Smederevo (Turkish: Semendire Sancağı; Serbian:
Смедеревски санџак/Smederevski sandžak), also known
in historiography as the Pashalik of
Belgrade (Turkish: Belgrad
Paşalığı; Serbian: Београдски пашалук/Beogradski
pašaluk), was an Ottoman administrative unit (sanjak), that existed
between the 15th and the outset of the 19th centuries. It was located
in the territory of present-day Central Serbia, Serbia.
1.1 Eyalet belonging
2.1 15th century
2.2 16th century
2.3 18th century
8 Further reading
9 External links
The sanjak belonged to
Rumelia Eyalet between 1459 and 1541, and again
between 1716 and 1717 and again 1739 and 1817 (nominally to 1830), to
Budin Eyalet between 1541 and 1686, and to
Temeșvar Eyalet between
1686 and 1688 and again between 1690 and 1716.
During the governorship of
Hadji Mustafa Pasha
Hadji Mustafa Pasha (1793–1801), the
administration was expanded eastwards to include the
until then part of the
Sanjak of Vidin.
Smederevo was formed after the fall of the Serbian
Despotate in 1459, and its administrative seat was Smederevo. Ottoman
sources note a migration of "Vlachs" (pastoralists) to the
Smederevo and parts of the
Sanjak of Kruševac and
Sanjak of Vidin; in
1476 there were 7,600 Vlach households and 15,000 peasant
Ottoman Empire conquered
Belgrade in 1521, the
administrative seat of the
Sanjak was moved to this city. In period
Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács took place the sanjakbey of
Sanjak was occupied by the
Habsburg Monarchy as the Kingdom of
Serbia (1718–39), however, with the Treaty of Belgrade, the area was
ceded to the Ottoman Empire. Belgrade, the center of the region while
under Austrian rule, was neglected under the Ottomans and Smederevo
(Semendire) was the administrative center. Nevertheless, Belgrade
eventually became the seat of a pasha with the title of vizier and the
Sanjak began to be referred to as the Pashaluk of Belgrade, although
it was still called the
Smederevo in official documents.
Koča's frontier rebellion
Koča's frontier rebellion saw eastern
Šumadija occupied by
Austrian Serbian freikorps and hajduks. From 1788–91,
again under Austrian rule after Koča's rebellion. The Siege of
Belgrade from 15 September to 8 October 1789, a Habsburg Austrian
force besieged the fortress of Belgrade. The Austrians held the city
until 1791 when it handed
Belgrade back to the Ottomans according to
the terms of the Treaty of Sistova.
In 1793 and 1796 Sultan
Selim III proclaimed firmans which gave more
rights to Serbs. Among other things, taxes were to be collected by the
obor-knez (dukes); freedom of trade and religion were granted and
there was peace.
Selim III also decreed that some unpopular
janissaries were to leave the
Belgrade Pashaluk as he saw them as a
threat to the central authority of Hadži Mustafa Pasha. Many of those
janissaries were employed by or found refuge with Osman Pazvantoğlu,
a renegade opponent of Sultan
Selim III in the
Sanjak of Vidin.
Fearing the dissolution of the Janissary command in the
Osman Pazvantoğlu launched a series of raids against
Serbians without the permission of Sultan Selim III, causing much
volatility and fear in the region. Pazvantoğlu was defeated in
1793 by the Serbs at the Battle of Kolari.
In the summer of 1797 the sultan appointed Mustafa
Pasha on position
of beglerbeg of
Rumelia Eyalet and he left
Plovdiv to fight
against the Vidin rebels of Pazvantoğlu. During the absence of
Mustafa Pasha, the forces of Pazvantoğlu captured
Belgrade fortress. At the end of November 1797
obor-knezes Aleksa Nenadović,
Ilija Birčanin and Nikola Grbović
from Valjevo brought their forces to
Belgrade and forced the besieging
janissary forces to retreat to Smederevo. By 1799 the janissary
corps had returned, as they were pardoned by Sultan's decree, and they
immediately suspended the Serbian autonomy and drastically increased
taxes, enforcing martial law in Serbia.
On 15 December 180, the popular
Belgrade Hadji Mustafa
Pasha, a trusted ally of Selim III, was murdered by Kučuk Alija.
Alija was one of the four leading Dahijas, Janissary commanders who
were opposed to the Sultan's reforms.   This resulted in the
Smederevo being ruled by these renegade janissaries
independently from the Ottoman government. Several district chiefs
were murdered in the
Slaughter of the Knezes
Slaughter of the Knezes on February 4, 1804, by
the renegade janissaries. This sparked the First Serbian Uprising
(1804–13), the first phase of the Serbian Revolution. Despite
suppression of the uprising in 1813 and
Hadži Prodan's Revolt
Hadži Prodan's Revolt in
Second Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising led by Duke Miloš Obrenović
succeeded with creation of semi-independent
Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia in
1817 (confirmed with
Mahmud II in 1830), gained
independence in 1878 by
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano and evolved to Kingdom
Serbia in 1882. This marked the end of the Sanjak.
The majority of Slavic-speaking Muslims (called "Serb-Muslims" in
historiography) in the
Belgrade Pashalik were immigrants. These
were mostly villagers, but also feudals, soldiers, officials, and some
were among the highest social class, in the administration.
The proportion of Muslims was notably decreased in the late 17th and
first half of the 18th century, after a major influx of Serbs
(Christians) from outlying territories, mostly from Dinaric areas.
Smederevo was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most
developed shipbuilding (besides sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega,
Zvornik and Mohač).
Ali Bey Mihaloğlu
Ali Bey Mihaloğlu (1462–1507)
Bali-beg Jahjapašić (after 1521, before 1526)
^ a b Radosavljević 2007.
^ Balkan Studies. The Institute. 1986. p. 10. Retrieved 10 March
2013. Turkish sources declare that a wave of Vlah herdsmen flowed into
Smederevo sandzak and a large part of Krusevac and Vidin sandzak
^ Peçevî, İbrahim (2000). Historija: 1520-1576 (in Serbian).
El-Kalem. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Brat je Kučuk bali-bega koji je u
vreme Mohačke bitke bio beg Smedereva.
^ von Ranke, Leopold, ed. (1973), History of Servia and the Servian
Revolution (Europe 1815-1945 Series), Da Capo Pr,
^ Roger Viers Paxton (1968). Russia and the First Serbian Revolution:
A Diplomatic and Political Study. The Initial Phase, 1804-1807. -
(Stanford) 1968. VII, 255 S. 8°. Department of History, Stanford
University. p. 13.
^ Ćorović 1997
U leto 1797. sultan ga je imenovao za rumeliskog begler-bega i Mustafa
je otišao u Plovdiv, da rukovodi akcijom protiv buntovnika iz Vidina
i u Rumeliji.
^ Ćorović 1997
Za vreme njegova otsutstva vidinski gospodar sa janičarima naredio je
brz napad i potukao je srpsku i pašinu vojsku kod Požarevca, pa je
prodro sve do Beograda i zauzeo samu varoš.
^ Filipović, Stanoje R. (1982). Podrinsko-kolubarski region. RNIRO
"Glas Podrinja". p. 60. Ваљевски кнезови
Алекса Ненадовић, Илија Бирчанин и
Никола Грбовић довели су своју војску
у Београд и учествовали у оштрој борби
са јаничарима који су се побеђени
^ Ćorović 1997
Pred sam Božić stigoše u pomoć valjevski Srbi i sa njihovom
pomoću turska gradska posada odbi napadače i očisti grad. Ilija
Birčanin gonio je "Vidinlije" sve do Smedereva.
^ Ćorović, Vladimir (1997), Istorija srpskog naroda, Ars Libri,
retrieved 7 December 2012, janjičari ga 15. decembra 1801. ubiše u
beogradskom gradu. Potom uzeše vlast u svoje ruke, spremni da je
brane svima sredstvima. Kao glavne njihove vođe istakoše se četiri
dahije: Kučuk Alija, pašin ubica, Aganlija, Mula Jusuf i Mehmed-aga
^ The Balkans, 1804–2012: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers.
2012. p. 3. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
^ a b Konstandinović 1970, p. 55.
^ Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35.
Retrieved 7 September 2013. Ипак градња бродова се
посебно везивала за шест санџака:
никопољски, видински, смедеревски,
зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
Pantelić, Dušan (1949). "Београдски пашалук" (in
Serbian). Belgrade: Srpska akademija nauka.
Konstandinović, Nikola (1970). Beogradski pašaluk: severna Srbija
pod Turcima : teritorija, stanovništvo, proizvodne snage. N.
Đorđević, M.; Nedeljković, S. (2015). "Политичке
прилике у београдском пашалуку у
предвечерје српске револуције (1787-1804)".
Teme-Časopis za Društvene Nauke.
Самарџић, Р (1960). Београд и Србија у
списима француских савременика XVI-XVIII
Serbia in the writings of French contemporaries
from 16th to 18th century]. Београд: Просвета.
Radosavljević, Nedeljko (2007). Православна црква у
Београдском пашалуку 1766-1831. Istorijski
institut. ISBN 978-86-7743-065-8.
Svirčević, Miroslav (2002). "Knežinska i seoska samouprava u Srbiji
1739-1788-delokrug i identitet lokalne samouprave u Srbiji od
Beogradskog mira (1739) do Austrijsko-turskog rata (1788)". Balcanica
Miljković-Bojanić, E. (2004) Smederevski sandžak - 1476-1560 -
zemlja, naselja, stanovništvo. Beograd: Istorijski institut
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