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This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Saraswati
Saraswati
(Sanskrit: सरस्वती, Sarasvatī) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal
Nepal
and India.[3] She is a part of the trinity (Tridevi) of Saraswati, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
to create, maintain and regenerate-recycle the Universe respectively.[4] The earliest known mention of Saraswati
Saraswati
as a goddess is in the Rigveda. She has remained significant as a goddess from the Vedic period through modern times of Hindu
Hindu
traditions.[5] Some Hindus celebrate the festival of Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
(the fifth day of spring, and also known as Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
and Saraswati
Saraswati
Jayanti in so many parts of India) in her honour,[6] and mark the day by helping young children learn how to write alphabets on that day.[7] The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain
Jain
religion of west and central India,[8] as well as some Buddhist sects.[9] Saraswati
Saraswati
is also worshipped outside the Indian subcontinent, in nations such as Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia and Myanmar.

Saraswati
Saraswati
idol carved of black stone from Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
(12 century CE). Idol on display in Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Nomenclature

2 History 3 Symbolism and iconography 4 Regional manifestations of Saraswati

4.1 Maha Saraswati 4.2 Mahavidya
Mahavidya
Nila Saraswati

5 Worship

5.1 Temples 5.2 Festivals

5.2.1 Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
in South India

6 Outside the Indian subcontinent

6.1 Myanmar 6.2 Japan 6.3 Cambodia 6.4 Thailand 6.5 Indonesia 6.6 Tibet

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Saraswati, sometimes spelled Sarasvati, is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
fusion word of sāra (सार)[10] which means "essence", and sva (स्व)[11] which means "one self", the fused word meaning "essence of one self" and Saraswati
Saraswati
meaning "one who leads to essence of self-knowledge".[12][13] It is also a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
composite word of surasa-vati (सुरस-वति) which means "one with plenty of water".[14][15] The word Saraswati
Saraswati
appears both as a reference to a river and as a significant deity in the Rigveda. In initial passages, the word refers to the Sarasvati River
Sarasvati River
and is mentioned as one among several northwestern Indian rivers such as the Drishadvati. Saraswati, then, connotes a river deity. In Book 2, the Rigveda
Rigveda
describes Saraswati
Saraswati
as the best of mothers, of rivers, of goddesses.[15]

अम्बितमे नदीतमे देवितमे सरस्वति – Rigveda
Rigveda
2.41.16[16] Best Mother, best of Rivers, best of Goddesses, Sarasvatī, We are, as ’twere, of no repute and dear Mother, give thou us renown.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is celebrated as a feminine deity with healing and purifying powers of abundant, flowing waters in Book 10 of the Rigveda, as follows:

अपो अस्मान मातरः शुन्धयन्तु घर्तेन नो घर्तप्वः पुनन्तु विश्वं हि रिप्रं परवहन्ति देविरुदिदाभ्यः शुचिरापूत एमि – Rigveda
Rigveda
10.17[17] May the waters, the mothers, cleanse us, may they who purify with butter, purify us with butter, for these goddesses bear away defilement, I come up out of them pure and cleansed. –Translated by John Muir

In Vedic literature, Saraswati
Saraswati
acquires the same significance for early Indians (states John Muir) as that accredited to the river Ganges
Ganges
by their modern descendants. In hymns of Book 10 of Rigveda, she is already declared to be the "possessor of knowledge".[18] Her importance grows in Vedas
Vedas
composed after Rigveda
Rigveda
and in Brahmanas, and the word evolves in its meaning from "waters that purify", to "that which purifies", to "vach (speech) that purifies", to "knowledge that purifies", and ultimately into a spiritual concept of a goddess that embodies knowledge, arts, music, melody, muse, language, rhetoric, eloquence, creative work and anything whose flow purifies the essence and self of a person.[15][19] In Upanishads
Upanishads
and Dharma
Dharma
Sastras, Saraswati
Saraswati
is invoked to remind the reader to meditate on virtue, virtuous emoluments, the meaning and the very essence of one's activity, one's action. Some may wonder as to what would be the relation of Saraswati
Saraswati
and Lord Vishnu. She is a very close relative of Thirumal.[19] Saraswati
Saraswati
is known by many names in ancient Hindu
Hindu
literature. Some examples of synonyms for Saraswati
Saraswati
include Brahmani
Brahmani
(power of Brahma), Brahmi (goddess of sciences),[20] Bharadi (goddess of history), Vani and Vachi (both referring to the flow of music/song, melodious speech, eloquent speaking respectively), Varnesvari (goddess of letters), Kavijihvagravasini (one who dwells on the tongue of poets).[3][21].Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is also known as Vidyadatri (Goddess who provides knowledge), Veenavadini (Goddess who plays veena, the musical instrument held by Goddess Saraswati), Pustakdharini (Goddess carrying book with herself), Veenapani (Goddess carrying veena in her hands), Hansavahini (Goddess who sits on swan) and Vagdevi (Goddess of speech). Nomenclature[edit] In the Nepali language, her name is written Nepali: सरस्वती. In the Telugu, Sarasvati is also known as Chaduvula Thalli (చదువుల తల్లి) and Shārada (శారద). In Konkani, she is referred to as Shārada, Veenapani, Pustakadhārini, Vidyadāyini. In Kannada, variants of her name include Sharade, Sharadamba, Vāni, Veenapani in the famous Sringeri temple. In Tamil, she is also known as Kalaimagal (கலைமகள்), Kalaivāni (கலைவாணி), Vāni (வாணி) and Bharathi. She is also addressed as Sāradā (the one who offers sāra or the essence), Shāradā (the one who loves the autumn season), Veenā-pustaka-dhārini (the one holding books and a Veena), Vāgdevi, Vāgishvari, (both meaning "goddess of speech"), Vāni (speech), Varadhanāyaki (the one bestowing boons), Sāvitri (consort of Brahma), Gāyatri (mother of Vedas).[citation needed] In India, she is locally spelled as Bengali: সরস্বতী, Saraswati ?, Malayalam: സരസ്വതി, Saraswati ?, and Tamil: சரஸ்வதி, Sarasvatī ?. Outside Nepal
Nepal
and India, she is known in Burmese as Thurathadi (သူရဿတီ, pronounced [θùja̰ðədì] or [θùɹa̰ðədì]) or Tipitaka
Tipitaka
Medaw (တိပိဋကမယ်တော်, pronounced [tḭpḭtəka̰ mɛ̀dɔ̀]), in Chinese as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天/弁財天) and in Thai as Suratsawadi (สุรัสวดี) or Saratsawadi (สรัสวดี).[22] History[edit]

Saraswati
Saraswati
goddess is found in temples of Southeast Asia, islands of Indonesia and Japan. In Japan, she is known as Benzaiten
Benzaiten
(shown).[23] She is depicted with a musical instrument in Japan, and is a deity of knowledge, music, and everything that flows.

Saraswati
Saraswati
is found in almost every major ancient and medieval Indian literature between 1000 BC to 1500 AD. In Hindu
Hindu
tradition, she has retained her significance as a goddess from the Vedic age up to the present day.[5] In Shanti Parva
Shanti Parva
of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata, Saraswati
Saraswati
is called the mother of the Vedas, and later as the celestial creative symphony who appeared when Brahma
Brahma
created the universe.[15] In Book 2 of Taittiriya Brahmana, she is called the mother of eloquent speech and melodious music. Saraswati
Saraswati
is the active energy and power of Brahma.[21] She is also mentioned in many minor Sanskrit
Sanskrit
publications such as Sarada Tilaka
Sarada Tilaka
of 8th century AD as follows,[24]

May the goddess of speech enable us to attain all possible eloquence, she who wears on her locks a young moon, who shines with exquisite lustre, who sits reclined on a white lotus, and from the crimson cusp of whose hands pours, radiance on the implements of writing, and books produced by her favour. – On Saraswati, Sarada Tilaka[24]

Saraswati
Saraswati
became a prominent deity in Buddhist iconography – the consort of Manjushri
Manjushri
in 1st millennium AD. In some instances such as in the Sadhanamala of Buddhist pantheon, she has been symbolically represented similar to regional Hindu
Hindu
iconography, but unlike the more well known depictions of Saraswati.[9] Symbolism and iconography[edit]

Saraswati
Saraswati
images are depicted with symbolism.

The goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is often depicted as a beautiful woman dressed in pure white, often seated on a white lotus, which symbolizes light, knowledge and truth.[25] She not only embodies knowledge but also the experience of the highest reality. Her iconography is typically in white themes from dress to flowers to swan – the colour symbolizing Sattwa Guna or purity, discrimination for true knowledge, insight and wisdom.[3][26] Her dhyana mantra describes her to be as white as the moon, clad in a white dress, bedecked in white ornaments, radiating with beauty, holding a book[27] & a pen in her hands. The book & the pen represent knowledge[citation needed] She is generally shown to have four arms, but sometimes just two. When shown with four hands, those hands symbolically mirror her husband Brahma's four heads, representing manas (mind, sense), buddhi (intellect, reasoning), citta (imagination, creativity) and ahamkāra (self consciousness, ego).[12][28] Brahma
Brahma
represents the abstract, she action and reality. The four hands hold items with symbolic meaning — a pustaka (book or script), a mālā (rosary, garland), a water pot and a musical instrument (vīnā).[3] The book she holds symbolizes the Vedas representing the universal, divine, eternal, and true knowledge as well as all forms of learning. A mālā of crystals, representing the power of meditation, inner reflection and spirituality. A pot of water represents the purifying power to separate right from wrong, the clean from the unclean, and essence from the inessential. In some texts, the pot of water is symbolism for soma - the drink that liberates and leads to knowledge.[3] The most famous feature on Saraswati
Saraswati
is a musical instrument called a veena, represents all creative arts and sciences,[12] and her holding it symbolizes expressing knowledge that creates harmony.[3][29] Saraswati
Saraswati
is also associated with anurāga, the love for and rhythm of music, which represents all emotions and feelings expressed in speech or music. A hamsa or swan is often located next to her feet. In Hindu
Hindu
mythology, the hamsa is a sacred bird, which if offered a mixture of milk and water, is said to be able to drink the milk alone. It thus symbolizes the ability to discriminate between good and evil, essence from outward show and the eternal from the evanescent.[12] Due to her association with the swan, Saraswati
Saraswati
is also referred to as Hamsavāhini, which means "she who has a hamsa as her vehicle". The swan is also a symbolism for spiritual perfection, transcendence and moksha.[26][30] Sometimes a citramekhala (also called mayura, peacock) is shown beside the goddess. The peacock symbolizes colorful splendor, celebration of dance, and - as the devourer of snakes - the alchemical ability to transmute the serpent poison of self into the radiant plumage of enlightenment.[31] She is usually depicted near a flowing river or other body of water, which depiction may constitute a reference to her early history as a river goddess. Regional manifestations of Saraswati[edit]

Saraswati
Saraswati
Statue in Dhaka University

Maha Saraswati[edit] In some regions of India, such as Vindhya, Odisha, West Bengal
West Bengal
and Assam, as well as east Nepal, Saraswati
Saraswati
is part of the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya mythology, in the trinity (Tridevi) of Mahakali, Mahalakshmi
Mahalakshmi
and Mahasaraswati.[32][33] This is one of many different Hindu
Hindu
legends that attempt to explain how Hindu
Hindu
trinity of gods (Brahma, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva) and goddesses (Saraswati, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
and Parvati) came into being. Various Purana
Purana
texts offer alternate legends for Maha Saraswati.[34] Maha Saraswati
Saraswati
is depicted as eight-armed and is often portrayed holding a Veena
Veena
whilst sitting on a white lotus flower. Her dhyāna shloka given at the beginning of the fifth chapter of Devi Mahatmya is:

Wielding in her lotus-hands the bell, trident, ploughshare, conch, pestle, discus, bow, and arrow, her lustre is like that of a moon shining in the autumn sky. She is born from the body of Gowri
Gowri
and is the sustaining base of the three worlds. That Mahasaraswati I worship here who destroyed Sumbha and other asuras.[35]

Mahasaraswati is also part of another legend, the Navshaktis(not to be confused with Navdurgas), or nine forms of Shakti, namely Brahmi, Vaishnavi, Maheshwari, Kaumari, Varahi, Narsimhi, Aindri, Shivdooti and Chamunda, revered as powerful and dangerous goddesses in eastern India. They have special significance on Navaratri
Navaratri
in these regions. All of these are seen ultimately as aspects of a single great Hindu goddess, with Maha Saraswati
Saraswati
as one of those nine.[36] Mahavidya
Mahavidya
Nila Saraswati[edit] In Tibet
Tibet
and parts of India, Nilasaraswati is a form of Mahavidya Tara. Nila Saraswati
Saraswati
is a different deity from traditional Saraswati, yet subsumes her knowledge and creative energy in tantric literature. Nila Sarasvati is the ugra (angry, violent, destructive) manifestation in one school of Hinduism, while the more common Saraswati
Saraswati
is the saumya (calm, compassionate, productive) manifestation found in most others. In tantric literature of the former, Nilasaraswati has a 100 names. There are separate dhyana shlokas and mantras for her worship in Tantrasara.[37] Worship[edit] Temples[edit]

Sarasvati temple at Pilani
Pilani
in North Indian style (above), and South Indian style (below). Her temples, like her iconography, often resonate in white themes.

There are many temples dedicated to Saraswati
Saraswati
around the world. Some notable temples include the Gnana Saraswati
Saraswati
Temple in Basar on the banks of the River Godavari, the Warangal Saraswati
Saraswati
and Shri Saraswati Kshetramu temples in Medak, Telangana. In Karnataka, one of many Saraswati/Sharada pilgrimage spots is Shringeri Sharadamba Temple. In Ernakulam
Ernakulam
district of Kerala, there is a famous Saraswati
Saraswati
temple in North Paravur, namely Dakshina
Dakshina
Mookambika Temple North Paravur. In Tamil Nadu, Koothanur hosts a Saraswati
Saraswati
temple about 25 kilometres from Tiruvarur. In her identity as Brahmani, additional Sarasvati temples can be found throughout Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Festivals[edit] Main article: Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja One of the most famous festivals associated with Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of Vasant Panchami. Celebrated on the 5th day in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar month of Magha (month), it is also known as Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
and Saraswati
Saraswati
Jayanti in India. In West Bengal
West Bengal
and Tripura, Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is worshipped on Vasant Panchami, a Hindu
Hindu
festival celebrated every year on the 5th day in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar month of Magha (about February). Hindus celebrate this festival in temples, homes and educational institutes alike.[38][39] In Bihar
Bihar
and Jharkhand, Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
is commonly known as Saraswati Puja. On this day, Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is worshipped in schools, colleges, educational institutes as well as in institutes associated with music and dance. Cultural programmes are also organised in schools and institutes on this day. People especially students worship Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
also in pandals (a tent made up of colourful cloths, decorated with lights and other decorative items). In these states, on the occasion of Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja, Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
is worshipped in the form of idol, made up of soil. On Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja, the idol is worshipped by people and prasad is distributed among the devotees after puja. Prasad
Prasad
mainly consists of boondi (motichoor), pieces of carrot, peas and indian plum (ber). On the next day or any day depending on religious condition, the idol is immersed in a pond (known as Murti
Murti
Visarjan or Pratima Visarjan) after performing a Havana (immolation), with full joy and fun, playing with abir and gulal. After Pratima Visarjan, members involved in the organisation of puja ceremony eat khichdi together. In Goa,[40] Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka, Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
starts with Saraswati
Saraswati
Avahan on Maha Saptami and ends on Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
with Saraswati
Saraswati
Udasan or Visarjan.[citation needed] In 2018, the Haryana
Haryana
government launched and sponsored National Saraswati
Saraswati
Mahotsav in its state named after Saraswati.[41] Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
in South India[edit] In Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu,

Saraswathi Devi
Devi
idol at home.

the last three days of the Navaratri
Navaratri
festival, i.e., Ashtami, Navami, and Dashami, are celebrated as Sarasvati Puja.[42] The celebrations start with the Puja Vypu (Placing for Worship). It consists of placing the books for puja on the Ashtami day. It may be in one's own house, in the local nursery school run by traditional teachers, or in the local temple. The books will be taken out for reading, after worship, only on the morning of the third day (Vijaya Dashami). It is called Puja Eduppu (Taking [from] Puja). Children are happy, since they are not expected to study on these days. On the Vijaya Dashami day, Kerala celebrates the Ezhuthiniruthu or Initiation of Writing for the little children before they are admitted to nursery schools. This is also called Vidyarambham. The child is made to write for the first time on the rice spread in a plate with the index finger, guided by an elder of the family or by a teacher.[43] Outside the Indian subcontinent[edit]

Balinese Hindu
Hindu
deity Saraswati
Saraswati
(top), a Saraswati
Saraswati
temple in Bali (middle), and one of many Benzaiten
Benzaiten
temples in Japan
Japan
(bottom).

Myanmar[edit]

Statue of Thurathadi at Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple (Yangon)

In Burma, the Shwezigon Mon Inscription dated to be of 1084 AD, near Bagan, recites the name Saraswati
Saraswati
as follows,

"The wisdom of eloquence called Saraswati
Saraswati
shall dwell in mouth of King Sri Tribhuwanadityadhammaraja at all times". – Translated by Than Tun[44]

In Buddhist arts of Myanmar, she is called Thurathadi (or Thayéthadi).[45]:215 Students in Myanmar
Myanmar
pray for her blessings before their exams.[45]:327 She is also believed to be, in Mahayana pantheon of Myanmar, the protector of Buddhist scriptures.[46] Japan[edit] Main article: Benzaiten The concept of Saraswati
Saraswati
migrated from India, through China to Japan, where she appears as Benzaiten
Benzaiten
(弁財天).[47] Worship of Benzaiten arrived in Japan
Japan
during the 6th through 8th centuries. She is often depicted holding a biwa, a traditional Japanese lute musical instrument. She is enshrined on numerous locations throughout Japan such as the Kamakura's Zeniarai Benzaiten
Benzaiten
Ugafuku Shrine or Nagoya's Kawahara Shrine;[48] the three biggest shrines in Japan
Japan
in her honour are at the Enoshima
Enoshima
Island in Sagami Bay, the Chikubu Island
Chikubu Island
in Lake Biwa, and the Itsukushima
Itsukushima
Island in Seto Inland Sea. Cambodia[edit] Saraswati
Saraswati
was honoured with invocations among Hindus of Angkorian Cambodia, suggests a tenth-century and another eleventh-century inscription.[49] She and Brahma
Brahma
are referred to in Cambodian epigraphy from the 7th century onwards, and she is praised by Khmer poets for being goddess of eloquence, writing and music. More offerings were made to her than to her husband Brahma. She is also referred to as Vagisvari and Bharati in Yasovarman era Khmer literature.[49] Thailand[edit]

Saraswati, Devi
Devi
of Arts, Emblem of Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University

In ancient Thai literature, Saraswati
Saraswati
(Thai: สุรัสวดี; RTGS: Suratsawadi) is the goddess of speech and learning, and consort of Brahma.[50] Over time, Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist concepts on deities merged in Thailand. Icons of Saraswati
Saraswati
with other deities of India
India
are found in old Thai wats.[51] Amulets with Saraswati
Saraswati
and a peacock are also found in Thailand. Indonesia[edit] Saraswati
Saraswati
is an important goddess in Balinese Hinduism. She shares the same attributes and iconography as Saraswati
Saraswati
in Hindu
Hindu
literature of India
India
- in both places, she is the goddess of knowledge, creative arts, wisdom, language, learning and purity. In Bali, she is celebrated on Saraswati
Saraswati
day, one of the main festivals for Hindus in Indonesia.[52][53] The day marks the close of 210-day year in the Pawukon calendar.[54] On Saraswati
Saraswati
day, people make offerings in the form of flowers in temples and to sacred texts. The day after Saraswati
Saraswati
day, is Banyu Pinaruh, a day of cleansing. On this day, Hindus of Bali
Bali
go to the sea, sacred waterfalls or river spots, offer prayers to Saraswati, and then rinse themselves in that water in the morning. Then they prepare a feast, such as the traditional bebek betutu and nasi kuning, that they share.[55] The Saraswati
Saraswati
Day festival has a long history in Bali.[56] It has become more widespread in Hindu
Hindu
community of Indonesia in recent decades, and it is celebrated with theatre and dance performance.[54] Tibet[edit] In Tibet, she is known as Yang chen ma (Singing/Music Goddess),[57] or Yang chen drolma (Singing/Music Tara) considered the consort of Mañjuśri, Buddha of Wisdom, she is one of the 21 Taras.[58][59] Saraswati
Saraswati
is the Divine Embodiment & bestower of Enlightened Eloquence & Inspiration, patroness of the arts, sciences, music, language, literature, history, poetry & philosophy, all those engaged in creative endeavours in Tibetan Buddhism. She is considered the peaceful manifestation of Palden Lhamo(Glorious Goddess). In the Gelugpa tradition, Palden Lhamo
Palden Lhamo
is known as Magzor Gyalmo(the Queen who Repels Armies[60]) and is a wrathful emanation of Saraswati
Saraswati
while being a protector. Saraswati
Saraswati
was the yidam (principal personal meditational deity) of 14th Century Tibetan monk Je Tsongkhapa. He composed a devotional poem, Prayer to Sarasvati, to her.[61][62]She is believed in the Tibetan tradition to have accompanied him on his travels, as well as regularly engaging in conversations with him.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Aban, "the Waters", representing and represented by Aredvi Sura Anahita. Anahita
Anahita
– the Old Persian goddess of wisdom Arachosia
Arachosia
name of which derives from Old Iranian *Harahvatī (Avestan Haraxˇaitī, Old Persian Hara(h)uvati-). Athena
Athena
– the Greek goddess of wisdom and knowledge Brahmi – Shaktidharmic version of Saraswati Hara Berezaiti, "High Hara", the mythical mountain that is the origin of the *Harahvatī river. Minerva
Minerva
– the Roman goddess of wisdom and knowledge Rhea – the Greek goddess consort of Cronos and mother of the gods and titans Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja Sarasvati River, a manifestation of the goddess Saraswati. Saraswati
Saraswati
Vandana Mantra Saraswati
Saraswati
yoga Sharada Peeth Tara (Devi) Tridevi Trikaranasuddhi

Notes[edit]

^ Elizabeth Dowling and W George Scarlett (2005), Encyclopedia of Religious
Religious
and Spiritual Development, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0761928836 page 204 ^ David Kinsley (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520063392, pages 55-64 ^ a b c d e f Kinsley, David (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06339-2, pages 55-64 ^ Encyclopaedia of Hinduism, p. 1214; Sarup & Sons, ISBN 978-81-7625-064-1 ^ a b Kinsley, David (1988), Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-06339-2 ^ Vasant Panchami
Vasant Panchami
Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
Archived 23 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Know India
India
- Odisha
Odisha
Fairs and Festivals ^ The festival of Vasant Panchami: A new beginning, Alan Barker, United Kingdom ^ Birmingham Museum of Art
Birmingham Museum of Art
(2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. [Birmingham, Ala]: Birmingham Museum of Art. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-904832-77-5.  ^ a b Thomas Donaldson (2001), Iconography of the Buddhist Sculpture of Orissa, ISBN 978-8170174066, pages 274-275 ^ sAra Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany ^ स्व Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany ^ a b c d Griselda Pollock and Victoria Turvey-Sauron (2008), The Sacred and the Feminine: Imagination and Sexual Difference, ISBN 978-1845115203, pages 144-147 ^ Goddess Saraswati
Saraswati
Kashmir Hindu
Hindu
Deities ^ सुरस Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary, University of Koeln, Germany ^ a b c d John Muir, Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India
India
- Their Religions and Institutions at Google Books, Volume 5, pp. 337-347 with footnotes ^ Rigveda, Book 2, Hymn 41 ^ Rigveda, Book 10, Hymn 17 ^ H.T. Colbrooke, Sacred writings of the Hindus, Williams & Norgate, London, page 16-17 ^ a b Edward Moor, The Hindu
Hindu
Pantheon, p. 125, at Google Books, pages 125-127 ^ Sarasvati, The Goddess of Learning Stephen Knapp ^ a b Edward Balf, The Encyclopædia of India
India
and of Eastern and Southern Asia at Google Books, page 534 ^ Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu
Hindu
Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu
Hindu
Religious
Religious
Traditions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2. p. 95. ^ Ian Reader and George J. Tanabe, Practically Religious: Worldly Benefits and the Common Religion of Japan, Univ of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824820909 ^ a b Asiatic Researches at Google Books, - History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, Volume 3, London, pages 272-273 ^ Catherine Ludvík (2007). Sarasvatī, Riverine Goddess of Knowledge: From the Manuscript-carrying Vīṇā-player to the Weapon-wielding Defender of the Dharma. BRILL. p. 1.  ^ a b Jean Holm and John Bowke (1998), Picturing God, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1855671010, pages 99-101 ^ " Hinduism
Hinduism
101 Saraswati
Saraswati
Symbolism". Hindu
Hindu
American Foundation (HAF). Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ For Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English Translation of the four words: Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary University of Koeln, Germany ^ Some texts refer to her as "goddess of harmony"; for example, John Wilkes, Encyclopaedia Londinensis at Google Books, Volume 22, page 669 ^ Frithjof Schuon (2007), Spiritual Perspectives and Human Facts, ISBN 978-1933316420, page 281 ^ Hope B. Werness (2007), Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-0826419132, pages 319-320 ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, ISBN 978-0823931804, page 408 ^ Diana Eck (2013), India: A Sacred Geography, Random House, ISBN 978-0385531924, pages 265-279 ^ C. Mackenzie Brown (1990), The Triumph of the Goddess, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403648 ^ Glory of the Divine Mother ( Devi
Devi
Mahatmyam) by S.Sankaranarayanan. Prabha Publishers, Chennai. India.(ISBN 81-87936-00-2) Page. 184 ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, Vol. 2, ISBN 978-0823931804, page 467 ^ David Kinsley, Tāntric Visions of the Divine Feminine, University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2 ^ Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Vol.2. Pp.192-193. ISBN 9781576070895 ^ Knapp, Stephen (2006). "The Dharmic Festivals" from The Power of the Dharma: An Introduction to Hinduism
Hinduism
and Vedic Culture. iUniverse. Pg. 94. ISBN 9780595837489 ^ Kerkar, Rajendra (Oct 5, 2011). " Saraswati
Saraswati
Puja: Worshipping knowledge, education". Times of India. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ Haryana
Haryana
to celebrate Saraswati
Saraswati
Mahotsav on Jan 28, The Pioneer, 07 January 2017. ^ " Navratri
Navratri
rituals: Golu, Saraswati
Saraswati
puja, Vidyarambham... : 4". The Deccan Chronicle. 2013-10-05.  ^ "Thiruvananthapuram gears up for Vidyarambham day". The Hindu. 2013-10-11.  ^ Than Tun, Saraswati
Saraswati
of Burma, South East Asian Studies, Vol. 14, No.3, December 1976, pages 433-441 ^ a b Donald Seekins (2006), Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar), ISBN 978-0810854765 ^ Josef Silverstein (1989), Independent Burma at forty years, Volume 4 of Monograph Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Program, Cornell University, ISBN 978-0877271215, page 55 ^ Catherine Ludvik (2001), From Sarasvati to Benzaiten, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto, National Library of Canada; PDF Download ^ T. Suzuki (1907), The seven gods of bliss, The Open Court, 1907 (7), 2 ^ a b O. W. Wolters (1989), History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives, ISBN 978-9971902421, page 87-89 ^ George McFarland, Thai-English Dictionary page 790 ^ Patit Paban Mishra (2010), The History of Thailand, ISBN 978-0313340918 ^ Saraswati, Day of Knowledge Descent The Bali
Bali
Times (2013) ^ GC Pande, India's Interaction with Southeast Asia, Vol. 1, ISBN 978-8187586241, page 660-661 ^ a b Mary Sabine Zurbuchen (2014), The Language of Balinese Shadow Theater, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691608129, pages 49-57 ^ Vivienne Kruger, Balinese Food: The Traditional Cuisine & Food Culture of Bali, ISBN 978-0804844505, page 152-153 ^ Jan Gonda, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section 3 Southeast Asia Religions, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004043305, page 45 ^ Jamgon Mipham (2000). Mo: The Tibetan Divination System. Shambhala. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-1-55939-848-0.  ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab (2007). Tara's Enlightened Activity: An Oral Commentary on the Twenty-One Praises to Tara. Shambhala. pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-1-55939-864-0.  ^ Jampa Mackenzie Stewart (2014). The Life of Longchenpa: The Omniscient Dharma
Dharma
King of the Vast Expanse. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-8348-2911-4.  ^ "Buddhist Protector: Shri Devi, Magzor Gyalmo Main Page". www.himalayanart.org. Retrieved 2017-10-26.  ^ Kilty, Gavin (June 15, 2001). The Splendor of an Autumn
Autumn
Moon: The Devotional Verse of Tsongkhapa. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861711920. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ Gavin, Kilty. "The Splendor of an Autumn
Autumn
Moon: The Devotional Verse of Tsongkhapa". books.google.com/. Wisdom Publications. Retrieved 24 January 2018. 

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sarasuati". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Kinsley, David (1998). Tantric visions of the divine feminine : the ten mahāvidyās (Repr. ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1523-8.  Sankaranarayanan, S. (2001). Glory of the Divine Mother (Devī Māhātmyam). India: Nesma Books. ISBN 81-87936-00-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Sailen Debnath, The Meanings of Hindu
Hindu
Gods, Goddesses and Myths, ISBN 9788129114815, Rupa & Co., New Delhi. Saraswati, Swami Satyananda. Saraswati Puja
Saraswati Puja
for Children. ISBN 1-877795-31-3.  Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Saraswati

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sarasvati.

Sarasvati at Encyclopædia Britannica Stephen Knapp - Sarasvati, The Goddess of Learning "Prayer to Sarasvati" by Je Tsongkhapa, translated by Gavin Kilty, "The Splendor of an Autumn
Autumn
Moon

The Devotional Verse of Tsongkhapa," Wisdom Publications ]

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