Sappinia diploidea is a free-living[1] amoeba species.[2]


Sappinia can be found around the world. It's usually found in elk and buffalo feces, places where farm animals are known to eat, soil containing rotting plants, fresh water sources.[3]

Clinical significance

It is capable of causing infectious disease in humans.[4][5][6]

Symptoms of Sappinia Infection

Symptoms of a Sappinia infection include: Headache, Sensitivity to light, Nausea or upset stomach, Vomiting, Blurry vision, Loss of consciousness. A scan of the one, infected patient’s brain also revealed a 2-centimeter tumor-like mass on the back left section of his brain.[3]


Treatment for the one identified case of Sappinia infection included the removal of a tumor in the brain and a series of drugs given to the patient after surgery. This treatment lead to the patient’s full recovery.[7]

Specifically, it can cause amebic encephalitis.[8][9]


  1. ^ Visvesvara GS; Moura H; Schuster FL (June 2007). "Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea". FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 50 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2007.00232.x. PMID 17428307. 
  2. ^ Brown MW; Spiegel FW; Silberman JD (2007). "Amoeba at attention: phylogenetic affinity of Sappinia pedata". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 54 (6): 511–9. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00292.x. PMID 18070328. 
  3. ^ a b Brown; J.D. Silberman; F.W. Spiegel (2007). "Amoeba at attention: phylogenetic affinity of Sappinia pedata". J Eukaryot Microbiol: 511–9. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Acanthamoeba: Overview - eMedicine". Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  5. ^ Gelman BB, Rauf SJ, Nader R, et al. (May 2001). "Amoebic encephalitis due to Sappinia diploidea". JAMA. 285 (19): 2450–1. doi:10.1001/jama.285.19.2450. PMID 11368696. 
  6. ^ Wylezich, C.; Walochnik, J.; Michel, R. (2009). "High genetic diversity of Sappinia-like strains (Amoebozoa, Thecamoebidae) revealed by SSU rRNA investigations". Parasitology research. 105 (3): 869–873. doi:10.1007/s00436-009-1482-1. PMID 19495795. 
  7. ^ Gelman, B.B. "Parasites-Sappinia". Amoebic encephalitis due to Sappinia diploidea. JAMA, 2001. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  8. ^ Gelman BB, Popov V, Chaljub G, et al. (October 2003). "Neuropathological and ultrastructural features of amebic encephalitis caused by Sappinia diploidea". J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 62 (10): 990–8. PMID 14575235. 
  9. ^ Marciano‐Cabral F (2009). "Free‐Living Amoebae as Agents of Human Infection". J Infect Dis. 199 (8): 1104–1106. doi:10.1086/597474. PMID 19302009. 

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