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Sardar
Sardar
(Persian: سردار‎, Persian pronunciation: [sær'dɑr]; "Commander" literally; "Headmaster"), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other aristocrats. It has also been used to denote a chief or leader of a tribe or group. It is used as a Persian synonym of the Arabic title Amir. The term and its cognates originate from Persian sardār (سردار) and have been historically used across Persia
Persia
(Iran), Ottoman Empire and Turkey
Turkey
(as "Serdar"), Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(now Iraq), Syria, South Asia (Pakistan, India, and Nepal), the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Balkans and Egypt
Egypt
(as "Sirdar").[4] The term was widely used by Maratha
Maratha
nobility, who held important positions in various Maratha
Maratha
States of the imperial Maratha
Maratha
Empire. After the decline of feudalism, Sardar
Sardar
later indicated a Head of State, a Commander-in-chief, and an Army military rank. As a military rank, a Sardar
Sardar
typically marked the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
or the highest-ranking military officer in an Army, akin to the modern Field Marshal, General of the Army or Chief of Army. The more administrative title Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor-General
Governor-General
or Chief Minister of a remote province, akin to a British Viceroy. In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar
Sirdar
is a local leader of the Sherpas.[5] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by the individual Sherpas, which factors into their compensation. Sardar
Sardar
is also colloquially used to refer to adult male followers of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have served in high-ranking positions within the Indian Army.[citation needed] Sometimes, it has also been used to describe Punjabi Muslims.[6]

Contents

1 Princes 2 Noblemen 3 Aristocrats 4 Head of State 5 Military title 6 Modern usage 7 See also 8 Notes 9 External links

Princes[edit]

Several princely states in South Asia
South Asia
have been ruled by a prince styled Sardar. For example, the Prince
Prince
of Lahore
Lahore
used the title Sardar.[citation needed] Sardars of these princely states hold a primogeniture hereditary title, similar to British hereditary peers.

Noblemen[edit]

The early feudal Maratha
Maratha
Empire prior to Peshwa
Peshwa
administration (1674-1749) used the title Sardar
Sardar
to identify an imperial court minister with military and diplomatic functions. If granted land (jagir), the title Sardar
Sardar
also marked a feudal superior responsible for administration, defense and taxing of the granted territory (equivalent to the European title Count, from the French comte meaning the "companion" or delegate to the Emperor
Emperor
that administered a county). These Sardars of the early Maratha
Maratha
Empire were life peers; the title was not hereditary. If the Sardar
Sardar
was appointed to Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of all Maratha forces, the style Senapati was used in combination (e.g., Sardar Senapati or Sarsenapati Khanderao Yesajirao Dabhade. The title Senapati is a primogeniture hereditary title, as is evidenced by the current Senapati Shrimant Sardar
Sardar
Padmasenraje Dabhade of Talegaon Dabhade. In the Maratha
Maratha
Empire, the more administrative role of Sirdar-Bahadur denoted a Governor General
Governor General
or Chief Minister of a remote province; this best equates to a Mughal Subahdar
Subahdar
or British Viceroy
Viceroy
in function and rank. The title Sirdar
Sirdar
was used by Englishmen to describe native noblemen in British India
India
(e.g., Sirdars of the Deccan). In Baluchistan, the title Sardar
Sardar
marked the chief of his tribe. In the Royal Afghan Kingdom, the original Nishan-i-Sardari (Order of the Leader), founded by King Amanullah in 1923, was bestowed for exceptional service to the Crown by the Afghan monarch. Recipients enjoyed the titles of Sardar-i-Ala or Sardar-i-Ali before their names and also received grants of land. The original Order was disbanded in 1929, and was later revived by King Muhammad Zahir Shah. In addition, several important tribal leaders and chiefs in Afghanistan, were also designated as 'Sardars'. In Ottoman Turkey, Serdar was a noble rank in Montenegro and Serbia. Serdar was also used in the Principality of Montenegro
Principality of Montenegro
and the Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
as a lesser noble title below that of Vojvoda (Duke) equating to Count. The Royal Houses of both Montenegro and Serbia still grant this title. For example, Janko Vukotić
Janko Vukotić
who was a military leader and former prime minister of Montenegro with title of Serdar. In Persia, Sardar-i-Bozorg was the title of both Hossein Khan Sardar and his brother Hasan Khan Qajar. Both were uncles of Agha Khan Qajar, the King- Emperor
Emperor
of Persia
Persia
and the Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
under Emperor Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar
Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar
in the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804 and 1826.

Aristocrats[edit]

In the small district of Sudhanoti, Kashmir, Sardar
Sardar
is used by the hybrid Sudhan tribe to refer to their putative part-descent from the Sadozai clan of King Ahmad Shah Durrani. Also, Poonch families in this region use Sardar
Sardar
at the beginning of their names. Similarly Sardar
Sardar
is used by Khattar tribe noble men, native to the districts of Attock
Attock
and adjacent areas of Rawalpindi. Sardar
Sardar
was used for important political, tribal, military and religious officers rankings by the Sikhs during the period of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In the Hazara Division
Hazara Division
of Pakistan, the word Sardar
Sardar
is used by the Karlal tribe before their names, traditionally, to stress their upper-caste status, e.g., Sardar
Sardar
Muhammad Aslam, Sardar
Sardar
Haider Zaman etc. Similarly, Gujjar
Gujjar
from the Hazara Division
Hazara Division
also use Sardar
Sardar
as their surname denoting their ancient royalty of the region, e.g., Sardar Muhammad Yousaf, Sardar
Sardar
Fakhr-e-Alam, Air Marshal (R) Sardar
Sardar
Asif Khattana, Lt. Gen. (R) Sardar
Sardar
Khalid Khattana and Sardar
Sardar
Said Ghulam Gujjar
Gujjar
are the few names in this.

Head of State[edit]

Vallabhbhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister of India
India
was referred to as Sardar
Sardar
Patel; he is also now known as the "Iron Man of India". Sadar-i-Riyasat was the title of one Constitutional Head of State
Head of State
of the princely state of Kashmir, Yuvaraj Shri Karan Singhji Bahadur, who was appointed as Heir Apparent in 1931. After his father had acceded to India, ending the sovereign Monarchy, Regent in 1949 to 1956. Sardar-i-Riyasat 1956 to 1965 (succeeded on the death of his father as Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, 1961, no longer carrying any hereditary power), next Governor of the Indian constitutive State of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
1965 to 1967. In Persian, Sardar
Sardar
i-Azam was occasionally used as an alternative title for the Shahanshah's Head of government, normally styled Vazir i-Azam, notably in 1904-06 for a Qajar prince, HRH, the Prince
Prince
Major General Abdol Majid Mirza.

Military title[edit]

A Sikh
Sikh
sardar

A Gorkhali Sardar

The later Maratha
Maratha
Empire under Peshwa
Peshwa
administration (1749-1818) used the title Sardar
Sardar
to denote a Field Marshal
Field Marshal
or General of the Army. Sirdar
Sirdar
was the official title of the British Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Anglo-Egyptian army. The title Serdar is also common amongst Ottomans in referring to a Commander-in-Chief. The Serbs
Serbs
adopted this usage from the Ottomans (e.g. Serdar Janko Vukotić). In Turkish, Serdar or Serdar-i-Ekrem was the title of the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
in several military operations throughout the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
history. In Afghanistan, Sardar-i-Salar meant Field Marshal
Field Marshal
or General of the Army. In Iran, Sardar
Sardar
is used to address Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution high-ranking officers. (see List of senior officers of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards)

Modern usage[edit]

In Himalayan mountaineering, a Sirdar
Sirdar
is the local leader of the Sherpas and porters.[7] Among other duties, he records the heights reached by individual Sherpas, which dictates the amounts the Sherpas will be paid. HMS Sirdar
Sirdar
was a World War II Royal Navy
Royal Navy
submarine. "Siridar" is a title of planetary rulers in Frank Herbert's Dune. The Padishah
Padishah
Emperor's elite troops are also called the Sardaukar. Sardar
Sardar
is also colloquially used to refer to adult male followers of the religion of Sikhism, as a disproportionate number of Sikhs have honorably served in many high-ranking positions within the Indian Army. Notable examples include Generals Joginder Jaswant Singh
Joginder Jaswant Singh
and Harbaksh Singh.

See also[edit]

List of Ottoman Grand Viziers Mankari Zamindar Jagirdar Feudalism
Feudalism
in Pakistan Balochistan Baloch tribes

Notes[edit]

^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jackie-kennedy-receives-horse-from-governor-of-pakistan ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=r2O3W7mkAwAC&pg=PA252&dq=title+of+sardar+maratha&hl=en&sa=X&ei=T12gUf_RJ4P4rQew-IC4CQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=title%20of%20sardar%20maratha&f=false ^ http://www.royalark.net/India/gwalior.htm ^ http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/SHA_SIV/SIRDAR_or_SARDAR_Persian_sardar.html ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208.  ^ Piara Singh Gill (1992), Up Against Odds: Autobiography of an Indian Scientist, p. 79, ISBN 9788170233640  ^ Sayre, Woodrow Wilson (1964). Four Against Everest. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall. p. 223. Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-15208. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

The Royal Ark Genealogies- here Persia, see every present country Kasur Profile at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archive inde

.