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SARASWATI ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: सरस्वती, Sarasvatī) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom, and learning worshipped throughout Nepal
Nepal
and India
India
. She is a part of the trinity (_Tridevi _) of Saraswati, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Parvati
Parvati
. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma
Brahma
, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
to create, maintain and regenerate-recycle the Universe respectively.

The earliest known mention of Saraswati
Saraswati
as a goddess is in the Rigveda
Rigveda
. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic period through modern times of Hindu
Hindu
traditions. Some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami (the fifth day of spring) in her honour, and mark the day by helping young children learn how to write alphabets on that day. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain
Jain
religion of west and central India
India
, as well as some Buddhist sects.

Saraswati
Saraswati
who is revered as a goddess of knowledge, music and arts is also found outside Sri Lanka, Nepal, India, such as in Japan, Vietnam, Bali
Bali
(Indonesia) and Myanmar. Saraswati
Saraswati
idol carved of black stone from Chalukya dynasty (12 century CE). Idol on display in Prince of Wales Museum , Mumbai.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Nomenclature

* 2 History * 3 Symbolism and iconography

* 4 Regional manifestations of Saraswati
Saraswati

* 4.1 Maha Saraswati
Saraswati
* 4.2 Mahavidya
Mahavidya
Nila Saraswati
Saraswati

* 5 Worship

* 5.1 Temples

* 5.2 Festivals

* 5.2.1 Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
in South India
India

* 6 Outside the Indian subcontinent

* 6.1 Myanmar
Myanmar
* 6.2 Japan
Japan
* 6.3 Cambodia
Cambodia
* 6.4 Thailand * 6.5 Indonesia

* 7 Tibet * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Saraswati, sometimes spelled Sarasvati, is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
fusion word of Sāra (सार) which means essence, and Sva (स्व) which means one self, the fused word meaning "essence of one self", and Saraswati
Saraswati
meaning "one who leads to essence of self knowledge". It is also a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
composite word of surasa-vati (सुरस-वति) which means "one with plenty of water".

The word Saraswati
Saraswati
appears both as a reference to a river and as a significant deity in the Rigveda
Rigveda
. In initial passages, the word refers to Sarasvati River and mentioned with other northwestern Indian rivers such as Drishadvati. Saraswati
Saraswati
then connotes a river deity. In Book 2, Rigveda
Rigveda
calls Saraswati
Saraswati
as the best of mothers, of rivers, of goddesses.

अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति – Rigveda
Rigveda
2.41.16

Best Mother, best of Rivers, best of Goddesses, Sarasvatī, We are, as ’twere, of no repute and dear Mother, give thou us renown.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is celebrated as a feminine deity with healing, purifying powers of abundant, flowing waters in Book 10 of Rigveda, as follows:

अपो अस्मान मातरः शुन्धयन्तु घर्तेन नो घर्तप्वः पुनन्तु विश्वं हि रिप्रं परवहन्ति देविरुदिदाभ्यः शुचिरापूत एमि – Rigveda
Rigveda
10.17

May the waters, the mothers, cleanse us, may they who purify with butter, purify us with butter, for these goddesses bear away defilement, I come up out of them pure and cleansed. –Translated by John Muir

In Vedic literature, Saraswati
Saraswati
acquires the same significance for early Indians (states John Muir ) as that accredited to the river Ganges
Ganges
by their modern descendants. In hymns of Book 10 of Rigveda, she is already declared to be the "possessor of knowledge". Her importance grows in Vedas
Vedas
composed after Rigveda
Rigveda
and in Brahmanas, and the word evolves in its meaning from "waters that purify", to "that which purifies", to "_vach_ (speech) that purifies", to "knowledge that purifies", and ultimately into a spiritual concept of a goddess that embodies knowledge, arts, music, melody, muse, language, rhetoric, eloquence, creative work and anything whose flow purifies the essence and self of a person. In Upanishads and Dharma Sastras, Saraswati
Saraswati
is invoked to remind the reader to meditate on virtue, virtuous emoluments, the meaning and the very essence of one's activity, one's action.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is known by many names in ancient Hindu
Hindu
literature. Some examples of synonyms for Saraswati
Saraswati
include Brahmani (power of Brahma), Brahmi (goddess of sciences), Bharadi (goddess of history), Vani and Vachi (both referring to the flow of music/song, melodious speech, eloquent speaking respectively), Varnesvari (goddess of letters), Kavijihvagravasini (one who dwells on the tongue of poets).

NOMENCLATURE

In Nepali language , her name is written Nepali : सरस्वती. In the Telugu , Sarasvati is also known as Chaduvula Thalli (చదువుల తల్లి) and Shārada (శారద). In Konkani , she is referred to as Shārada, Veenapani, Pustaka dharini, Vidyadāyini. In Kannada , variants of her name include Sharade, Sharadamba, Vāni, Veenapani in the famous Sringeri temple. In Tamil , she is also known as Kalaimagal (கலைமகள்), Kalaivāni (கலைவாணி), Vāni (வாணி), Bharathi. She is also addressed as Shāradā (the one who loves the autumn season), Veenā pustaka dharani (the one holding books and a Veena ), Vākadevi, Vāni (both meaning "goddess of speech"), Varadhanāyaki (the one bestowing boons), Sāvitri (consort of Brahma), Gāyatri (mother of Vedas).

In India
India
she is locally spelled as Bengali : সরস্বতী, _Saraswati_ ? , Malayalam
Malayalam
: സരസ്വതി, _Saraswati_ ? , and Tamil : சரஸ்வதி, _Sarasvatī_ ? .

Outside Nepal
Nepal
and India, she is known in Burmese as _Thurathadi_ (သူရဿတီ, pronounced or ) or _ Tipitaka Medaw_ (တိပိဋကမယ်တော်, pronounced ), in Chinese as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as _ Benzaiten
Benzaiten
_ (弁才天/弁財天) and in Thai as _Suratsawadi_ (สุรัสวดี) or _Saratsawadi_ (สรัสวดี).

HISTORY

Saraswati
Saraswati
goddess is found in temples of Southeast Asia, islands of Indonesia and Japan. In Japan
Japan
, she is known as Benzaiten
Benzaiten
(shown). She is depicted with a musical instrument in Japan, and is a deity of knowledge, music, and everything that flows.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is found in almost every major ancient and medieval Indian literature between 1000 BC to 1500 AD. In Hindu
Hindu
tradition, she has retained her significance as a goddess from the Vedic age up to the present day. In Shanti Parva
Shanti Parva
of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata , Saraswati
Saraswati
is called the mother of the Vedas, and later as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma
Brahma
created the universe. In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana , she is called the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music. Saraswati
Saraswati
is the active energy and power of Brahma. She is also mentioned in many minor Sanskrit publications such as Sarada Tilaka of 8th century AD as follows,

May the goddess of speech enable us to attain all possible eloquence, she who wears on her locks a young moon, who shines with exquisite lustre, who sits reclined on a white lotus, and from the crimson cusp of whose hands pours, radiance on the implements of writing, and books produced by her favour. – On Saraswati, Sarada Tilaka

Saraswati
Saraswati
became a prominent deity in Buddhist iconography – the consort of Manjushri
Manjushri
in 1st millennium AD. In some instances such as in the _Sadhanamala_ of Buddhist pantheon, she has been symbolically represented similar to regional Hindu
Hindu
iconography, but unlike the more well known depictions of Saraswati.

SYMBOLISM AND ICONOGRAPHY

Saraswati
Saraswati
images are depicted with symbolism.

The goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is often depicted as a beautiful woman dressed in pure white, often seated on a white lotus , which symbolizes light, knowledge and truth. She not only embodies knowledge but also the experience of the highest reality. Her iconography is typically in white themes from dress to flowers to swan – the colour symbolizing Sattwa Guna or purity, discrimination for true knowledge, insight and wisdom.

Her dhyana mantra describes her to be as white as the moon, clad in a white dress, bedecked in white ornaments, radiating with beauty, holding a book & a pen in her hands. The book ">

She is generally shown to have four arms, but sometimes just two. When shown with four hands, those hands symbolically mirror her husband Brahma's four heads, representing _manas_ (mind, sense), _buddhi_ (intellect, reasoning), _citta_ (imagination, creativity) and _ahamkāra_ (self consciousness, ego). Brahma
Brahma
represents the abstract, she action and reality.

The four hands hold items with symbolic meaning — a _pustaka_ (book or script), a _mālā_ (rosary, garland), a water pot and a musical instrument (vīnā). The book she holds symbolizes the Vedas representing the universal, divine, eternal, and true knowledge as well as all forms of learning. A mālā of crystals, representing the power of meditation, inner reflection and spirituality. A pot of water represents the purifying power to separate right from wrong, the clean from the unclean, and essence from the inessential. In some texts, the pot of water is symbolism for soma - the drink that liberates and leads to knowledge. The most famous feature on Saraswati
Saraswati
is a musical instrument called a veena , represents all creative arts and sciences, and her holding it symbolizes expressing knowledge that creates harmony. Saraswati
Saraswati
is also associated with _anurāga_, the love for and rhythm of music, which represents all emotions and feelings expressed in speech or music.

A hamsa or swan is often located next to her feet. In Hindu
Hindu
mythology , the hamsa is a sacred bird, which if offered a mixture of milk and water, is said to be able to drink the milk alone. It thus symbolizes the ability to discriminate between good and evil, essence from outward show and the eternal from the evanescent. Due to her association with the swan, Saraswati
Saraswati
is also referred to as Hamsavāhini, which means "she who has a hamsa as her vehicle". The swan is also a symbolism for spiritual perfection, transcendence and moksha.

Sometimes a _citramekhala_ (also called _mayura_, peacock ) is shown beside the goddess. The peacock symbolizes colorful splendor, celebration of dance, and - as the devourer of snakes - the alchemical ability to transmute the serpent poison of self into the radiant plumage of enlightenment.

She is usually depicted near a flowing river or other body of water, which depiction may constitute a reference to her early history as a river goddess.

REGIONAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SARASWATI

MAHA SARASWATI

In some regions of India, such as Vindhya , Odisha
Odisha
, West Bengal
West Bengal
and Assam
Assam
, as well as east Nepal, Saraswati
Saraswati
is part of the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya mythology, in the trinity (_ Tridevi _) of Mahakali
Mahakali
, Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati . This is one of many different Hindu
Hindu
legends that attempt to explain how Hindu
Hindu
trinity of gods (Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva) and goddesses (Saraswati, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Parvati) came into being. Various Purana
Purana
texts offer alternate legends for Maha Saraswati.

Maha Saraswati
Saraswati
is depicted as eight-armed and is often portrayed holding a Veena whilst sitting on a white lotus flower.

Her dhyāna shloka given at the beginning of the fifth chapter of Devi
Devi
Mahatmya is: Wielding in her lotus-hands the bell, trident, ploughshare, conch, pestle, discus, bow, and arrow, her lustre is like that of a moon shining in the autumn sky. She is born from the body of Gowri and is the sustaining base of the three worlds. That Mahasaraswati I worship here who destroyed Sumbha and other asuras.

MahaSARASWATI is also part of another legend, the _Navdurgas_, or nine forms of Durga, revered as powerful and dangerous goddesses in eastern India. They have special significance on _ Navaratri
Navaratri
_ in these regions. All of these are seen ultimately as aspects of a single great Hindu
Hindu
goddess, with Maha Saraswati
Saraswati
as one of those nine.

MAHAVIDYA NILA SARASWATI

In Tibet and parts of India, Nilasaraswati is a form of Mahavidya Tara . Nila Saraswati
Saraswati
is a different deity from traditional Saraswati, yet subsumes her knowledge and creative energy in tantric literature. Nila Sarasvati is the _ugra_ (angry, violent, destructive) manifestation in one school of Hinduism, while the more common Saraswati
Saraswati
is the _saumya_ (calm, compassionate, productive) manifestation found in most others. In tantric literature of the former, Nilasaraswati has a 100 names. There are separate dhyana shlokas and mantras for her worship in Tantrasara .

WORSHIP

TEMPLES

Sarasvati temple at Pilani in North Indian style (above), and South Indian style (below). Her temples, like her iconography, often resonate in white themes.

There are many temples dedicated to Saraswati
Saraswati
around the world. Some notable temples include the Gnana Saraswati
Saraswati
Temple in Basar on the banks of the River Godavari
Godavari
, the Warangal Saraswati
Saraswati
and Shri Saraswati
Saraswati
Kshetramu temples in Medak, Telangana
Telangana
. In Karnataka
Karnataka
, one of many Saraswati/Sharada pilgrimage spots is Shringeri Sharadamba Temple . In Ernakulam district of Kerala
Kerala
, there is a famous Saraswati temple in North Paravur, namely Dakshina Mookambika Temple North Paravur . In Tamil Nadu, Koothanur hosts a Saraswati
Saraswati
temple about 25 kilometres from Tiruvarur. In her identity as Brahmani , additional Sarasvati temples can be found throughout Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh.

FESTIVALS

Main article: Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja

In West Bengal
West Bengal
, Saraswati
Saraswati
is worshipped on Vasant Panchami, a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 5th day in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar month of Magha (about February). Hindus celebrate this festival in temples, homes and educational institutes alike.

In Goa
Goa
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka
Karnataka
, Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
starts with Saraswati
Saraswati
Avahan on Maha Saptami and ends on Vijayadashami with Saraswati
Saraswati
Udasan or Visarjan.

Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
calendar:

* Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
Avahan – Maha Saptami – Triratna vratam starts in Andhra Pradesh. * Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
(main puja) – Durga
Durga
Ashtami * Saraswati
Saraswati
Uttara Puja – Mahanavami * Saraswati
Saraswati
Visarjan or Udasan – Vijaya Dashami * Saraswati
Saraswati
Kartik Purnima on (Sristhal) siddhpur of Gujaratis ancient festival since Solanki ruling of Patan state.

Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
In South India

In Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, the last three days of the Navaratri festival, i.e., Ashtami, Navami, and Dashami, are celebrated as Sarasvati Puja. The celebrations start with the Puja Vypu (Placing for Worship). It consists of placing the books for puja on the Ashtami day. It may be in one's own house, in the local nursery school run by traditional teachers, or in the local temple. The books will be taken out for reading, after worship, only on the morning of the third day (Vijaya Dashami). It is called Puja Eduppu (Taking Puja). Children are happy, since they are not expected to study on these days. On the Vijaya Dashami day, Kerala
Kerala
celebrates the Ezhuthiniruthu or Initiation of Writing for the little children before they are admitted to nursery schools. This is also called Vidyarambham. The child is made to write for the first time on the rice spread in a plate with the index finger, guided by an elder of the family or by a teacher.

OUTSIDE THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

Balinese Hindu
Hindu
deity Saraswati
Saraswati
(top), a Saraswati temple in Bali
Bali
(middle), and one of many Benzaiten
Benzaiten
temples in Japan (bottom).

MYANMAR

Statue of Thurathadi at Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple (Yangon)

In Burma , the Shwezigon Mon Inscription dated to be of 1084 AD, near Bagan, recites the name Saraswati
Saraswati
as follows, "The wisdom of eloquence called Saraswati
Saraswati
shall dwell in mouth of King Sri Tribhuwanadityadhammaraja at all times". – Translated by Than Tun

In Buddhist arts of Myanmar, she is called _Thurathadi_ (or Thayéthadi). :215 Students in Myanmar
Myanmar
pray for her blessings before their exams. :327 She is also believed to be, in Mahayana pantheon of Myanmar, the protector of Buddhist scriptures.

JAPAN

Main article: Benzaiten
Benzaiten

The concept of Saraswati
Saraswati
migrated from India, through China to Japan, where she appears as Benzaiten
Benzaiten
(弁財天). Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan
Japan
during the 6th through 8th centuries. She is often depicted holding a _biwa _, a traditional Japanese lute musical instrument. She is enshrined on numerous locations throughout Japan such as the Kamakura's Zeniarai Benzaiten
Benzaiten
Ugafuku Shrine or Nagoya's Kawahara Shrine ; the three biggest shrines in Japan
Japan
in her honour are at the Enoshima Island in Sagami Bay, the Chikubu Island in Lake Biwa, and the Itsukushima Island in Seto Inland Sea.

CAMBODIA

Saraswati
Saraswati
was honoured with invocations among Hindus of Angkorian Cambodia
Cambodia
, suggests a tenth-century and another eleventh-century inscription. She and Brahma
Brahma
are referred to in Cambodian epigraphy from the 7th century onwards, and she is praised by Khmer poets for being goddess of eloquence, writing and music. More offerings were made to her than to her husband Brahma. She is also referred to as _Vagisvari_ and _Bharati_ in Yasovarman era Khmer literature.

THAILAND

Saraswati, Devi
Devi
of Arts, Emblem of Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University

In ancient Thai literature, Saraswati
Saraswati
(Thai : สุรัสวดี; rtgs : _Suratsawadi_) is the goddess of speech and learning, and consort of Brahma. Over time, Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist concepts on deities merged in Thailand. Icons of Saraswati with other deities of India
India
are found in old Thai _wats _. Amulets with Saraswati
Saraswati
and a peacock are also found in Thailand.

INDONESIA

Saraswati
Saraswati
is an important goddess in Balinese Hinduism. She shares the same attributes and iconography as Saraswati
Saraswati
in Hindu
Hindu
literature of India
India
- in both places, she is the goddess of knowledge, creative arts, wisdom, language, learning and purity. In Bali
Bali
, she is celebrated on Saraswati
Saraswati
day, one of the main festivals for Hindus in Indonesia. The day marks the close of 210-day year in the Pawukon calendar.

On Saraswati
Saraswati
day, people make offerings in the form of flowers in temples and to sacred texts. The day after Saraswati
Saraswati
day, is _Banyu Pinaruh_, a day of cleansing. On this day, Hindus of Bali
Bali
go to the sea, sacred waterfalls or river spots, offer prayers to Saraswati, and then rinse themselves in that water in the morning. Then they prepare a feast, such as the traditional _bebek betutu_ and _nasi kuning_, that they share.

The Saraswati
Saraswati
Day festival has a long history in Bali. It has become more widespread in Hindu
Hindu
community of Indonesia in recent decades, and it is celebrated with theatre and dance performance.

TIBET

In Tibet, she is known as _Yang chen ma_ (Singing/Music Goddess), or _Yang chen drolma_ (Singing/Music Tara) considered the consort of Manjushri, Buddha of Wisdom, she is one of the 21 Taras.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is the Divine Embodiment & bestower of Enlightened Eloquence & Inspiration, patroness of the arts, sciences, music, language, literature, history, poetry ">

Her mantra in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism is "Om Sarasiddhi Hring Hring".

SEE ALSO

* Aban , "the Waters", representing and represented by Aredvi Sura Anahita. * Anahita
Anahita
– the Old Persian goddess of wisdom * Arachosia name of which derives from Old Iranian _*Harahvatī_ (Avestan _Haraxˇaitī_, Old Persian _Hara(h)uvati-_). * Athena
Athena
– the Greek goddess of wisdom and knowledge * Brahmi – Shaktidharmic version of Saraswati * Hara Berezaiti , "High Hara", the mythical mountain that is the origin of the _*Harahvatī_ river. * Minerva – the Roman goddess of wisdom and knowledge * Rhea – the Greek goddess consort of Cronos and mother of the gods and titans * Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
* Sarasvati River , a manifestation of the goddess Saraswati. * Saraswati
Saraswati
Vandana Mantra * Saraswati
Saraswati
yoga * Sharada Peeth * Tara (Devi) * Tridevi * Trikaranasuddhi

NOTES

* ^ Elizabeth Dowling and W George Scarlett (2005), Encyclopedia of Religious
Religious
and Spiritual Development, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0761928836 page 204 * ^ David Kinsley (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520063392 , pages 55-64 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Kinsley, David (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06339-2 , pages 55-64 * ^ Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, p. 1214; Sarup & Sons, ISBN 978-81-7625-064-1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kinsley, David (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06339-2 * ^ Vasant Panchami Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja, Know India
India
- Odisha
Odisha
Fairs and Festivals * ^ The festival of Vasant Panchami: A new beginning, Alan Barker, United Kingdom * ^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). _ Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection_. : Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Thomas Donaldson (2001), Iconography of the Buddhist Sculpture of Orissa, ISBN 978-8170174066 , pages 274-275 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kinsley, David (1988). _ Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions._ University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2 . p. 95. * ^ sAra Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany * ^ स्व Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Griselda Pollock and Victoria Turvey-Sauron (2008), The Sacred and the Feminine: Imagination and Sexual Difference, ISBN 978-1845115203 , pages 144-147 * ^ Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
Kashmir Hindu
Hindu
Deities * ^ सुरस Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ John Muir, _Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India
India
- Their Religions and Institutions_ at Google Books , Volume 5, pp. 337-347 with footnotes * ^ Rigveda, Book 2, Hymn 41 * ^ Rigveda, Book 10, Hymn 17 * ^ H.T. Colbrooke, Sacred writings of the Hindus, Williams & Norgate, London, page 16-17 * ^ _A_ _B_ Edward Moor, _The Hindu
Hindu
Pantheon_, p. 125, at Google Books , pages 125-127 * ^ Sarasvati, The Goddess of Learning Stephen Knapp * ^ _A_ _B_ Edward Balf, _The Encyclopædia of India
India
and of Eastern and Southern Asia_ at Google Books , page 534 * ^ Ian Reader and George J. Tanabe, Practically Religious: Worldly Benefits and the Common Religion of Japan, Univ of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824820909 * ^ _A_ _B_ _Asiatic Researches_ at Google Books , - History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, Volume 3, London, pages 272-273 * ^ Catherine Ludvík (2007). _Sarasvatī, Riverine Goddess of Knowledge: From the Manuscript-carrying Vīṇā-player to the Weapon-wielding Defender of the Dharma_. BRILL. p. 1. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jean Holm and John Bowke (1998), Picturing God, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1855671010 , pages 99-101 * ^ For Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English Translation of the four words: Monier Williams\' Sanskrit-English Dictionary University of Koeln, Germany * ^ Some texts refer to her as "goddess of harmony"; for example, John Wilkes, _Encyclopaedia Londinensis_ at Google Books , Volume 22, page 669 * ^ Frithjof Schuon (2007), Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, ISBN 978-1933316420 , page 281 * ^ Hope B. Werness (2007), Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-0826419132 , pages 319-320 * ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, ISBN 978-0823931804 , page 408 * ^ Diana Eck (2013), India: A Sacred Geography, Random House, ISBN 978-0385531924 , pages 265-279 * ^ C. Mackenzie Brown (1990), The Triumph of the Goddess, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403648 * ^ Glory of the Divine Mother ( Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam) by S.Sankaranarayanan. Prabha Publishers, Chennai. India.(ISBN 81-87936-00-2 ) Page. 184 * ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Vol. 2, ISBN 978-0823931804 , page 467 * ^ David Kinsley, Tāntric Visions of the Divine Feminine, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2 * ^ Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Vol.2. Pp.192-193. ISBN 9781576070895 * ^ Knapp, Stephen (2006). "The Dharmic Festivals" from The Power of the Dharma: An Introduction to Hinduism and Vedic Culture. iUniverse. Pg. 94. ISBN 9780595837489 * ^ Kerkar, Rajendra (Oct 5, 2011). " Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja: Worshipping knowledge, education". Times of India. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ "Navratri rituals: Golu, Saraswati
Saraswati
puja, Vidyarambham... : 4". The Deccan Chronicle. 2013-10-05. * ^ "Thiruvananthapuram gears up for Vidyarambham day". The Hindu. 2013-10-11. * ^ Than Tun, Saraswati
Saraswati
of Burma, South East Asian Studies, Vol. 14, No.3, December 1976, pages 433-441 * ^ _A_ _B_ Donald Seekins (2006), Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar), ISBN 978-0810854765 * ^ Josef Silverstein (1989), Independent Burma at forty years, Volume 4 of Monograph Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, ISBN 978-0877271215 , page 55 * ^ Catherine Ludvik (2001), From Sarasvati to Benzaiten, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, National Library of Canada; PDF Download * ^ T. Suzuki (1907), The seven gods of bliss, The Open Court, 1907 (7), 2 * ^ _A_ _B_ O. W. Wolters (1989), History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives, ISBN 978-9971902421 , page 87-89 * ^ George McFarland, Thai-English Dictionary page 790 * ^ Patit Paban Mishra (2010), The History of Thailand, ISBN 978-0313340918 * ^ Saraswati, Day of Knowledge Descent The Bali
Bali
Times (2013) * ^ GC Pande, India's Interaction with Southeast Asia, Vol. 1, ISBN 978-8187586241 , page 660-661 * ^ _A_ _B_ Mary Sabine Zurbuchen (2014), The Language of Balinese Shadow Theater, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691608129 , pages 49-57 * ^ Vivienne Kruger, Balinese Food: The Traditional Cuisine & Food Culture of Bali, ISBN 978-0804844505 , page 152-153 * ^ Jan Gonda, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 3 Southeast Asia Religions, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004043305 , page 45 * ^ Jamgon Mipham (2000). _Mo: The Tibetan Divination System_. Shambhala. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-1-55939-848-0 . * ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab (2007). _Tara\'s Enlightened Activity: An Oral Commentary on the Twenty-One Praises to Tara_. Shambhala. pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-1-55939-864-0 . * ^ Jampa Mackenzie Stewart (2014). _The Life of Longchenpa: The Omniscient Dharma King of the Vast Expanse_. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-8348-2911-4 . * ^ A Prayer to Saraswati, Tsem Tulku Rinpoche

REFERENCES

* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sarasuati". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * Kinsley, David (1998). _Tantric visions of the divine feminine : the ten mahāvidyās_ (Repr. ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1523-8 . * Sankaranarayanan, S. (2001). _Glory of the Divine Mother (Devī Māhātmyam)_. India: Nesma Books. ISBN 81-87936-00-2 .

FURTHER READING

* Sailen Debnath, _The Meanings of Hindu
Hindu
Gods, Goddesses and Myths_, ISBN 9788129114815 , Rupa & Co., New Delhi. * Saraswati, Swami Satyananda. _ Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
for Children_. ISBN 1-877795-31-3 . * Ankerl, Guy (2000). _Global communication without universal civilization_. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Sarasvati at Encyclopædia Britannica * Stephen Knapp - Sarasvati, The Goddess of Learning

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