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SANNATI or SANNATHI is a small village, located on the banks of the Bhima River in Chitapur
Chitapur
taluk of Gulbarga District
Gulbarga District
of Northern Karnataka
Karnataka
. It is famous for the Chandrala Parameshwari Temple and the excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India
India
in the 1986.

CONTENTS

* 1 Excavations * 2 Mythological references * 3 Visitors\' attractions * 4 Transport * 5 Kanaganahalli * 6 Chandrala Parameshwari Temple * 7 See also * 8 Further reading * 9 References * 10 External links

EXCAVATIONS

Edicts Of Ashoka
Ashoka

In 1986, when the roof of the Kali
Kali
temple in Chandralamba temple complex collapsed, it destroyed the idol. However it revealed four Ashokan edicts on the floor and foundation stone of the temple. These edicts were written in the Prakrit language
Prakrit language
and Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and one of them was used as foundation of the pedestal for the Kali
Kali
idol. During subsequent excavations by Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI) and the State Archaeology Department, tablets, sculptures, and other terracotta items were found, and most importantly numerous limestone panels of sculptures of the ruined 'Maha Stupa
Stupa
' or Adholoka Maha Chaitya (the Great Stupa
Stupa
of the Netherworld) were found. Archaeologists believe that Ranamandal was a fortified area, spread over 86 hectares (210 acres ; 0.33 sq mi ), out of which only 2 acres had been excavated by 2009. Clay pendants , black polished pottery, Satavahana
Satavahana
and pre- Satavahana
Satavahana
coins, ornaments made of copper, ivory and iron, a township with paved pathways, houses, and limestone flooring have been found. Many excavated items were later shifted to Gulbarga
Gulbarga
Museum.

The government has asked the Archaeological Survey of India
India
to take up further exploration of the Ranamandal area to know the history of the region and its connection with Buddhism
Buddhism
.

One of the stones - the only known example of its type - is of Emperor Asoka
Emperor Asoka
(r. 274–232 BC) seated on his throne. It is probably the only surviving image of the emperor.

In 2010, ASI along with Sannati
Sannati
Development Authority deputed Manipal Institute of Technology to prepare a blueprint for restoration and reconstruction of the stupas

MYTHOLOGICAL REFERENCES

Sannati
Sannati
is the place where the Paduka of Goddess Chandrala Parmeshwari - Incarnation of Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
- was brought. The Goddess came up to the banks of River Bhima
Bhima
at Hongunti, to save her devotee Chandravadani, wife of a rishi, held captive by the local king Setu Raya. Hingulambika temple is situated at Hongunti near Shabad town. The Goddess sent her Paduka from which emerged 5 bumblebees, which killed the evil king Setu Raya by drowning him in the Bhima River. Sannati
Sannati
Chandrala Parmeshwari and Hongunti Hingulambika are family deity of many Brahmin and Hindus families of Karnataka, Maharasta, AP etc.

Sannati
Sannati
is also the place where Rishi Markandeya
Markandeya
meditated and composed parts of Markandeya
Markandeya
Upanishad. A small temple has been renovated at the place where he is believed to have sat in meditation. It is said that Rishi Markandeya
Markandeya
predates the arrival of Paduka of Chandrala Parmeshwari.

VISITORS\' ATTRACTIONS

Other places worth visiting nearby are: Yergol - where Tikacharya eloborated (key book) on works of Madwacharya, Malkhed- Brundavan of Sri Jayatheertharu (Tikachryaru); Hongunti; Konchur Hanuman Temple; Balavadagi yallamma (Renuka) temple; Halakatti Veerabhadreshwara temple; Martur - the place where Vignaneshwar edited and condensed Yagnavyalka Smriti, which was named Mitakshara - now known as Hindu Law.

TRANSPORT

Sannati
Sannati
can be reached by rail via Nalwar Station or Wadi Junction. Some trains do not stop at Nalwar. All trains stop at Wadi Junction. Wadi to Nalwar fare by bus is Rs.15/- Nalwar to Sannati
Sannati
is about Rs.20/- by bus, and Rs.25 by sharing autos. Whole auto can be hired at Rs.300/- max. Sannati
Sannati
can also be reached via Shahapur by car. About 10 rooms are presently available at Sannati. BSNL and Airtel Mobile networks work well, and two small canteens meet the needs of visitors. Carry mosquito repellent creams - electricity is erratic and rooms are not well ventilated.

KANAGANAHALLI

Kanaganahalli is 3 km from Sannati, which is also on the banks of the river Bhima
Bhima
.

As this is an important Buddhist
Buddhist
site, Govt of Karnataka
Karnataka
and ASI are planning to develop it as an international Buddhist
Buddhist
center.

It is the place where an ancient Buddhist
Buddhist
Mahastupa site was found.

CHANDRALA PARAMESHWARI TEMPLE

Additionally, Sannati
Sannati
has a famous temple of Chandrala Parameshwari.

SEE ALSO

* Kanaganahalli * North Karnataka
Karnataka
* Tourism in North Karnataka
Karnataka
* Buddhism
Buddhism
in North Karnataka
Karnataka

FURTHER READING

* Interim report on the excavations at Sannati, 1993-95, by D.V. Devaraj, H.T. Talwar. Directorate of Archaeology and Museums in Mysore, 1996.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Authority set up to develop Sannati
Sannati
Buddhist
Buddhist
centre". Retrieved 2008-11-13. * ^ "Facelift for Sannati
Sannati
monuments at Rs 5 crore (US$ 1.23 mil)". Retrieved 2008-11-13. * ^ A B "When I met Emperor Ashoka