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The SARDINIANS, or also the SARDS (Sardinian : Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese : Sardi; Catalan : Sards or Sardos; Gallurese
Gallurese
: Saldi; Ligurian : Sordi), are the native people and indigenous ethnic group from which Sardinia
Sardinia
, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory

* 2.1.1 Nuragic civilization
Nuragic civilization

* 2.2 Antiquity * 2.3 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.4 Modern and contemporary history

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Age expectancy and Longevity * 3.2 Demographic indicators * 3.3 Historical population * 3.4 Division by gender and age * 3.5 Total population by age * 3.6 Geographical distribution * 3.7 Surnames

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Languages * 4.2 Flag * 4.3 National Day * 4.4 Religion * 4.5 Traditional clothes

* 5 Genetics * 6 Notable Sardinians * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Notes

ETYMOLOGY

Depiction of Sardus Pater in a Roman coin (59 a.C.)

The ethnonym "S(a)rd" belongs to the Pre-Indo-European linguistic substratum. It makes its first appearance on the Nora stone
Nora stone
, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus , one of Plato
Plato
's dialogues, Sardinia
Sardinia
and its people as well might have been named after Sardò (Σαρδώ), a legendary woman born in Sardis (Σάρδεις), capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia
Lydia
. Pausanias and Sallust
Sallust
reported instead that it was a Libyan hero, Sardus Pater ("Sardinian Father") son of Hercules
Hercules
, the one who gave the island its name. There has also been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden , one of the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
. The ethnonym was then romanised as sardus (feminine sarda).

HISTORY

See also: History of Sardinia
Sardinia

PREHISTORY

See also: Pre-Nuragic Sardinia
Sardinia
Fragment of pottery with human figures, Ozieri culture

Sardinia
Sardinia
was first colonized in a stable manner during the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
by people from the Iberian and the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
. During the Neolithic
Neolithic
period and the Early Eneolithic, people from Italy, Spain
Spain
and the Aegean area settled in Sardinia. In the Late Eneolithic
Eneolithic
-Early Bronze age
Bronze age
the " Beaker folk " from Southern France
Southern France
, Northeastern Spain
Spain
and then from Central Europe settled on the island, bringing new metallurgical techniques and ceramic styles and probably some kind of Indo-European speech. Composition of Nuragic tribes according to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy

Nuragic Civilization

The Nuragic civilization
Nuragic civilization
arose in the Middle Bronze Age, during the Late Bonnanaro culture , which showed connections with the previous Beaker culture and the Polada culture
Polada culture
of northern Italy
Italy
. At that time, the grand tribal identities of Nuragic Sardinia
Sardinia
were said to be three (roughly from the South to the North): the Iolei/ Ilienses , inhabiting the area from the southernmost plains to the mountainous zone of eastern Sardinia
Sardinia
(later part of what would be called by the Romans Barbaria); the Balares
Balares
, living in the North-West corner; and finally the Corsi stationed in Gallura (and Corsica
Corsica
, to which they gave the name). Nuragic Sardinians have been connected by some scholars to the Sherden , a tribe of the so-called Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
, whose presence is registered several times in ancient Egyptian records.

The language (or languages) spoken in Sardinia
Sardinia
during the Bronze Age is unknown since there are no written records of such period. According to Eduardo Blasco Ferrer , the Proto- Sardinian language
Sardinian language
was akin to Proto-Basque and the ancient Iberian , while others believe it was akin with Etruscan . Other scholars theorize that there were actually various linguistic areas (two or more) in Nuragic Sardinia, possibly Pre-Indoeuropeans and Indoeuropeans .

ANTIQUITY

In yellow the territories occupied by Carthage
Carthage
with the most important cities

In the 9th century BC, the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
founded cities and ports along the south-west coast, such as Karalis , Bithia , Sulki and Tharros
Tharros
.

The south and west part of Sardinia
Sardinia
was conquered by the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
in the late 6th century BC and later the whole island by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, after the First Punic War
First Punic War
. The Barbaria (in blue) and the Roman controlled regions of Sardinia
Sardinia
(in yellow)

Sardinia, with the exception of the central mountainous area called Barbagia
Barbagia
(Barbaria in Latin), was heavily Latinized during the Roman period, and the modern Sardinian language
Sardinian language
is considered one of the most conservative Romance languages
Romance languages
. Besides, during the Roman rule there was a considerable immigration flow from the Italian peninsula into the island; ancient sources mention several populations of likely Italic origin settling down in Sardinia, like the Patulcenses Campani (from Campania
Campania
), the Falisci
Falisci
(from southern Etruria
Etruria
), the Buduntini (from Apulia
Apulia
) and the Siculenses (from Sicily
Sicily
). Roman colonies were also established in Porto Torres
Porto Torres
(Turris Libisonis) and Usellus
Usellus
. Strabo
Strabo
gave a brief summary about the Mountaineer tribes, living in what would be called Barbaria, who refused assimilation during Roman rule, Geographica
Geographica
V ch.2:

There are four nations of mountaineers, the Parati, Sossinati, Balari, and the Aconites. These people dwell in caverns. Although they have some arable land, they neglect its cultivation, preferring rather to plunder what they find cultivated by others, whether on the island or on the continent, where they make descents, especially upon the Pisatæ. The prefects sent sometimes resist them, but at other times leave them alone, since it would cost too dear to maintain an army always on foot in an unhealthy place.

MIDDLE AGES

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, Sardinia
Sardinia
was ruled in rapid succession by the Vandals
Vandals
, the Byzantines , the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and again by the Byzantines.

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the island was divided into four independent Kingdoms (known individually in Sardinian as Judicadu, Giudicau or simply Logu, that is "place"; in Italian : Giudicato); all of them, with the exception of that of Arborea
Arborea
, fell under the influence of the Genoese and Pisan maritime republics , as well as some noble families of the two cities, like the Doria and the Della Gherardesca . The Doria founded the cities of Alghero
Alghero
and Castelgenovese (today Castelsardo ), while the Pisans founded Castel di Castro (today Cagliari
Cagliari
) and Terranova (today Olbia
Olbia
); the famous count Ugolino della Gherardesca , quoted by Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
in his Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
, favored the birth of the mining town of Villa di Chiesa (today Iglesias ), which became an Italian medieval commune along with Sassari
Sassari
and Castel di Castro.

Following the Aragonese conquest of the Sardinian territories belonging to Pisa , which took place between 1323 and 1326, and then the long conflict between the Aragonese Kingdom and the Giudicato of Arborea
Arborea
(1353–1420), the newborn Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
became one of the states of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
. The Aragonese repopulated the cities of Castel di Castro and Alghero
Alghero
with Iberian colonists, mainly Catalans
Catalans
. A local dialect of Catalan is still spoken by a minority of people in the city of Alghero.

MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

View of Cagliari
Cagliari
from " Civitates orbis terrarum
Civitates orbis terrarum
" (1572)

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the main Sardinian cities of Cagliari (the capital of the Kingdom), Alghero
Alghero
and Sassari
Sassari
appear well placed in the trades of the time. The cosmopolitan composition of its people provides evidence of it: the population was not only indigenous, but also hailing from Spain, Liguria, France and the island of Corsica
Corsica
in particular. Especially in Sassari
Sassari
and across the strip of territory that goes from Anglona to Gallura , the Corsicans
Corsicans
became the majority of the population at least since the 15th century. This migration from the neighboring island, which is likely to have led to the birth of the Tuscan -sounding Sassarese and Gallurese
Gallurese
dialects , went on continuously until the 19th century.

The Spanish era ended in 1713, when the whole island was ceded to the Austrian House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
, followed with another cession in 1718 to the Dukes of Savoy , who assumed the title of "Kings of Sardinia". During this period, Ligurian colonists, escaped from Tabarka
Tabarka
, settled on the little islands of San Pietro and Sant\'Antioco (at Carloforte and Calasetta ), in the south-west area of Sardinia, bringing with them a Gallo-Italic dialect called "Tabarchino", still widely spoken there. Then, the Piedmontese Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
annexed the whole Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
and Sicily
Sicily
in 1861 after the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
, becoming the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
. Montevecchio mine See also: History of mining in Sardinia
Sardinia

Since 1850, with the reorganization of the Sardinian mines, there had been a considerable migration flow from the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
towards the Sardinian mining areas; these mainland miners came mostly from Lombardy
Lombardy
, Piedmont, Tuscany
Tuscany
and Romagna
Romagna
. According to an 1882 census realised by the French engineer Leon Goüine, in the south-western Sardinian mines worked 10.000 miners, one third of which coming from the Italian mainland; most of them settled in Iglesias and frazioni .

At the end of the 19th century, communities of fishermen from Sicily , Torre del Greco (Campania) and Ponza
Ponza
(Lazio) migrated on the east coasts of the island, in the towns of Arbatax / Tortolì
Tortolì
, Siniscola and La Maddalena
La Maddalena
.

In the 20th century, a large immigration flow from the Italian peninsula during the Fascist period occurred, as a result of a government policy: a number of people hailing from Veneto
Veneto
but also from Marche
Marche
, Abruzzo and Sicily
Sicily
came to Sardinia
Sardinia
to populate the island, especially the new mining town of Carbonia and the villages of Mussolinia di Sardegna (now Arborea
Arborea
) and Fertilia ; besides, after World War II
World War II
, Istrian Italian refugees were relocated in the Nurra region, along the north-west coastline. Today Istriot , Venetian and Friulan are spoken by the elderly in Fertilia , Tanca Marchese and Arborea
Arborea
. In the same period, few Italian Tunisian families settled in the sparsely populated area of Castiadas
Castiadas
, east of Cagliari.

Following the Italian economic miracle
Italian economic miracle
, a historic migratory movement from the inland to the coastal and urban areas of Cagliari
Cagliari
, Sassari-Alghero- Porto Torres
Porto Torres
and Olbia
Olbia
, which today collect most of the people, took place.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Sardinia
Sardinia
§ Demographics

With a population density of 69/km2, slightly more than a third of the national average, Sardinia
Sardinia
is the fourth least populated region in Italy. The population distribution is anomalous compared to that of other Italian regions lying on the sea. In fact, contrary to the general trend, urban settlement has not taken place primarily along the coast but towards the centre of the island. Historical reasons for this include repeated Saracen
Saracen
raids during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(making the coast unsafe), widespread pastoral activities inland, and the swampy nature of the coastal plains (reclaimed only in the 20th century). The situation has been reversed with the expansion of seaside tourism; today all Sardinia's major urban centres are located near the coasts, while the island's interior is very sparsely populated.

It is the region of Italy
Italy
with the lowest total fertility rate (1.087 births per woman), and the region with the second-lowest birth rate ; The Sardinian fertility rate is actually the lowest in the world. However, the population in Sardinia
Sardinia
has increased in recent years because of massive immigration, mainly from the Italian mainland, but also from Eastern Europe (esp. Romania
Romania
), Africa and China.

As of 2013, there were 42.159 foreign (that is, any people who have not applied for Italian citizenship) national residents, forming 2.5% of the total population.

AGE EXPECTANCY AND LONGEVITY

Diagram of longevity clues in the main Blue Zones

Average life expectancy is slight over 82 years (85 for women and 79.7 for men ).

Sardinia
Sardinia
is the first discovered Blue Zone
Blue Zone
, a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives. Sardinians share with the Ryukyuans from Okinawa
Okinawa
(Japan) the highest rate of centenarians in the world (22 centenarians/100,000 inhabitants). The key factors of such a high concentration of centenarians are identified in the genetics of the Sardinians, lifestyle such as diet and nutrition, and the social structure.

DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS

* Birth Rate
Birth Rate
: 8.3 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2005) * Fertility Rate : 1.07 (births per woman – 2005) * Mortality rate
Mortality rate
: 8.7 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2005) * Infant mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
males: 4.6 (per 1,000 births- 2000) * Infant mortality rate
Infant mortality rate
females: 3.0 (per 1,000 births – 2000) * Marriage rate : 2.9 (per 1,000 inhabitants – 2014) * Suicide rate :11.4 (per 100,000 inhabitants) * Total literacy rate : 98.2% * Literacy rate
Literacy rate
under 65 years old: 99.5%

HISTORICAL POPULATION

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1485 157,578 —

1603 266,676 +69.2%

1678 299,356 +12.3%

1688 229,532 −23.3%

1698 259,157 +12.9%

1728 311,902 +20.4%

1751 360,805 +15.7%

1771 360,785 −0.0%

1776 422,647 +17.1%

1781 431,897 +2.2%

1821 461,931 +7.0%

1824 469,831 +1.7%

1838 525,485 +11.8%

1844 544,253 +3.6%

1848 554,717 +1.9%

1857 573,243 +3.3%

1861 609,000 +6.2%

1871 636,000 +4.4%

1881 680,000 +6.9%

1901 796,000 +17.1%

1911 868,000 +9.0%

1921 885,000 +2.0%

1931 984,000 +11.2%

1936 1,034,000 +5.1%

1951 1,276,000 +23.4%

1961 1,419,000 +11.2%

1971 1,474,000 +3.9%

1981 1,594,000 +8.1%

1991 1,648,000 +3.4%

2001 1,632,000 −1.0%

2011 1,639,362 +0.5%

Source: ISTAT 2011, – D.Angioni-S.Loi-G.Puggioni, La popolazione dei comuni sardi dal 1688 al 1991, CUEC, Cagliari, 1997 – F. Corridore, Storia documentata della popolazione di Sardegna, Carlo Clausen, Torino, 1902

DIVISION BY GENDER AND AGE

TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

Most Sardinians are native to the island but a sizable number of people have settled outside Sardinia: it had been estimated that, between 1955 and 1971, 308,000 Sardinians have emigrated to the Italian mainland. Sizable Sardinian communities are located in Piedmont
Piedmont
, Liguria, Lombardy
Lombardy
, Tuscany
Tuscany
and Latium . Sardinians and their descendants are also numerous in Germany, France, Belgium
Belgium
, Switzerland. In the Americas Sardinians migrated almost all in Southern part of the continent, especially in Argentina (between 1900 and 1913 about 12,000 Sardinians lived in Buenos Aires and neighbourhoods) and Uruguay
Uruguay
(in Montevideo
Montevideo
in the 1870s lived 12,500 Sardinians). Between 1876 and 1903 the 92% of Sardinians that moved towards the Americas settled in Brazil
Brazil
. Between 1876 and 1925 34,190 Sardinians migrated to Africa, in particular towards the French colonies of Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
. Small communities with Sardinians ancestors, about 5000 people, are also found in Brazil
Brazil
(mostly in the cities of Belo Horizonte
Belo Horizonte
, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo
São Paulo
), the UK and Australia.

The Region of Sardinia
Sardinia
keeps a register of overseas Sardinians that managed to set up, in the Italian mainland and across the rest of the world, a number of cultural associations: these are meant to provide the people of Sardinian descent, or those with an interest on Sardinian culture, an opportunity to enjoy a wide range of activities. As of 2012, there are 145 clubs registered on it.

SARDINIANS RESIDING IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 2008

Germany 27,184

France 23,110

Belgium 12,126

Switzerland 7,274

Netherlands 6,040

Others 17,763

TOTAL 93,497

Unlike the rest of Italian emigration, where migrants were mainly males, between 1953–1974 an equal number of females and males emigrated from Sardinia
Sardinia
to the Italian mainland.

SURNAMES

The most common Sardinian surnames are Sanna (fang), Piras (pears) and Pinna (feather, pen): while most derive from the Sardinian language , some others are of Corsican , Spanish (including Catalan ) and Italian origin.

MOST COMMON SURNAMES

1 Sanna

2 Piras

3 Pinna

4 Serra

5 Melis

6 Carta

7 Manca

8 Meloni

9 Mura

10 Lai

11 Murgia

12 Porcu

13 Cossu

14 Usai

15 Loi

16 Marras

17 Floris

18 Deiana

19 Cocco

20 Fadda

CULTURE

LANGUAGES

Main articles: Sardinian language
Sardinian language
, Sassarese language
Sassarese language
, Gallurese language , and Italian language
Italian language
Geographic distribution of traditional languages and dialects spoken in Sardinia
Sardinia

Alongside Italian (Italiano) that, once first introduced in the island by law in July 1760, became the official language of the Piedmontese Kingdom at the expense of Spanish (Español), Sardinian (Sardu) is the other most widely spoken language of the island and is the aboriginal language of indigenous Sards. However, because of a rather rigid model of standardized education system that strongly discouraged the Sardinian youth from learning and speaking the language, the numbers of people retaining Sardinian as their first language have gradually decreased in their own island. As a result of that, Sardinian is currently facing similar challenges as other minority languages across Europe, and both the Logudorese and Campidanese dialects (the main varieties of Sardinian) have been designated as definitely endangered by UNESCO
UNESCO
. The other languages spoken on Sardinia, all also endangered but with much fewer speakers than Sardinian, are not indigenous to the island but developed after the settlement of certain ethnic communities, namely Corsicans
Corsicans
, Catalans
Catalans
and Genoese , in different regions of the island over recent centuries; these include Sassarese (Sassaresu), Gallurese (Gadduresu), Algherese Catalan (Alguerés), and Ligurian Tabarchino (Tabarchin). The Sardinian flag

FLAG

Main article: Flag of Sardinia
Sardinia

The so-called flag of the Four Moors is the historical and official flag of Sardinia. The flag is composed of the St George\'s Cross and four Moor 's heads wearing a white bandana in each quarter. Its origins are basically shrouded in mystery, but it is presumed it originated in Aragon
Aragon
to symbolize the defeat of the Saracen
Saracen
invaders in the battle of Alcoraz .

NATIONAL DAY

Sardinia's Say ( Sa die de sa Sardigna in Sardinian) is a holiday celebrated each 28 April to commemorate the revolt occurring from 1794 to 1796 against the feudal privileges, and the execution or expulsion of the Savoyard officials (including the Piedmontese viceroy, Balbiano) from Sardinia
Sardinia
on 28 April 1794. The rebellion was spurred by the King's refusal to grant the island the autonomy the locals demanded in exchange for defeating the French. The holiday has been formally recognised by the Sardinian Council since 14 September 1993. Some public events are annually held to commemorate the episode, while the schools are closed.

RELIGION

Basilica of Our Lady of Bonaria in Cagliari
Cagliari

The vast majority of the Sardinians is baptized as Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, however the church attendance is one of the lowest in Italy
Italy
(21.9%). Our Lady of Bonaria is the Patroness Saint of Sardinia.

TRADITIONAL CLOTHES

Colourful and of various and original forms, the Sardinian traditional clothes are a clear symbol of belonging to specific collective identities. Although the basic model is homogeneous and common throughout the island, each town or village has its own traditional clothing which differentiates it from the others.

In the past, the clothes diversified themselves even within the communities, performing a specific function of communication as it made it immediately clear the marital status and the role of each member in the social area. Until the mid-20th century the traditional costume represented the everyday clothing in most of Sardinia, but even today in various parts of the island it is possible to meet elderly people dressed in costume.

The materials used for their packaging are among the most varied, ranging from the typical Sardinian woollen fabric (orbace) to silk and from linen to leather. The various components of the feminine apparel are: the headgear (mucadore), the shirt (camisa), the bodice (palas, cossu), the jacket (coritu, gipone), the skirt (unnedda, sauciu), the apron (farda, antalena, defentale). Those of the male are: the headdress (berritta), the shirt (bentone or camisa), the jacket (gipone), the trousers (cartzones or bragas), the skirt (ragas or bragotis), the overcoat (gabbanu, colletu) and the mastruca, a sort of sheep or lamb leather jacket without sleeves ("mastrucati latrones" or "thieves with rough wool cloaks" was the name by which Cicero denigrated the Sardinians who rebelled against the Roman power).

GENETICS

Main article: Genetic history of Europe
Genetic history of Europe

Sardinians, while being part of the European gene pool , are outliers in the European genetic landscape, in part because of particular phenomena that are often found in isolated populations, such as the founder effect and the genetic drift . The data seem to suggest that the current population is derived in large part from the Stone age settlers, with some other minor contributions in the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
and the early Bronze age
Bronze age
; the contribution, in terms of gene flow , of the historical colonizers appears in fact to be very scarce.

Recent comparisons between the Sardinians' genome and that of some individuals from the Neolithic
Neolithic
and the early Chalcolithic, who lived in the Alpine ( Oetzi ), German, and Hungarian regions, showed considerable similarities between the two populations, while at the same time consistent differences between the prehistoric samples and the present inhabitants of the same geographical areas were noted. From this it can be deduced that, while central and northern Europe have undergone significant demographic changes due to post-Neolithic migrations, presumably from the eastern periphery of Europe ( Pontic-Caspian steppe
Pontic-Caspian steppe
) and possibly from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, Southern Europe and Sardinia
Sardinia
in particular were affected less; Sardinians appear to be the population that has best preserved the Neolithic legacy of Western Europe. A 2015 study estimated that roughly 84% of the Sardinian ancestry derives from the Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans (a hybrid population of Mesolithic
Mesolithic
Europeans and Anatolian farmers ), while the remaining 16% derives from Late Neolithic/ Bronze age
Bronze age
Central Europeans ( Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans mixed with steppe pastoralists ). :119

However, Sardinians as a whole are not a homogeneous population genetically: some studies have found some differences between the various regions of the island; in this regard, the mountainous region of Ogliastra is more distant from the rest of Europe and the Mediterranean than other Sardinian sub-regions located in the plains and in the coastal areas, in part because these more accessible areas show, like the rest of much of Europe, a moderate genetic influx from the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
pastoralists, thought to be the carriers of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
into Europe, while Ogliastra has retained unaltered Mesolithic/ Neolithic
Neolithic
roots.

According to a study released in 2014, the genetic diversity among some Sardinian individuals from different regions of the island is between 7 and 30 times higher than the one found among other European ethnicities living thousands kilometers away from each other, like Spaniards
Spaniards
and Romanians
Romanians
. A similar phenomenon is common to some other isolated populations, like the Ladin groups living in Veneto
Veneto
and the Alpine area, where the regional orography negatively affected the amount of interactions among each other.

SardiNIA study in 2015 showed, by using the FST differentiation statistic, a clear genetic differentiation between Sardinians (whole genome sequence of 2120 individuals from across the island and especially the Lanusei valley) and mainland Italian populations (1000 genomes), and reported an even greater difference between Sardinians from the Lanusei valley and other European populations. This pattern of differentiation is also evident in the lengths for haplotypes surrounding rare variants loci , with a similar haplotype length for Sardinian populations and shorter length for populations with low grade of common ancestry.

NOTABLE SARDINIANS

Main article: List of Sardinians
List of Sardinians

GALLERY

* Sardinian traditional clothes and masks

*

Children from Ovodda
Ovodda
*

Urthos mask of Fonni
Fonni
*

Robes from Maracalagonis *

Woman from Ollolai *

Robes from Cagliari
Cagliari
*

Robes from Busachi *

Robes from Olbia
Olbia
*

Robe from Sennori *

Robe from Oristano
Oristano
*

Daily traditional clothe from Dorgali
Dorgali
*

Folk robes from Quartu Sant\'Elena *

Robes from Selargius
Selargius
*

Robes from Assemini
Assemini
*

Child from Aritzo
Aritzo
*

Women dressed in traditional Sardinian clothing ( Selargius
Selargius
) *

Robes from Settimo San Pietro *

Robe from Dolianova *

Robe from Nuragus *

Knights from Teulada *

Traditional robe from Laconi *

Robe from Tonara *

Robes from Fonni
Fonni
*

A Mamuthone and an Issohadore, traditional carnival garments from Mamoiada *

Sardinian knights on Sa Sartiglia day ( Oristano
Oristano
). *

People in traditional dress ( Busachi ) *

Robe from Orgosolo
Orgosolo
*

Robe from Florinas *

People from Cagliari
Cagliari
*

Sardinian men and children in traditional dress at the Sagra del Redentore ( Nuoro
Nuoro
) *

Children from Ovodda
Ovodda
in traditional dress *

An Issohadore, typical mask of the Sardinian carnival ( Mamoiada ) *

A Mamuthone, another typical mask of the Sardinian carnival (Mamoiada ) *

Boe and Merdule ( Ottana ) *

Mask of Sartiglia *

Sardinians in traditional dress ( Orgosolo
Orgosolo
) *

Robe from Atzara *

Robe from Oliena *

Robe from Orune *

Man from Austis
Austis
*

Robe from Ittiri *

Robe from Sassari
Sassari
*

Sardinian man in traditional dress playing the Launeddas *

Robe from Cossoine *

Robe from Isili

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PEOPLE OF SARDINIA .

* List of Sardinians
List of Sardinians
* Sardinia
Sardinia
* History of Sardinia
Sardinia
* Nuragic civilization
Nuragic civilization
* List of Nuragic tribes * Sardinian language
Sardinian language
* Sassarese * Gallurese
Gallurese
* Corsican people
Corsican people
* Italian people
Italian people

REFERENCES

* Historia de la isla de Cerdeña, por el caballero G. de Gregory, traducida al castellano por una sociedad literaria (1840). Barcelona: Imprenta de Guardia Nacional. * Gonen, Amiram (1996). Diccionario de los pueblos del mundo. Anaya&Mario Muchnik. * Casula, Francesco Cesare (1994). La Storia di Sardegna. Sassari: Carlo Delfino Editore. * Brigaglia, Manlio; Giuseppina Fois; Laura Galoppini; Attilio Mastino; Antonello Mattone; Guido Melis; Piero Sanna; Giuseppe Tanda (1995). Storia della Sardegna. Sassari: Soter Editore. * Perra, Mario (1997). ΣΑΡΔΩ, Sardinia, Sardegna (3 Volumes). Oristano: S'Alvure. * Ugas, Giovanni (2006). L'Alba dei Nuraghi. Cagliari: Fabula Editore. ISBN 978-88-89661-00-0 . * Cole, Jeffrey (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-302-6 . * Danver, Steven Laurence. Native peoples of the world: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. ISBN 0765682222 . . * Contu, Ercole (2014). I sardi sono diversi. Carlo Delfino Editore.

* Onnis, Omar (2015). La Sardegna e i sardi nel tempo. Arkadia Editore.

NOTES

* ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT * ^ Sardinia, Lonely Planet, Damien Simonis * ^ Ancient DNA reveals genetic relationship between today’s Sardinians and Neolithic
Neolithic
Europeans, Hudson Alpha Institute for Biotechnology * ^ A B Keller at al 2011, Nature * ^ A B Mathieson et al 2015, Nature * ^ A B supp. info (p.16) * ^ A B A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures, Olalde et al 2015, Molecular Biology and Evolution * ^ A B Gamba et al 2014, Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory, Nature * ^ A B Omrak et al 2016, Genomic Evidence Establishes Anatolia
Anatolia
as the Source of the European Neolithic
Neolithic
Gene Pool, Current Biology, Volume 26, Issue 2, p270–275, 25 January 2016 * ^ A B C Haak et al 2015, Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
in Europe * ^ A B supp. info (p.120) * ^ G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the Corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003 * ^ Grimaldi MC, Crouau-Roy B, Amoros JP, Cambon-Thomsen A, Carcassi C, Orru S, Viader C, Contu L. - West Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Balearic islands, Sardinia) and the Basque population: contribution of HLA class I molecular markers to their evolutionary history. * ^ A B Sardinians – World Directory of Minorities * ^ Sard. Oxford Dictionary. * ^ Danver, Steven L. Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, pp.370-371 * ^ Lang, Peter; Petricioli, Marta. L’Europe Méditerranéenne, pp.201-254, * ^ Edelsward, Lisa-Marlene; Salzman, Philip (1996). Sardinians - Encyclopedia of World Cultures * ^ Cole, Jeffrey. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, pp.321-325 * ^ La stele di Nora contiene la lingua sarda delle origini, Salvatore Dedola * ^ Platonis dialogi, scholia in Timaeum (edit. C. F. Hermann, Lipsia 1877), 25 B, pag. 368 * ^ M. Pittau, La Lingua dei Sardi Nuragici e degli Etruschi, Sassari
Sassari
1981, pag. 57 * ^ Personaggi: Sardo * ^ Sardi in Dizionario di Storia (2011), Treccani * ^ Sardi in Enciclopedia Italiana (1936), Giacomo Devoto, Treccani * ^ Nuovo studio dell’archeologo Ugas: “È certo, i nuragici erano gli Shardana” * ^ Shardana, sardi nuragici: erano lo stesso popolo?, Interview with Giovanni Ugas (in Italian) * ^ Manlio Brigaglia – Storia della Sardegna, pg. 48-49-50 * ^ Giovanni Ugas – L'alba dei Nuraghi , pg.22-23-24 * ^ Giovanni Ugas – L'alba dei Nuraghi, p. 241 * ^ SardiniaPoint.it – Interview with Giovanni Ugas, archaeologist and professor of the University of Cagliari
Cagliari
(in Italian) * ^ Giovanni Ugas - L'Alba dei Nuraghi pg.241,254 - Cagliari, 2005 * ^ Contini Blasco Ferrer, 1989: 14. * ^ Story of Language, Mario Pei, 1949 * ^ Romance Languages: A Historical Introduction, Cambridge University Press * ^ A. Mastino, Storia della Sardegna antica, p.173 * ^ Francesco Cesare Casula – La Storia di Sardegna, pg.141 * ^ Manlio Brigaglia – Storia della Sardegna , pg.158 * ^ Minority Rights Group International – Sardinians * ^ Stranieri nella Cagliari
Cagliari
del XVI e XVII secolo da "Los Otros: genti, culture e religioni diverse nella Sardegna spagnola”, Cagliari, 23 aprile 2004. * ^ Antonio Budruni, Da vila a ciutat: aspetti di vita sociale in Alghero, nei secoli XVI e XVII * ^ A B C Carlo Maxia, Studi Sardo-Corsi, Dialettologia e storia della lingua fra le due isole * ^ Stefano Musso, Tra fabbrica e società: mondi operai nell'Italia del Novecento, Volume 33, p.316 * ^ Quando i bergamaschi occuparono le case * ^ Il progresso sociale della Sardegna e lo sfruttamento industriale delle miniere – Sardegnaminiere.it * ^ Veneti nel Mondo (Venetians in the World) – Anno III – numero 1 – Gennaio 1999 (in Italian) * ^ E al ritorno conquistarono le terre abbandonate – La Nuova Sardegna * ^ ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002–2005 * ^ Solo 1,1 figli per madre, la Sardegna ultima in Italia - La Nuova Sardegna * ^ ISTAT Tassi generici di natalità, mortalità e nuzialità per regione 2002–2005 * ^ Fertilità, Sardegna ultima al mondo - Sardinian socio-economic Observatory * ^ Rapporto Istat – La popolazione straniera residente in Italia al 31º dicembre 2013 * ^ ISTAT - INDICATORI DEMOGRAFICI anno 2015- page 6 * ^ Sardinia, Italy
Italy
– Blue Zones * ^ Okinawa
Okinawa
Exploration Backgrounds – Blue Zones * ^ Does Sardinia
Sardinia
hold the secret of long life - mystery, The Guardian * ^ A B Francesco Cucca: “Caratteri immutati da diecimila anni, ecco perché la Sardegna è speciale” (di Elena Dusi) - Sardegna Soprattutto * ^ Sardinia
Sardinia
Exploration Backgrounds – Blue Zones * ^ Polidori MC, Mariani E, Baggio G, et al. (Jul 2007). "Different antioxidant profiles in Italian centenarians: the Sardinian peculiarity". Eur J Clin Nutr. 61 (7): 922–4. PMID 17228351 . doi :10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602596 . * ^ Susan Pinker: why face-to-face contact matters in our digital age – The Guardian * ^ A B ISTAT Tassi generici di natalità, mortalità e nuzialità per regione 2002–2005 * ^ ISTAT Numero medio di figli per donna per regione 2002–2005 * ^ A B Ministero della Salute Speranza di vita e mortalità * ^ Matrimoni, Il processo di secolarizzazione in Sardegna - Sardinian Socio-Economic Observatory * ^ La mortalità per suicidio in Italia * ^ A B Analfabetismo Italia – Censimento 2001 * ^ A B Sardegna Statistiche: Analfabeti * ^ Giuseppe Sanna – L\'emigrazione della Sardegna (Emigration of Sardinia) (in Italian) * ^ L\'emigrazione sarda tra la fine dell\' 800 e i primi del 900 * ^ A B http://lipari.istat.it/digibib/Annuari/TO00176482Annuario_statistico_emigrazione_italiana_1876_1925.pdf Commissariato generale dell'emigrazione (a cura di), Annuario statistico della emigrazione italiana dal 1876 al 1925 * ^ Il messagero sardo – Una piccola ma attiva colonia di sardi vive nello stato di Bahia (in Italian) * ^ * ^ Museo Nazionale Emigrazione Italiana – 25-03-2012 * ^ I Sanna battono i Piras: è loro il cognome più diffuso in Sardegna. Ecco la classifica - La Nuova Sardegna * ^ Cognomi I più diffusi in Sardegna per territorio - Sardinian Socio-Economic Observatory * ^ Roberto Bolognesi, The phonology of Campidanian Sardinian : a unitary account of a self-organizing structure, The Hague : Holland Academic Graphics * ^ Amos Cardia, S'italianu in Sardìnnia, Iskra * ^ Sardinian is generally considered to be the most conservative Romance language , and was also the first language to split off genetically from the rest of the others, possibly as early as the 1st century BC. Most of the academic community usually subdivides Sardinian into two groups: the first one would be Logudorese (Sardu logudoresu) and the second one would be Campidanese (Sardu campidanesu). * ^ Danver, Steven. Native peoples of the world - An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues * ^ Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, ed. 2010. Paleosardo: Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica (Paleosardo: The Linguistic Roots of Neolithic
Neolithic
Sardinian). De Gruyter Mouton * ^ Lavinio, 1975, 2003 * ^ Sardinia, Lonely Planet, Damien Simonis, pg. 44 * ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger * ^ It's a language born as a lingua franca of Tuscan -Corsican origin, with minor Ligurian , Catalan and Spanish influences and major Logudorese Sardinian influence. * ^ It's a Corsican dialect with Logudorese Sardinian influence. * ^ It's a Catalan dialect spoken in Alghero
Alghero
by the time Catalan invaders repopulated the town and expelled the indigenous population. * ^ It's a Ligurian dialect spoken in Carloforte
Carloforte
and Calasetta . * ^ B. Fois, The crest of the four Moors, brief history of the Sardinian emblem, Carlo Delfino, Sassari
Sassari
1990 * ^ Alberto Loni e Giuliano Carta. Sa die de sa Sardigna - Storia di una giornata gloriosa. Sassari, Isola editrice, 2003. * ^ Massimo Pistis, Rivoluzionari in sottana. Ales sotto il vescovado di mons. Michele Aymerich, Roma, Albatros Il Filo, 2009. * ^ Adriano Bomboi, L'indipendentismo sardo. Le ragioni, la storia, i protagonisti, Cagliari, Condaghes, 2014. * ^ Sa die de sa Sardigna, Sardegna Cultura * ^ ISTAT * ^ Mitogenome diversity in Sardinians: A Genetic Window onto an Island\'s Past, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Oxford Journals * ^ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza - The History and Geography of Human Genes, 1994, Princeton University Press, pp.272 * ^ Franco Germanà, L'uomo in Sardegna dal paleolitico all'età nuragica p.202-206 * ^ Genetica, malattie e caratteri dei sardi, Francesco Cucca - Sardegna Ricerche * ^ A B Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory * ^ Lazaridis et al., Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans p.10 * ^ High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia
Sardinia
Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis * ^ Genome-wide scan with nearly 700 000 SNPs in two Sardinian sub-populations suggests some regions as candidate targets for positive selection * ^ Chiang et al., Using whole-genome sequencing to shed insight on the complex prehistory of Sardinia * ^ Il Dna sardo è il più vario d\'Europa Ricerca sugli abitanti di Benetutti – Unione Sarda * ^ Italiani, i più ricchi in Europa … di diversità genetica – Uniroma * ^ Gli italiani sono il popolo con la varietà genetica più ricca d\'Europa – La Repubblica * ^ Sidore, C., y colaboradores (2015). "Genome sequencing elucidates Sardinian genetic architecture and augments association analyses for lipid and blood inflammatory markers" . Nature Genetics. 47: 1272–1281. PMC 4627508  . PMID 26366554 . doi :10.1038/ng.3368 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )

* v * t * e

Sardinia
Sardinia

PROVINCES

* Cagliari
Cagliari
* Nuoro
Nuoro
* Oristano
Oristano
* Sassari
Sassari
* South Sardinia
Sardinia

HISTORY

* Mining * Judicatus * Kingdom * Monarchs * Viceroys

POLITICS

* Elections in Sardinia
Sardinia
* List of Presidents of Sardinia
Sardinia
* Political parties * Nationalism

CULTURE

* Flag * Music * Tourist attractions * Archaeological and artistic sights * People (Sardinians • Catalans
Catalans
Corsicans
Corsicans
Italians
Italians
)

LANGUAGES

* Italian * Sardinian (Logudorese , Campidanese ) * Sassarese * Gallurese
Gallurese
* Algherese Catalan * Tabarchino Ligurian

Categories

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