A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers.
LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European
EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit
WRITING SYSTEM No native script. Written in various Brahmic scripts .
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san
SANSKRIT ( IAST : _Saṃskṛtam_; Devanagari : संस्कृतम्; IPA : ) is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism ; a philosophical language of Hinduism , Sikhism , Buddhism , and Jainism ; and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval India and Nepal . As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia , it was also a language of high culture in some of these regions during the early-medieval era.
Sanskrit is a standardised dialect of Old Indo-Aryan , having originated in the 2nd millennium BCE as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European . As one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies . The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific , technical, philosophical and religious texts. The compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity, rigor, and fidelity. Thereafter, variants and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used.
Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India , which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns and chants .
* 1 Name
* 2 Variants
* 3 Contemporary usage
* 3.1 As a spoken language * 3.2 In official use * 3.3 Contemporary literature and patronage * 3.4 In music * 3.5 In mass media * 3.6 In liturgy * 3.7 Symbolic usage
* 4 Historical usage
* 4.1 Origin and development * 4.2 Standardisation by Panini * 4.3 Coexistence with vernacular languages * 4.4 Decline
* 5 Public education and popularisation
* 5.1 Adult and continuing education
* 5.2 School curricula
* 5.2.1 In the West
* 5.3 Universities
* 5.4 European scholarship
* 5.4.1 British attitudes
* 6 Phonology
* 7 Writing system
* 7.1 Romanisation
* 8 Grammar
* 9 Influence on other languages
* 9.1 Indic languages * 9.2 Interaction with other languages * 9.3 In popular culture
* 10 See also * 11 References and notes * 12 Further reading * 13 External links
The Sanskrit verbal adjective _sáṃskṛta-_ may be translated as "refined, elaborated".
As a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the _ Manusmṛti _ and the _ Mahabharata _. The language referred to as _saṃskṛta_, was the cultured language used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, in contrast to the language spoken by the people, _prākṛta -_ "original, natural, normal, artless."
_Classical Sanskrit_ is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini , around the fourth century BCE. Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Ancient Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent , particularly in India , Bangladesh , Pakistan , Sri Lanka and Nepal .
Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini , evolved out of the earlier Vedic form. The present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE (for Rig-vedic ). Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Pāṇinian" Sanskrit as separate dialects. Although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology , vocabulary , grammar and syntax . Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas , a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas ) and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas and Upanishads . Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over several centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the traditional Vedic corpus; however, the early Sutras are Vedic, too, both in language and content.
For nearly 2000 years, Sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia , Inner Asia , Southeast Asia , and to a certain extent East Asia . A significant form of post- Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian epic poetry —the _ Ramayana _ and _Mahabharata_. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits , or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations _ārṣa_ (आर्ष), meaning 'of the ṛṣis ', the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts, there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is a literary language heavily influenced by the Middle Indo-Aryan languages , based on early Buddhist Prakrit texts which subsequently assimilated to the Classical Sanskrit standard in varying degrees.
There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit: _paścimottarī_ (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), _madhyadeśī_ (lit., middle country), _pūrvi_ (Eastern) and _dakṣiṇī_ (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic _Brāhmaṇas_, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (_Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6). _
AS A SPOKEN LANGUAGE
See also: Sanskrit revival
Indian newspapers have published reports about several villages, where, as a result of recent revival attempts, large parts of the population, including children, are learning Sanskrit and are even using it to some extent in everyday communication:
According to the 2011 national census of Nepal, 1,669 people use Sanskrit as their native language .
IN OFFICIAL USE
In India , Sanskrit is among the 22 languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution . The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its second official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a writ petition in the Punjab and Haryana High Court for declaring Sanskrit as a 'minority' language.
CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE AND PATRONAGE
More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since India's independence in 1947. Much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages.
The Sahitya Akademi has given an award for the best creative work in Sanskrit every year since 1967. In 2009, Satya Vrat Shastri became the first Sanskrit author to win the Jnanpith Award , India's highest literary award.
Sanskrit is used extensively in the Carnatic and Hindustani branches of classical music. Kirtanas , bhajans , stotras , and shlokas of Sanskrit are popular throughout India. The samaveda uses musical notations in several of its recessions.
IN MASS MEDIA
Over 90 weeklies, fortnightlies and quarterlies are published in Sanskrit. Sudharma , a daily newspaper in Sanskrit, has been published out of Mysore , India, since 1970, while Sanskrit Vartman Patram and Vishwasya Vrittantam started in Gujarat during the last five years. Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on state-run All India Radio . These broadcasts are also made available on the internet on AIR's website. Sanskrit news is broadcast on TV and on the internet through the DD National channel at 6:55 AM IST.
Sanskrit is the sacred language of various Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. It is used during worship in Hindu temples throughout the world. In Newar Buddhism , it is used in all monasteries, while Mahayana and Tibetan Buddhist religious texts and sutras are in Sanskrit as well as vernacular languages. Jain texts are written in Sanskrit, including the Tattvartha sutra , Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra , the Bhaktamara Stotra and the Agamas . _ Devi Mahatmya _ palm-leaf manuscript in an early Bhujimol script in Nepal , 11th century
See also: List of educational institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottos and List of institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottoes
* India : _ Satyameva Jayate _ meaning: Truth alone triumphs. * Nepal : _ Janani Janmabhoomischa Swargadapi Gariyasi _ meaning: Mother and motherland are superior to heaven. * Indonesia : In Indonesia, Sanskrit are usually widely used as terms and mottoes of the armed forces and other national organizations _(See: Indonesian Armed Forces mottoes )_. _Rastra Sewakottama_ (राष्ट्र सेवकोत्तम; People's Main Servants) is the official motto of the Indonesian National Police , _Tri Dharma Eka Karma_(त्रीधर्म एक कर्म) is the official motto of the Indonesian Military , _Kartika Eka Paksi_ (कार्तिक एक पक्षी; Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals) is the official motto of the Indonesian Army , _Adhitakarya Mahatvavirya Nagarabhakti_ (अधीतकार्य महत्ववीर्य नगरभक्ती; Hard-working Knights Serving Bravery as Nations Hero") is the official motto of the Indonesian Military Academy, _Upakriya Labdha Prayojana Balottama_ (उपकृया लब्ध प्रयोजन बालोत्तम; "Purpose of The Unit is to Give The Best Service to The Nation by Finding The Perfect Soldier") is the official motto of the Army Psychological Corps, _Karmanye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadachana_ (कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन; "Working Without Counting The Profit and Loss") is the official motto of the Air-Force Special Forces ( Paskhas ), _Jalesu Bhumyamcha Jayamahe_ (जलेशु भूम्यं च जयमहे; "On The Sea and Land We Are Glorious") is the official motto of the Indonesian Marine Corps , and there are more units and organizations in Indonesia either Armed Forces or civil which use the Sanskrit language respectively as their mottoes and other purposes. Although Indonesia is a Muslim-majority country , it still has major Hindu and Indian influence since pre-historic times until now culturally and traditionally especially in the islands of Java and Bali .
Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit. The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by the Defence Research and Development Organisation has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it developed Prithvi , Agni , Akash , Nag and the Trishul missile system . India's first modern fighter aircraft is named HAL Tejas .
ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT
In order to explain the common features shared by Sanskrit and other Indo-European languages, the Indo-Aryan migration theory states that the original speakers of what became Sanskrit arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the north-west some time during the early second millennium BCE. Evidence for such a theory includes the close relationship between the Indo-Iranian tongues and the Baltic and Slavic languages, vocabulary exchange with the non-Indo-European Uralic languages , and the nature of the attested Indo-European words for flora and fauna.
The earliest attested Sanskrit texts are religious texts of the Rigveda, from the mid-to-late second millennium BCE. No written records from such an early period survive, if they ever existed. However, scholars are confident that the oral transmission of the texts is reliable: they were ceremonial literature whose correct pronunciation was considered crucial to its religious efficacy.
From the Rigveda until the time of Pāṇini (fourth century BCE) the development of the early Vedic language can be observed in other Vedic texts: the Samaveda , Yajurveda , Atharvaveda , Brahmanas , and Upanishads . During this time, the prestige of the language, its use for sacred purposes, and the importance attached to its correct enunciation all served as powerful conservative forces resisting the normal processes of linguistic change. However, there is a clear, five-level linguistic development of Vedic from the Rigveda to the language of the Upanishads and the earliest sutras such as the Baudhayana sutras .
STANDARDISATION BY PANINI
The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini's _Aṣṭādhyāyī_ ("Eight-Chapter Grammar"). It is essentially a prescriptive grammar , i.e., an authority that defines Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had become rare in Pāṇini's time. Classical Sanskrit became fixed with the grammar of Pāṇini (roughly 500 BCE), and remains in use as a learned language through the present day.
COEXISTENCE WITH VERNACULAR LANGUAGES
Sanskrit linguist Madhav Deshpande says that when the term "Sanskrit" arose it was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment in ancient India, and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes through the close analysis of Vyākaraṇins such as Pāṇini and Patanjali , who exhorted proper Sanskrit at all times, especially during ritual. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the vernacular Prakrits, which were Middle Indo-Aryan languages . However, linguistic change led to an eventual loss of mutual intelligibility .
Many Sanskrit dramas also indicate that the language coexisted with Prakrits, spoken by multilingual speakers with a more extensive education. Sanskrit speakers were almost always multilingual. In the medieval era, Sanskrit continued to be spoken and written, particularly by learned Brahmins for scholarly communication. This was a thin layer of Indian society, but covered a wide geography. Centres like Varanasi , Paithan , Pune and Kanchipuram had a strong presence of teaching and debating institutions, and high classical Sanskrit was maintained until British times.
There are a number of sociolinguistic studies of spoken Sanskrit which strongly suggest that oral use of modern Sanskrit is limited, having ceased development sometime in the past.
Sheldon Pollock argues that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead ". :393 Pollock has further argued that, while Sanskrit continued to be used in literary cultures in India, it was never adapted to express the changing forms of subjectivity and sociality as embodied and conceptualised in the modern age. :416 Instead, it was reduced to "reinscription and restatements" of ideas already explored, and any creativity was restricted to hymns and verses. :398 A notable exception are the military references of Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara 's 17th-century commentary on the _Mahābhārata_.
Hatcher argues that modern works continue to be produced in Sanskrit, while according to Hanneder,
On a more public level the statement that Sanskrit is a dead language is misleading, for Sanskrit is quite obviously not as dead as other dead languages and the fact that it is spoken, written and read will probably convince most people that it cannot be a dead language in the most common usage of the term. Pollock's notion of the "death of Sanskrit" remains in this unclear realm between academia and public opinion when he says that "most observers would agree that, in some crucial way, Sanskrit is dead." — Hanneder
Hanneder has also argued that modern works in Sanskrit are either ignored or their "modernity" contested.
When the British imposed a Western-style education system in India in the 19th century, knowledge of Sanskrit and ancient literature continued to flourish as the study of Sanskrit changed from a more traditional style into a form of analytical and comparative scholarship mirroring that of Europe.
PUBLIC EDUCATION AND POPULARISATION
ADULT AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
Attempts at reviving the Sanskrit language have been undertaken in the Republic of India since its foundation in 1947 (it was included in the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution ).
Samskrita Bharati is an organisation working for Sanskrit revival. The "All- India Sanskrit Festival" (since 2002) holds composition contests. The 1991 Indian census reported 49,736 fluent speakers of Sanskrit. Sanskrit learning programmes also feature on the lists of most AIR broadcasting centres. The Mattur village in central Karnataka claims to have native speakers of Sanskrit among its population. Inhabitants of all castes learn Sanskrit starting in childhood and converse in the language. Even the local Muslims converse in Sanskrit. Historically, the village was given by king Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire to Vedic scholars and their families, while people in his kingdom spoke Kannada and Telugu. Another effort concentrates on preserving and passing along the oral tradition of the Vedas , www.shrivedabharathi.in is one such organisation based out of Hyderabad that has been digitising the Vedas by recording recitations of Vedic Pandits.
The Central Board of Secondary Education of India (CBSE), along with several other state education boards, has made Sanskrit an alternative option to the state's own official language as a second or third language choice in the schools it governs. In such schools, learning Sanskrit is an option for grades 5 to 8 (Classes V to VIII). This is true of most schools affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) board, especially in states where the official language is Hindi . Sanskrit is also taught in traditional gurukulas throughout India.
In The West
St James Junior School in London , England, offers Sanskrit as part of the curriculum. In the United States, since September 2009, high school students have been able to receive credits as Independent Study or toward Foreign Language requirements by studying Sanskrit, as part of the "SAFL: Samskritam as a Foreign Language" program coordinated by Samskrita Bharati . In Australia , the Sydney private boys' high school Sydney Grammar School offers Sanskrit from years 7 through to 12, including for the Higher School Certificate .
A list of Sanskrit universities is given below in chronological order of establishment:
YEAR EST. NAME LOCATION
1915 Baroda Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya Vadodara
1997 Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University Ramtek
Many universities throughout the world train and employ Sanskrit scholars, either within a separate Sanskrit department or as part of a broader focus area, such as South Asian studies or Linguistics. For example, Delhi university has about 400 Sanskrit students, about half of which are in post-graduate programmes.
See also: Sanskrit studies A poem by the ancient Indian poet Vallana (ca. 900 – 1100 CE) on the side wall of a building at the Haagweg 14 in Leiden, Netherlands
European scholarship in Sanskrit, begun by Heinrich Roth (1620–1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681–1731), is considered responsible for the discovery of an Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones (1746–1794). This research played an important role in the development of Western philology , or historical linguistics.
Sir William Jones was one of the most influential philologists of his time. He told The Asiatic Society in Calcutta on 2 February 1786:
The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.
Orientalist scholars of the 18th century like Sir William Jones marked a wave of enthusiasm for Indian culture and for Sanskrit. According to Thomas Trautmann , after this period of " Indomania ", a certain hostility to Sanskrit and to Indian culture in general began to assert itself in early 19th century Britain, manifested by a neglect of Sanskrit in British academia. This was the beginning of a general push in favour of the idea that India should be culturally, religiously and linguistically assimilated to Britain as far as possible. Trautmann considers two separate and logically opposite sources for the growing hostility: one was "British Indophobia ", which he calls essentially a developmentalist, progressivist, liberal, and non-racial-essentialist critique of Hindu civilisation as an aid for the improvement of India along European lines; the other was scientific racism , a theory of the English "common-sense view" that Indians constituted a "separate, inferior and unimprovable race".
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Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes ; the presence of allophony leads the writing systems to generally distinguish 48 phones , or sounds. The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (_Ac_), diphthongs (_Hal_), anusvara and visarga , plosives (Sparśa), nasals , and finally the liquids and fricatives , written in the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) as follows:
Vowels: a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ; e ai o au; ṃ ḥ
Consonants: k kh g gh ṅ c ch j jh ñ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ t th d dh n p ph b bh m y r l v ś ṣ s h
Kashmir Shaiva manuscript in the Śāradā script (c. 17th century) This article is about how Sanskrit came to be written using various systems. For details of Sanskrit as written, using specifically Devanāgarī script, see Devanagari .
Sanskrit originated in an oral society, and the oral tradition was maintained through the development of early classical Sanskrit literature . Some scholars such as Jack Goody suggest that the Vedic Sanskrit texts are not the product of an oral society, basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbian and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. These scholars add that the Vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it "parallel products of a literate society".
Sanskrit has no native script of its own, and historical evidence suggests that it has been written in various scripts on a variety of media such as palm leaves, cloth, paper, rock and metal sheets, at least by the time of arrival of Alexander the Great in northwestern Indian subcontinent in 1st millennium BCE. Illustration of Devanagari as used for writing Sanskrit
The earliest known rock inscriptions in Sanskrit date to the mid second century CE. They are in the _Brāhmī_ script , which was originally used for Prakrit, not Sanskrit. It has been described as a paradox that the first evidence of written Sanskrit occurs centuries later than that of the Prakrit languages which are its linguistic descendants. In northern India, there are _Brāhmī_ inscriptions dating from the third century BCE onwards, the oldest appearing on the famous Prakrit pillar inscriptions of king Ashoka . The earliest South Indian inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi, written in early Tamil, belong to the same period. When Sanskrit was written down, it was first used for texts of an administrative, literary or scientific nature. The sacred hymns and verse were preserved orally, and were set down in writing "reluctantly" (according to one commentator), and at a comparatively late date. _ Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods._ ( Kālidāsa )
Brahmi evolved into a multiplicity of Brahmic scripts , many of which were used to write Sanskrit. Roughly contemporary with the Brahmi, Kharosthi was used in the northwest of the subcontinent. Sometime between the fourth and eighth centuries, the Gupta script , derived from Brahmi, became prevalent. Around the eighth century, the _Śāradā_ script evolved out of the Gupta script. The latter was displaced in its turn by Devanagari in the 11th or 12th century, with intermediary stages such as the Siddhaṃ script . In East India , the Bengali alphabet , and, later, the Odia alphabet , were used.
Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has been transliterated using the Latin alphabet . The system most commonly used today is the IAST ( International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ), which has been the academic standard since 1888. ASCII -based transliteration schemes have also evolved because of difficulties representing Sanskrit characters in computer systems. These include Harvard-Kyoto and ITRANS , a transliteration scheme that is used widely on the Internet, especially in Usenet and in email, for considerations of speed of entry as well as rendering issues. With the wide availability of Unicode -aware web browsers, IAST has become common online. It is also possible to type using an alphanumeric keyboard and transliterate to Devanagari using software like Mac OS X's international support.
European scholars in the 19th century generally preferred Devanagari for the transcription and reproduction of whole texts and lengthy excerpts. However, references to individual words and names in texts composed in European Languages were usually represented with Roman transliteration. From the 20th century onwards, because of production costs, textual editions edited by Western scholars have mostly been in Romanised transliteration.
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The Sanskrit grammatical tradition, Vyākaraṇa , one of the six Vedangas , began in the late Vedic period and culminated in the _Aṣṭādhyāyī_ of Pāṇini, which consists of 3990 sutras (ca. fifth century BCE). About a century after Pāṇini (around 400 BCE), Kātyāyana composed _Vārtika_s on the Pāṇini sũtras. Patanjali , who lived three centuries after Pāṇini, wrote the _Mahābhāṣya _, the "Great Commentary" on the _Aṣṭādhyāyī_ and _Vārtika_s. Because of these three ancient Vyākaraṇins (grammarians), this grammar is called _Trimuni Vyākarana_. To understand the meaning of the sutras, Jayaditya and Vāmana wrote a commentary, the _Kāsikā_, in 600 CE. Pāṇinian grammar is based on 14 Shiva sutras (aphorisms), where the whole _mātrika_ (alphabet) is abbreviated. This abbreviation is called the _Pratyāhara_.
Sanskrit verbs are categorized into ten classes, which can be conjugated to form the present , imperfect , imperative , optative , perfect , aorist , future , and conditional moods and tenses. Before Classical Sanskrit, older forms also included a subjunctive mood . Each conjugational ending conveys person , number , and voice .
Nouns are highly inflected, including three grammatical genders , three numbers , and eight cases . Nominal compounds are common, and can include over 10 word stems.
Word order is free, though there is a strong tendency toward subject–object–verb , the original system of Vedic prose.
INFLUENCE ON OTHER LANGUAGES
Sanskrit has greatly influenced the languages of India that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base; for instance, Hindi is a "Sanskritised register" of the Khariboli dialect . All modern Indo-Aryan languages , as well as Munda and Dravidian languages , have borrowed many words either directly from Sanskrit (_tatsama _ words), or indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages (_tadbhava _ words). Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated at roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo-Aryan languages, as well as the literary forms of Malayalam and Kannada . Literary texts in Telugu are lexically Sanskrit or Sanskritised to an enormous extent, perhaps seventy percent or more. Marathi is another prominent language in Western India, that derives most of its words and Marathi grammar from Sanskrit. Sanskrit words are often preferred in the literary texts in Marathi over corresponding colloquial Marathi word.
INTERACTION WITH OTHER LANGUAGES
Sanskrit has also influenced Sino-Tibetan languages through the spread of Buddhist texts in translation. Buddhism was spread to China by Mahayana missionaries sent by Ashoka , mostly through translations of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit . Many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary. Chinese words like 剎那 _chànà_ ( Devanagari : क्षण _kṣaṇa_ 'instantaneous period') were borrowed from Sanskrit. Many Sanskrit texts survive only in Tibetan collections of commentaries to the Buddhist teachings, the Tengyur .
Sanskrit was a language for religious purposes and for the political elite in parts of medieval era Southeast Asia, Central Asia and East Asia. In Southeast Asia , languages such as Thai and Lao contain many loanwords from Sanskrit, as do Khmer . For example, in Thai, Ravana , the emperor of Lanka , is called _Thosakanth_, a derivation of his Sanskrit name _Dāśakaṇṭha_ "having ten necks".
Many Sanskrit loanwords are also found in Austronesian languages , such as Javanese , particularly the older form in which nearly half the vocabulary is borrowed. Other Austronesian languages, such as traditional Malay and modern Indonesian , also derive much of their vocabulary from Sanskrit. Similarly, Philippine languages such as Tagalog have some Sanskrit loanwords , although more are derived from Spanish . A Sanskrit loanword encountered in many Southeast Asian languages is the word _bhāṣā _, or spoken language, which is used to refer to the names of many languages. English also has words of Sanskrit origin . Sanskrit has also influenced the religious register of Japanese mostly through transliterations.These were borrowed from Chinese transliterations.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
_Satyagraha _, an opera by Philip Glass , uses texts from the _Bhagavad Gita_, sung in Sanskrit. The closing credits of _The Matrix Revolutions _ has a prayer from the _Brihadaranyaka Upanishad _. The song "Cyber-raga" from Madonna\'s album _Music _ includes Sanskrit chants, and _Shanti/Ashtangi_ from her 1998 album _Ray of Light _, which won a Grammy, is the ashtanga vinyasa yoga chant. The lyrics include the mantra Om shanti. Composer John Williams featured choirs singing in Sanskrit for _ Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom _ and in _Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace _. The theme song of _Battlestar Galactica 2004 _ is the Gayatri Mantra , taken from the Rigveda . The lyrics of "The Child In Us" by Enigma also contains Sanskrit verses.
REFERENCES AND NOTES
* ^ Uta Reinöhl (2016). _Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan_. Oxford University Press. pp. xiv, 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-873666-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Comparative speaker\'s strength of scheduled languages − 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". _Census of India, 2001_. Office of the Registrar and Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009. * ^ http://cbs.gov.np/image/data/Population/Population%20Monograph%20of%20Nepal%202014/Population%20Monograph%20V02.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ Banerji, Sures (1989). _A companion to Sanskrit literature: spanning a period of over three thousand years, containing brief accounts of authors, works, characters, technical terms, geographical names, myths, legends, and several appendices_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 672 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2 . * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Sanskrit". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Damien Keown; Charles S. Prebish (2013). _Encyclopedia of Buddhism_. Taylor & Francis. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-136-98595-9 . ; Quote: " Sanskrit served as the lingua franca of ancient India, just as Latin did in medieval Europe" * ^ _A_ _B_ Michael C. Howard (2012). _Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel_. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7864-9033-2 . , QUOTE: " Sanskrit was another important lingua franca in the ancient world that was widely used in South Asia and in the context of Hindu and Buddhist religions in neighboring areas as well. (...) The spread of South Asian cultural influence to Southeast Asia, Central Asia and East Asia meant that Sanskrit was also used in these areas, especially in a religious context and political elites." * ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2006), _The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India_, University of California Press, p. 14, ISBN 978-0-520-24500-6 , QUOTE: "Once Sanskrit emerged from the sacerdotal environment ... it became the sole medium by which ruling elites expressed their power ... Sanskrit probably never functioned as an everyday medium of communication anywhere in the cosmopolis—not in South Asia itself, let alone Southeast Asia ... The work Sanskrit did do ... was directed above all toward articulating a form of ... politics ... as celebration of aesthetic power." * ^ Burrow, T. (2001). The Sanskrit Language. Faber: Chicago p. v & ch. 1 * ^ Benware, Wilbur (1974). _The study of Indo-European vocalism in the 19th century: from the beginnings to Whitney and Scherer: a critical-historical account_. Amsterdam : Benjamins. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-90-272-0894-1 . * ^ Staal, Frits (1986), _The Fidelity of Oral Tradition and the Origins of Science_, Mededelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie von Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, NS 49, 8. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company, 40 pages . * ^ Filliozat, Pierre-Sylvain (2004), "Ancient Sanskrit Mathematics: An Oral Tradition and a Written Literature", in Chemla, Karine ; Cohen, Robert S.; Renn, Jürgen; et al., _History of Science, History of Text (Boston Series in the Philosophy of Science)_, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 254 pages, pp. 137–157, pp. 360–375, ISBN 978-1-4020-2320-0 * ^ _A_ _B_ Southworth, Franklin (2004), _Linguistic Archaeology of South Asia_, Routledge, p. 45, ISBN 978-1-134-31777-6 * ^ _A_ _B_ Nedi︠a︡lkov, V. P. (2007). _Reciprocal constructions_. Amsterdam Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 710. ISBN 978-90-272-2983-0 . * ^ MacDonell, Arthur (2004). _A History Of Sanskrit Literature_ (in Norwegian). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-0619-2 . * ^ Houben, Jan (1996). _Ideology and status of Sanskrit: contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language_. Leiden New York: E.J. Brill. p. 11. ISBN 90-04-10613-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Staal, J. F. (1963). " Sanskrit and Sanskritization". _The Journal of Asian Studies_. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 22 (3): 261. doi :10.2307/2050186 . Retrieved 2014-10-29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Witzel, M (1997). _Inside the texts, beyond the texts: New approaches to the study of the Vedas_ (PDF). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved 28 October 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Pollock, Sheldon (2001). "The Death of Sanskrit". _Comparative Studies in Society and History_. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 43 (2): 392–426. doi :10.1017/s001041750100353x . Retrieved 2014-10-29. * ^ Oberlies, Thomas (2003). _A grammar of epic Sanskrit_. Berlin New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. xxvii – xxix. ISBN 3-11-014448-4 . * ^ Edgerton, Franklin (2004). _ Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-215-1110-0 . * ^ Tiwari, Bholanath (1955), _भाषा विज्ञान (Bhasha Vijnan)_ * ^ "This village speaks gods language – India – The Times of India". The Times of India. 13 August 2005. Retrieved 2012-04-05. * ^ Ghosh, Aditya (20 September 2008). " Sanskrit boulevard". _Hindustan Times_. Retrieved 2012-04-05. * ^ Bhaskar, B.V.S. (31 July 2009). "Mark of Sanskrit". _The Hindu_. * ^ "Orissa\'s Sasana village – home to Sanskrit pundits! !". The India Post. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-05. * ^ National Population and Housing Census 2011 (PDF) (Report). 1. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal. November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2013. * ^ " Writ Petition on Sanskrit". JD Supra. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-10. * ^ "PIL seeks minority status for Sanskrit". The Financial World. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-10. * ^ "Mother language \'Sanskrit\' needs urgent protection". GoI Monitor. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-10. * ^ Prajapati, Manibhai (2005). _Post-independence Sanskrit literature: a critical survey_ (1 ed.). New Delhi: Standard publishers India.
Contrary to popular belief, there is an astonishing quality of creative upsurge of writing in Sanskrit today. Modern Sanskrit writing is qualitatively of such high order that it can easily be treated on par with the best of Classical Sanskrit literature, It can also easily compete with the writings in other Indian languages. * ^ "Adhunika Sanskrit Sahitya Pustakalaya". Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. Retrieved 28 October 2014. :
The latter half of the nineteenth century marks the beginning of a new era in Sanskrit literature. Many of the modern Sanskrit writings are qualitatively of such high order that they can easily be treated at par with the best of classical Sanskrit works, and they can also be judged in contrast to the contemporary literature in other languages. * ^ "Sanskrit\'s first Jnanpith winner is a \'poet by instinct\'". _The Indian Express_. 14 Jan 2009. * ^ "Samveda". Retrieved May 5, 2015. * ^ BBC. "BBC – Awards for World Music 2008". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Mayank Austen Soofi (23 November 2012). "Delhi\'s Belly Sanskrit-vanskrit". Livemint. Retrieved 2012-12-06. * ^ "News on Air". News On Air. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-06. * ^ "News archive search". Newsonair. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-06. * ^ "Doordarshan News Live webcast". _Webcast.gov.in_. Retrieved 2012-12-06. * ^ "Is Sanskrit (In)dispensable for Hindu Liturgy?". _The Huffington Post_. * ^ Vaishna Roy. " Sanskrit deserves more than slogans". _The Hindu_. * ^ Upadhyay, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Umesh Chandra; Ashish, Kumar (2014). "TranSish: Translator from Sanskrit to English-A Rule based Machine Translation". _International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology E-ISSN_: 2277–4106. * ^ Levin, Saul. _Semitic and Indo-European, Volume 2_. John Benjamins Publishing Company . p. 431. * ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton. _The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History_. Psychology Press. p. 208. * ^ Masica, Colin (1991). _The Indo-Aryan languages_ (PDF). Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 36–38. ISBN 0-521-23420-4 . * ^ Michael Meier-Brügger (2003). _Indo-European Linguistics_. Walter de Gruyter. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-11-017433-5 . * ^ A. Berriedale Keith (1993). _A history of Sanskrit literature_. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-208-1100-3 . * ^ Anupama Raju. "A man of languages". _The Hindu_. * ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 2, page 263 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". _uchicago.edu_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Deshpande, Madhav (2011), "Efforts to Vernacularize Sanskrit: Degree of Success and Failure", in Joshua Fishman, Ofelia Garcia, _Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts_, 2, Oxford University Press, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-19-983799-1 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * ^ Hock, Hans Henrich (1983). Kachru, Braj B, ed. "Language-death phenomena in Sanskrit: grammatical evidence for attrition in contemporary spoken Sanskrit". _Studies in the linguistic Sciences_. Illinois Working Papers. 13:2. * ^ Minkowski, Christopher (2004). "Nilakantha\'s instruments of war:Modern, vernacular, barbarous". _The Indian Economic and Social History Review_. SAGE. 41 (4): 365–385. doi :10.1177/001946460404100402 . Retrieved 2014-10-29. * ^ Hatcher, B. A. (2007). " Sanskrit and the morning after: The metaphorics and theory of intellectual change". _Indian Economic_. SAGE. 44 (3): 333–361. doi :10.1177/001946460704400303 . Retrieved 2014-10-29. * ^ Hanneder, J. (2002). "On "The Death of Sanskrit"". _Indo-Iranian Journal_. Brill Academic Publishers. 45 (4): 293–310. doi :10.1023/a:1021366131934 . Retrieved 2014-10-29. * ^ Hanneder, J. (2009), "Modernes Sanskrit: eine vergessene Literatur", in Straube, Martin; Steiner, Roland; Soni, Jayandra; Hahn, Michael; Demoto, Mitsuyo, _Pāsādikadānaṃ: Festschrift für Bhikkhu Pāsādika_, Indica et Tibetica Verlag, pp. 205–228 * ^ Seth, Sanjay (2007). _Subject lessons: the Western education of colonial India_. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 172–176. ISBN 978-0-8223-4105-5 . * ^ "Karnataka\'s Mattur: A Sanskrit speaking village with almost one IT professional per family". * ^ Viswanathan, Trichur. S. (4 April 2013). "Tale of two villages". _The Hindu_. * ^ _Pragna, Volume 8_. Pragna Bharati. * ^ "In 2013, UPA to CBSE: Make Sanskrit a must". _The Indian Express_. 4 December 2014. * ^ " Sanskrit thriving in UK schools". _NDTV.com_. 28 June 2010. * ^ Varija Yelagalawadi. "Why SAFL?". _ Samskrita Bharati USA_. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. * ^ Sydney Grammar School. "Headmaster\'s Introduction". * ^ Friedrich Max Müller (1859). _A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature So Far as it Illustrates the Primitive Religion of the Brahmans_. Williams and Norgate. p. 1. * ^ Vasunia, Phiroze (2013). _The Classics and Colonial India_. Oxford University Press. p. 17. * ^ Thomas R. Trautmann (2004). _Aryans and British India_. Yoda Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-81-902272-1-6 . Retrieved 4 March 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Salomon, Richard (1998). _Indian Epigraphy a Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages_. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7, 86. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Jack Goody (1987). _The Interface Between the Written and the Oral_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 110–121. ISBN 978-0-521-33794-6 . * ^ Donald S. Lopez Jr. (1995). "Authority and Orality in the Mahāyāna". _Numen_. Brill Academic. 42 (1): 21–47. JSTOR 3270278 .
* ^ c150 - Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman : Salomon, Richard (1998). _Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages_. Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3 . * ^ Masica, Colin (1991). _The Indo-Aryan languages_. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 . * ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003). _Early Tamil epigraphy from the earliest times to the sixth century A.D_. Chennai, India Cambridge, MA Cambridge, Mass. London, England: Cre-A Dept. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University Distributed by Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01227-1 . * ^ "Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt". _The Hindu_. 21 November 2007. * ^ "Harappan people used an older form of Brahmi script: Expert". _The Times of India_. * ^ "Modern Transcription of Sanskrit". _autodidactus.org_. * ^ Abhyankar, Kashinath (1986). _A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar_ (PDF). Baroda: Maharaja Sayajirao University. * ^ Rao, Velcheru (2002). _Classical Telugu poetry an anthology_. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-520-22598-5 . * ^ Sugam Marathi Vyakaran & Lekhana. 2007. Nitin publications. Author: M.R.Walimbe * ^ Carey, William (1805). _A Grammar of the Marathi Language_. Serampur : Serampore Mission Press. ISBN 9781108056311 . * ^ Gulik, R. H. (2001). _Siddham: an essay on the history of Sanskrit studies in China and Japan_. New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan. pp. 5–133. ISBN 978-81-7742-038-8 . * ^ Zoetmulder, P. J. (1982). _Old Javanese-English Dictionary_. * ^ Joshi, Manoj. _Passport India 3rd Ed., eBook_. World Trade Press. p. 15. * ^ " Sanskrit Personal Names and their Japanese Equivalents" Archived 30 March 2015 at WebCite * ^ Vibhuti Patel (18 December 2011). "Gandhi as operatic hero". _The Hindu_. * ^ Rahim, Sameer (4 December 2013). "The opera novice: Satyagraha by Philip Glass". _Telegraph_. london. * ^ Morgan, Les (2011). _Croaking frogs: a guide to Sanskrit metrics and figures of speech_. Los Angeles: Mahodara Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4637-2562-4 . * ^ Doval, Nikita (24 June 2013). "Classic conversations". _The Week _. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014. * ^ " Yoga and Music". _ Yoga Journal_. * ^ " Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (John Williams)". Filmtracks. 11 November 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-05. * ^ "Episode I FAQ". _ Star Wars Faq_. Archived from the original on 11 October 2003. * ^ "Battlestar Galactica (TV Series 2004–2009)". _IMDb_. * ^ "The Child In Us Lyrics – Enigma". Lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
* Maurer, Walter (2001). _The Sanskrit language: an introductory grammar and reader_. Surrey, England: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1382-4 . * Learn Sanskrit
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