristome and rest of the trap
entrance, while zones 3 and 4 (which in some species are combined) and
5 (only present in S. purpurea) are further divisions of the actual
tube. Each of these zones has a specific function, with corresponding
* ZONE 1: Operculum. In most species the operculum covers at least
part of the pitcher opening, preventing rain from excessively filling
the pitcher, which would result in the loss of prey and dilute the
digestive fluid. The operculum also serves to guide prey to the
pitcher opening, using a combination of color, scent, and
downward-pointing hairs to lead insects toward the trap entrance. Some
species, specifically S. minor and S. psittacina , have opercula that
hang low over the pitcher entrance. These are also studded with
chlorophyll -free patches, translucent "windows" which confuse prey
into attempting to fly through the operculum, thereby causing them to
cascade down the pitcher tube. (A similar, better-developed mechanism
is found in the closely related
Darlingtonia californica ).
* ZONE 2:
Peristome and trap entrance. This zone is composed mainly
of the peristome, which produces copious amounts of nectar, luring
insect prey to land or crawl onto the perilous footing surrounding the
pitcher trap. This zone also includes the waxy upper portion of the
pitcher tube. Footing on this zone is especially treacherous, as the
waxy deposits on surface of this zone cause unwary insects to lose
their footing and tumble into the pitcher depths.
* ZONE 3: Located below Zone 2, this zone features a leaf surface
with non-existent footing, as well as a coating of ultra-fine,
downward pointing hairs. Insects that have made it this far lose any
chance of escape. It is also studded with digestive glands , which
secrete digestive enzymes into the digestive fluid.
* ZONE 4: This is the final zone in most species. It is filled with
digestive fluids, and readily absorbs nutrients released from the
insects by the work of the digestive enzymes and bacteria in the
pitcher fluid. Along with more digestive glands, this zone features a
thick coating of coarse downward pointing hairs, which makes escape
from the digestive fluids impossible.
* ZONE 5: This zone, located below Zone 4 and found only in S.
purpurea, is smooth, glabrous , lacks glands, and does not serve as an
absorptive zone. Its function is unknown.
Sarracenia trap insects and other prey without the use of moving
parts. Their traps are static and are based on a combination of lures
(including color, scent, and nectar) and inescapability – typically
the entrances to the traps are one-way by virtue of the highly adapted
features listed above.
Most species use a combination of scent, drugged nectar, waxy
deposits (to clog insect feet) and gravity to topple insect prey into
Coniine , an alkaloid drug narcotic to insects, has
been discovered in the nectar -like secretions of at least S. flava .
Once inside, the insect finds the footing very slippery with a waxy
surface covering the walls of the pitcher. Further down the tube,
downward-pointing hairs make retreat impossible, and in the lowest
region of the tube, a pool of liquid containing digestive enzymes and
wetting agents quickly drowns the prey and begins digestion. The
exoskeletons are usually not digested, and over the course of the
summer fill up the pitcher tube.
Only S. purpurea normally contains significant amounts of rainwater
in its tubular pitchers. It is a myth that all species contain water.
In fact, the hoods of the other species help to keep out rain water in
addition to keeping flying prey from escaping.
S. psittacina, the parrot pitcher, uses a lobster-pot style trap that
will admit prey (including tadpoles and small fish during floods) but
not allow it to find its way out; and sharp inward-pointing hairs
force the victim gradually down to the base of the pitcher where it is
FLOWERS AND SEEDS
Cutaway view of a
Flowers are produced early in spring, with or slightly ahead of the
first pitchers. They are held singly on long stems, generally well
above the pitcher traps to avoid the trapping of potential pollinators
. The flowers, which depending on species are 3–10 centimeters in
diameter, are dramatic and have an elaborate design which prevents
self-pollination. It consists of five sepals superintended by three
bracts , numerous anthers, and an umbrella -like five-pointed style ,
over which five long yellow or red petals dangle. The whole flower is
held upside-down, so that the umbrella-like style catches the pollen
dropped by the anthers . The stigmas are located at the tips of the
umbrella-like style. The primary pollinators are bees . Bees searching
for nectar must force their way past one of the stigmas to enter the
chamber formed by the style. Inside, they will inevitably come in
contact with a lot of pollen, both from the hanging anthers and from
the pollen collected by the style. Upon exiting, the bees must force
their way under one of the flap-like petals. This keeps them away from
the stigma, avoiding self-pollination. The next flower visited
receives on its stigmata some of the first flower's pollen, and the
Sarracenia alata flowers
Floral formula : CA5 CO5 A∞ G(5)
The flowers of almost all species are scented. The scent varies, but
is often strong and sometimes unpleasant. S. flava has an especially
strong odor resembling cat urine .
Flowers generally last about two weeks. At the end of the flowering
period, the petals drop and the ovary, if pollinated, begins to swell.
The seed forms in five lobes, with one lobe producing significantly
smaller numbers of seeds than the other lobes. On average, 300–600
seed are produced, depending on species and pollination success. Seed
takes five months to mature, at which point the seed pod turns brown
and splits open, scattering seed. The seeds are 1.5–2 mm in length
and have a rough, waxy coat which makes it hydrophobic, possibly for
seed dispersal by flowing water.
Sarracenia seed requires a
stratification period to germinate in large numbers. Plants grown from
seed start producing functioning traps almost immediately, although
they differ in morphology from adult traps for the first year or so,
being simpler in structure. Plants require 3–5 years to reach
maturity from seed.
Pitcher production begins at the end of the flowering period in
spring, and lasts until late autumn. At the end of autumn, the
pitchers begin to wither and the plants produce non-carnivorous leaves
called phyllodia, which play a role in the economics of carnivory in
these species. Since the supply of insects during winter is decreased,
and the onset of cold weather slows plant metabolism and other
processes, putting energy into producing carnivorous leaves would be
uneconomical for the plant.
The genus has been found to have a
Chromosome number of 2n=26, though
some earlier studies had found that number to be 2n=24.
RANGE AND HABITAT
Sphagnum peat bog with
Sarracenia purpurea in the New Jersey
Pine Barrens. These habitats are always constantly wet, acidic, and
low in nutrients.
Seven of the eight species are confined to the south-eastern coastal
plain of the
United States . One species, S. purpurea, continues north
and west well into
Canada . The typical habitat is warm-temperate; all
Sarracenia are perennial and require a distinct summer and winter. A
few subspecies or varieties (S. rubra subsp. alabamensis, S. rubra
subsp. jonesii, and S. purpurea var. montana) can be found more inland
in mountains (e.g. the
Appalachian mountains ).
Sarracenia tend to inhabit permanently wet fens , swamps, and grassy
plains. These habitats tend to be acidic (low pH) with soil made up of
Sphagnum moss . Frequently, the soil will be poor in
nutrients, particularly nitrates , and often continuously leached by
moving water or made unavailable to the plant roots by the low pH. The
plants gain their advantage from their ability to extract nutrients
from insect prey in this mineral-poor environment. The plants prefer
strong, direct sunlight with no shade.
In several cases, carnivorous plant enthusiasts have introduced S.
purpurea into suitable habitats outside of its natural range, where it
has naturalized. Some of these populations are decades old; the oldest
known occurrence in the Swiss
Jura mountains is around one hundred
years old. Besides
Switzerland , such naturalized populations can be
England (Lake District), Germany (
Bavaria , Lusatia
) and in
Mendocino County along the
Sarracenia are threatened in the wild by development and the drainage
of their habitat . Estimates indicated that 97.5% of Sarracenia
habitat has already been destroyed in the southeastern U.S., the home
of all but one subspecies of Sarracenia. Currently the biggest threats
to surviving populations are urban development , drainage of habitat
for forestry , runoff of herbicides from agriculture , fire
suppression, cut pitcher trade for floristry , and plant trade. The
latter two threaten survival of
Sarracenia not only through depletion
of healthy population, but also because of the damaging effects (soil
compaction and altered moisture levels) of repeated foot and vehicular
traffic that comes with harvesting. The Fish and Wildlife Service
estimates that approximately 1.6 million pitchers were cut for the
domestic market in 1991. A field with S. leucophylla. Scenes
such as this used to be common in the coastal plains of the southeast
Some protective legislation exists. Several southeastern states, such
Florida , Georgia , and
South Carolina have conservation laws which
protect Sarracenia. However, most of the remaining wetlands in the
southeastern U.S. are privately owned. Plants on this land are not
protected by state legislation. The key states of
Mississippi have no such legislation at all, so that even plants on
public land have no protection. Three
Sarracenia have been listed as
"Federally Endangered" under the USA Endangered
Species Act (1973) —
S. rubra subsp. alabamensis (S. alabamensis) in
Alabama , S. rubra
subsp. jonesii (S. jonesii) in North and
South Carolina , and S.
Alabama , Georgia , and
North Carolina . These taxa are
CITES Appendix I, giving them international protection by
making export of wild-collected plants illegal. The other species,
while appearing on
CITES Appendix II, have little federal protection.
Some efforts have been made to curb the existing threats to plants.
In 2003 the
International Carnivorous Plant Society ran a trial
distribution program in which young S. rubra subsp. alabamanensis
plants were grown from seed collected from 3 of the 12 known S.
alabamanensis sites, and were distributed to members in an attempt to
increase availability of this plant in cultivation, with the hopes of
thereby decreasing the poaching that was endangering the survival of
this taxon in the wild.
Sarracenia purpurea pitchers at Brown\'s
Lake Bog ,
In 1995, the non-profit organization Meadowview Biological Research
Station was created to preserve and restore pitcher plant bogs and
associated ecosystems in
In 2004, a number of concerned plant enthusiasts founded the North
Sarracenia Conservancy (NASC), which aims to "serve as a
living record of the taxonomic, morphological and genetic diversity of
Sarracenia for purposes of conservation and cultivation."
The NASC is a grassroots Nebraska nonprofit organization working to
build a genetic
Sarracenia bank by overseeing the maintenance of
genetic strains from all remaining wild populations in cultivation,
with the eventual aim of being able to supply these strains for
re-introduction in suitable habitats. A similar but centralized
collection exists in the UK, with 2000+ clones representing all
species (many with location data) and numerous hybrids currently being
Sarracenia expert Mike King. This UK collection is part of
NCCPG National Plant Collection scheme. While none of these
efforts curb the biggest threats - urban development and habitat
destruction - they aim to help reduce plant poaching while at the same
time making these plants available to future generations.
One of the biggest challenges of reintroducing plants back into the
wild is the unintended introduction of unwanted species, such as
pests, diseases, and invasive weeds. Often, it is human destruction of
areas in which the
Sarracenia thrive that is a major killer. Aside
from determining what genetic material is appropriate for
reintroduction (which is up for debate), plants must be semi-aseptic
to keep the habitat pristine and sustainable in the long term. Another
challenge is maintaining all of the introduced plant material and
determining an optimal site to plant them in. A single hurricane or
storm event can change the dynamics of a field. Even within a single
bog, some areas may be waterlogged, while other areas may become very
dry, so identifying the right location is critical. Short term results
on private property indicate planting larger specimens into the field
have a higher chance of long term survival compared to planting
A flowering specimen of the highly variable
Sarracenia belongs to the family
Sarraceniaceae , which
also contain the closely allied genera Darlingtonia and
Cronquist system , this family was put in the order
Nepenthales along with
Droseraceae . The APG II
system , however, assigns
Sarraceniaceae to the order
Ericales and the
other two families to the order
Typically anywhere from 8 to 11 species of
Sarracenia are generally
recognized, depending on individual opinions on the biological species
concept and which among many subspecies and varieties should be
elevated to species status, a common lumping and splitting problem in
demarcation. Some authorities split the described subspecific taxa of
S. rubra into 3 to 5 species. Similarly, S. rosea is not always
recognized as a species distinct from S. purpurea. The most commonly
recognized species include:
Sarracenia alabamensis Case & R.B.Case
Sarracenia alata (Alph.Wood) Alph.Wood : Pale pitcher plant
Sarracenia flava L. : Yellow pitcher plant
Sarracenia jonesii Wherry
Sarracenia leucophylla Raf. : White pitcher plant
Sarracenia minor Walt. : Hooded pitcher plant
Sarracenia oreophila (Kearney) Wherry : Green pitcher plant
Sarracenia psittacina Michx. : Parrot pitcher plant
Sarracenia purpurea L. : Purple pitcher plant
Sarracenia rosea Naczi, Case & R.B.Case
Sarracenia rubra Walt. : Sweet pitcher plant
Currently, S. rubra can be described as having five subspecies,
though it is sometimes argued that the subspecies should be elevated
to species rank in recognition of the species complex that they are a
part of. This division would yield S. alabamensis, S. gulfensis, S.
jonesii, S. rubra sensu stricto , and S. wherryi. Others have argued
that only some of these demand recognition at the species rank.
MCPHERSON "> A "pitcher plant meadow" in the
with mixed varieties of
Sarracenia flava : var. ornata, var.
rubricorpora, and var. rugelii. Plants of
Sarracenia minor var.
Okefenokee Swamp Park A clump of Sarracenia
oreophila in habitat
* S. alata var. alata (autonym )
* S. alata var. alata f. viridescens S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. alata var. atrorubra S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. alata var. cuprea S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. alata var. nigropurpurea P.D\'Amato ex S.McPherson &
* S. alata var. ornata S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. alata var. rubrioperculata S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. flava var. flava (autonym )
* S. flava var. flava f. viridescens S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. flava var. atropurpurea (Hort. W.Bull ex Mast.) Hort. W.Bull
* S. flava var. cuprea D.E.Schnell
* S. flava var. maxima Hort. W.Bull ex Mast.
* S. flava var. ornata Hort. Bull ex W.Robinson
* S. flava var. rubricorpora D.E.Schnell
* S. flava var. rugelii (Shuttlew. ex A.DC.) Mast.
* S. leucophylla var. leucophylla (autonym )
* S. leucophylla var. leucophylla f. viridescens S.McPherson &
* S. leucophylla var. alba (Hort. T.Baines ex R.Hogg & T.Moore)
J.Pietropaolo & P.Pietropaolo ex S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. minor var. minor (autonym )
* S. minor var. minor f. viridescens S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. minor var. okefenokeensis D.E.Schnell
* S. oreophila var. oreophila (autonym )
* S. oreophila var. ornata S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. psittacina var. psittacina (autonym )
* S. psittacina var. psittacina f. viridescens S.McPherson &
* S. psittacina var. okefenokeensis S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. psittacina var. okefenokeensis f. luteoviridis S.McPherson &
* S. purpurea subsp. purpurea (autonym )
* S. purpurea subsp. purpurea f. heterophylla (Eaton) Fern.
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa (Raf.) Wherry
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa var. venosa (autonym )
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa var. venosa f. pallidiflora S.McPherson
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa var. burkii D.E.Schnell
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa var. burkii f. luteola R.L.Hanrahan &
* S. purpurea subsp. venosa var. montana D.E.Schnell &
* S. rubra subsp. rubra (autonym )
* S. rubra subsp. alabamensis (Case & R.B.Case) S.McPherson &
* S. rubra subsp. gulfensis D.E.Schnell
* S. rubra subsp. gulfensis f. luteoviridis S.McPherson &
* S. rubra subsp. jonesii (Wherry) Wherry
* S. rubra subsp. jonesii f. viridescens S.McPherson & D.E.Schnell
* S. rubra subsp. wherryi (Case "> A
Sarracenia hybrid A
Sarracenia flava × S. purpurea in northwestern
Sarracenia species hybridize and produce fertile offspring freely,
making proper classification difficult.
Sarracenia hybrids are able to
hybridize further, giving the possibility of hundreds of different
hybrids that have multiple species in varying amounts in their
ancestry. Since many species ranges overlap, natural hybrids are
relatively common. As a result, initial classification included many
of these hybrids as separate species. A recent census of the number of
hybrids and cultivars of
Sarracenia species revealed about 100 unique
hybrids and cultivars in cultivation. Many hybrids of
still commonly referred to by their obsolete species names,
particularly in horticulture. These hybrids are all popularly
cultivated by carnivorous plant enthusiasts, and there are
consequently a huge number of hybrids and cultivars, most bred for
Some of the more common named hybrids include:
Sarracenia × catesbaei = S. flava × S. purpurea
Sarracenia × moorei = S. flava × S. leucophylla
Sarracenia × popei = S. flava × S. rubra
Sarracenia × harperi = S. flava × S. minor
Sarracenia × alava = S. flava × S. alata
Sarracenia × mitchelliana = S. purpurea × S. leucophylla
Sarracenia × exornata = S. purpurea × S. alata
Sarracenia × chelsonii = S. purpurea × S. rubra
Sarracenia × swaniana = S. purpurea × S. minor
Sarracenia × courtii = S. purpurea × S. psittacina
Sarracenia × pureophila = S. purpurea × S. oreophila
Sarracenia × readii = S. leucophylla × S. rubra
Sarracenia × farnhamii = S. leucophylla × S. rubra
Sarracenia × excellens = S. leucophylla × S. minor
Sarracenia × areolata = S. leucophylla × S. alata
Sarracenia × wrigleyana = S. leucophylla × S. psittacina
Sarracenia × ahlesii = S. alata × S. rubra
Sarracenia × rehderi = S. rubra × S. minor
Sarracenia × gilpini = S. rubra × S. psittacina
Sarracenia × formosa = S. minor × S. psittacina
Sarracenia × mineophila = S. minor × S. oreophila
Sarracenia × psittata = S. psittacina × S. alata
First illustration of a
Sarracenia from L\'Obel\'s Stirpium
Adversaria Nova, 1576
Sarracenia were known to Europeans as early as the 16th century,
within a century of
Christopher Columbus ' discovery of the New World
. L\'Obel included an illustration of S. minor in his Stirpium
Adversaria Nova in 1576. The first description and plate of a
Sarracenia to show up in botanical literature was published by Carolus
Clusius, who received a partial dried specimen of what was later
determined to be S. purpurea subsp. purpurea, publishing it under the
Limonium peregrinum. The exact origins of this specimen remains
unknown, as few explorers are known to have collected plant specimens
from the range of this subspecies before that time. Cheek and Young
suggest that the most likely source is Cartier\'s expeditions to what
is now Quebec between 1534 and 1541. The fragile flowerless specimen
that made its way to Clusius 60 years later was enough to excite his
interest, but not enough for him to place it among related plants; his
closest guess was the wholly unrelated Sea Lavender genus.
Sarracenia was first employed by
Michel Sarrazin , the
Father of Canadian Botany who in the late 17th century sent live
specimens of S. purpurea to the Parisian botanist Joseph Pitton de
Tournefort , who thereupon described the species. Linnaeus adopted
this name when he published his
Species Plantarum (1753), using it for
the two known species at the time: S. purpurea and S. flava. The first
successful flowering in culture occurred in 1773. In 1793 William
Bartram noted in his book about his travels in the southeast U.S. that
numerous insects were caught in the pitchers of these plants, but
doubted that any benefit could be derived from them. It was not until
1887 that research by Dr. Joseph H. Mellichamp proved the carnivorous
nature of this genus. This finding was supported by a study by J.S.
Hepburn, E.Q. St. John and F.M. Jones in 1920. Extended field surveys
and laboratory studies by Dr. Edgar Wherry in the 1930s greatly
increased the knowledge of this genus, which has further been extended
by the more recent works of Dr. C. Ritchie Bell (1949–52), Dr.
Donald E. Schnell (1970–2002) and Mr. Frederick W. Case (1970s and
the treatment in Flora of North America to be published in 2008).
A 2-year-old S. alata seedling, with 1st yr. (small) and 2nd yr.
Sarracenia are considered easy to grow and are widely propagated and
cultivated by gardeners and carnivorous plant enthusiasts. Several
hybrids between the very hardy S. purpurea and showy species like S.
leucophylla are becoming common in garden centers in North America and
Sarracenia require constantly moist-wet, nutrient free acidic soil.
This is most often achieved with a potting mix consisting of peat moss
mixed with sand or perlite . As their roots are sensitive to nutrients
and minerals, only pure water, such as distilled, rain, or reverse
osmosis water, can be used to water them.
Sarracenia prefer sunny
conditions during their growing season but require a dormancy period,
with decreased light and temperatures, of a few months in the winter.
Sarracenia do not self-pollinate and therefore require hand
pollination or access to natural pollinators such as bees. Sarracenia
pollen remains potent for several weeks when refrigerated, and so is
stored by cultivators and used to pollinate later-flowering species.
Given that all
Sarracenia hybrids are fertile and will hybridize
further, this characteristic allows cultivators to produce a limitless
number of variants through hybridization. A
with a few growing points, ready for division
The copious seeds store well if kept dry. In climates or seasons that
cannot provide the cold, damp period of stratification required by the
seeds for germination, growers mimic this condition by placing the
seeds in a refrigerator for 2–6 weeks, depending on species. The
seeds are sown on the surface of their substrate and germinate when
transferred to warmer, bright conditions.
Sarracenia seedlings all
look alike for the first two or three years; the plants reach maturity
after four or five years. Regular fertilization (twice a month between
April and September) with a balanced fertilizer at the rate of 1
teaspoon per gallon (using a 15-16-17 peat-lite or similar fertilizer)
will speed their growth and time to maturity. It is advisable to leach
regularly with pure water to prevent the buildup of solutes
(fertilizer salts) in the soil. Deep water in a potted plant keeps the
soil too waterlogged for proper root functioning.
Sarracenia are commonly propagated by division. Their rhizomes
extend and produce new crowns of pitchers over the course of a few
growing seasons, and cultivators divide and separate the rhizomes
during the plant's winter dormancy or early in the growing season.
This technique is also used to separate sections of rhizomes which
have no pitchers: when re-potted, the section usually generates a new
crown of pitchers. A further technique is employed to encourage new
crowns to appear which does not involve division of the rhizome: small
notches up to 5 mm deep are cut into the top of the rhizome, whereupon
a new crown frequently develops at the site of the notch.
a.^ Since McPherson ">
* ^ A B Cumbee, Joe (1995). "
Sarracenia flava Seed Data".
Carnivorous Plant Newsletter . 24: 110–111.
* ^ Brittnacher, John. "Growing
Sarracenia from seed". Retrieved
* ^ Kondo, Katsuhiko (May 1969). "Chromosome Numbers of Carnivorous
Plants" (PDF). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 96 (3): 322. doi
:10.2307/2483737 . Retrieved 26 April 2016.
* ^ Hecht, Adolph (January 1949). "The Somatic Chromosomes of
Sarracenia". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 76 (1): 7. JSTOR
2481882 . doi :10.2307/2481882 .
* ^ Hartmeyer, Siegfried. "
Sarracenia purpurea "in the wild" in
Switzerland". hartmeyer.de. Archived from the original on 23 November
2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
* ^ A B Groves, M., ed. 1993. Horticulture, Trade and Conservation
Sarracenia in the Southeastern States of America:
Proceedings of a Meeting Held at the Atlanta Botanical Garden,
September 22–23, 1993, 17pp.
* ^ Robbins, C. S. 1998. Examination of the U.S. Pitcher-plant
Trade With a Focus on the White-topped Pitcher-plant. Traffic
Bulletin. Excerpts, Vol. 17, No. 2 (June 1998)
* ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1991. U.S.
CITES Permits and
Export Figures for
Sarracenia 1990–1991. Washington, DC.
* ^ Brittnacher, John. "ICPS Conservation Projects". Retrieved
* ^ Cronquist, Arthur. (1981). An integrated system of
classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University
* ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. (2003). An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society,
* ^ A B Rice, Barry. (2008).
Sarracenia species lists.
Sarracenia.com FAQ. Accessed: 10-10-2008.
* ^ A B Barthlott, W., S. Porembski, R. Seine, and I. Theisen.
(2007). The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants. Portland: Timber
* ^ McPherson, S. & D. Schnell 2011.