The SANJAK OF SMEDEREVO (Turkish : Semendire Sancağı; Serbian :
Смедеревски санџак/Smederevski sandžak), also known
in historiography as the PASHALIK OF BELGRADE (Turkish : Belgrad
Paşalığı; Serbian : Београдски пашалук/Beogradski
pašaluk), was an Ottoman administrative unit (sanjak ), that existed
between the 15th and the outset of the 19th centuries. It was located
in the territory of present-day Central
* 1 Administration
* 1.1 Eyalet belonging
* 1.2 Borders
* 2 History
* 2.1 15th century
* 2.2 16th century
* 2.3 18th century
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Economy
* 5 Governors
* 6 Citations
* 7 Sources
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
The sanjak belonged to
Rumelia Eyalet between 1459 and 1541, and
again between 1716 and 1717 and again 1739 and 1817 (nominally to
Budin Eyalet between 1541 and 1686, and to Temeșvar Eyalet
between 1686 and 1688 and again between 1690 and 1716.
During the governorship of
Hadji Mustafa Pasha (1793–1801), the
administration was expanded eastwards to include the
until then part of the
Sanjak of Vidin .
Smederevo was formed after the fall of the Serbian
Despotate in 1459, and its administrative seat was
Smederevo . Ottoman
sources note a migration of "Vlachs " (pastoralists) to the
Smederevo and parts of the
Sanjak of Kruševac and
Sanjak of Vidin ;
in 1476 there were 7,600 Vlach households and 15,000 peasant
Ottoman Empire conquered
Belgrade in 1521, the
administrative seat of the
Sanjak was moved to this city. In period
Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács took place the sanjakbey of
Sanjak was occupied by the
Habsburg Monarchy as the Kingdom of
Serbia (1718–39) , however, with the Treaty of
Belgrade , the area
was ceded to the Ottoman Empire. Belgrade, the center of the region
while under Austrian rule, was neglected under the Ottomans and
Smederevo (Semendire) was the administrative center. Nevertheless,
Belgrade eventually became the seat of a pasha with the title of
vizier and the
Sanjak began to be referred to as the Pashaluk of
Belgrade, although it was still called the
In 1788, Koča\'s frontier rebellion saw eastern
by Austrian Serbian freikorps and hajduks . From 1788–91, Belgrade
was again under Austrian rule after Koča's rebellion. The Siege of
Belgrade from 15 September to 8 October 1789, a Habsburg Austrian
force besieged the fortress of Belgrade. The Austrians held the city
until 1791 when it handed
Belgrade back to the Ottomans according to
the terms of the
Treaty of Sistova .
In 1793 and 1796 Sultan
Selim III proclaimed firmans which gave more
rights to Serbs. Among other things, taxes were to be collected by the
obor-knez (dukes); freedom of trade and religion were granted and
there was peace.
Selim III also decreed that some unpopular
janissaries were to leave the
Belgrade Pashaluk as he saw them as a
threat to the central authority of Hadži Mustafa
Pasha . Many of
those janissaries were employed by or found refuge with Osman
Pazvantoğlu , a renegade opponent of Sultan
Selim III in the Sanjak
of Vidin . Fearing the dissolution of the Janissary command in the
Sanjak of Smederevo,
Osman Pazvantoğlu launched a series of raids
against Serbians without the permission of Sultan Selim III, causing
much volatility and fear in the region. Pazvantoğlu was defeated in
1793 by the Serbs at the Battle of Kolari . In the summer of 1797 the
sultan appointed Mustafa
Pasha on position of beglerbeg of Rumelia
Eyalet and he left
Plovdiv to fight against the Vidin
rebels of Pazvantoğlu. During the absence of Mustafa Pasha, the
forces of Pazvantoğlu captured
Požarevac and besieged the Belgrade
fortress . At the end of November 1797 obor-knezes Aleksa Nenadović
Ilija Birčanin and
Nikola Grbović from Valjevo brought their
Belgrade and forced the besieging janissary forces to
Smederevo . By 1799 the janissary corps had returned, as
they were pardoned by Sultan's decree, and they immediately suspended
the Serbian autonomy and drastically increased taxes, enforcing
martial law in Serbia. On 15 December 1801
Vizier Hadži Mustafa Pasha
Belgrade was killed by
Kučuk Alija , one of the four leading
Dahijas (Janissary officers who revolted against the Sultan). This
resulted in the
Smederevo being ruled by these renegade
janissaries independently from the Ottoman government. Several
district chiefs were murdered in the
Slaughter of the Knezes on
February 4, 1804, by the renegade janissaries. This sparked the First
Serbian Uprising (1804–13), the first phase of the Serbian
Revolution . Despite suppression of the uprising in 1813 and Hadži
Prodan\'s Revolt in 1814, the
Second Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising led by Duke
Miloš Obrenović succeeded with creation of semi-independent
Principality of Serbia in 1817 (confirmed with
Ferman from Mahmud II
in 1830), gained independence in 1878 by
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano and
evolved to Kingdom of
Serbia in 1882. This marked the end of the
The majority of Slavic-speaking Muslims (called "Serb-Muslims" in
historiography) in the
Belgrade Pashalik were immigrants. These were
mostly villagers, but also feudals, soldiers, officials, and some were
among the highest social class, in the administration.
The proportion of Muslims was notably decreased in the late 17th and
first half of the 18th century, after a major influx of Serbs
(Christians) from outlying territories, mostly from Dinaric areas .
Smederevo was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most
developed shipbuilding (besides sanjaks of Vidin , Nicopolis , Požega
, Zvornik and Mohač ).
Ali Bey Mihaloğlu (1462–1507)
Bali-beg Jahjapašić (after 1521, before 1526)
* Hadži Mustafa
* Marashli Ali
* ^ A B Radosavljević 2007 .
* ^ Balkan Studies. The Institute. 1986. p. 10. Retrieved 10 March
2013. Turkish sources declare that a wave of Vlah herdsmen flowed into
Smederevo sandzak and a large part of Krusevac and Vidin sandzak
* ^ Peçevî, İbrahim (2000). Historija: 1520-1576 (in Serbian).
El-Kalem. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Brat je Kučuk bali-bega koji je u
vreme Mohačke bitke bio beg Smedereva.
* ^ von Ranke, Leopold, ed. (1973), History of Servia and the
Servian Revolution (Europe 1815-1945 Series), Da Capo Pr, ISBN
* ^ Roger Viers Paxton (1968). Russia and the First Serbian
Revolution: A Diplomatic and Political Study. The Initial Phase,
1804-1807. - (Stanford) 1968. VII, 255 S. 8°. Department of History,
Stanford University. p. 13.
* ^ Ćorović 1997
U leto 1797. sultan ga je imenovao za rumeliskog begler-bega i
Mustafa je otišao u Plovdiv, da rukovodi akcijom protiv buntovnika iz
Vidina i u Rumeliji.
* ^ Ćorović 1997
Za vreme njegova otsutstva vidinski gospodar sa janičarima naredio
je brz napad i potukao je srpsku i pašinu vojsku kod Požarevca, pa
je prodro sve do Beograda i zauzeo samu varoš. * ^ Filipović,
Stanoje R. (1982). Podrinsko-kolubarski region. RNIRO "Glas Podrinja".
p. 60. Ваљевски кнезови Алекса
Ненадовић, Илија Бирчанин и Никола
Грбовић довели су своју војску у
Београд и учествовали у оштрој борби
са јаничарима који су се побеђени
* ^ Ćorović 1997
Pred sam Božić stigoše u pomoć valjevski Srbi i sa njihovom
pomoću turska gradska posada odbi napadače i očisti grad. Ilija
Birčanin gonio je "Vidinlije" sve do Smedereva. * ^ Ćorović,
Vladimir (1997), Istorija srpskog naroda, Ars Libri, retrieved 7
December 2012, janjičari ga 15. decembra 1801. ubiše u beogradskom
gradu. Potom uzeše vlast u svoje ruke, spremni da je brane svima
sredstvima. Kao glavne njihove vođe istakoše se četiri dahije:
Kučuk Alija, pašin ubica, Aganlija, Mula Jusuf i Mehmed-aga Fočić.
* ^ A B Konstandinović 1970 , p. 55.
* ^ Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35.
Retrieved 7 September 2013. Ипак градња бродова се
посебно везивала за шест санџака:
никопољски, видински, смедеревски,
зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
* Pantelić, Dušan (1949). "Београдски пашалук"
(in Serbian). Belgrade: Srpska akademija nauka.
* Konstandinović, Nikola (1970). Beogradski pašaluk: severna
Srbija pod Turcima : teritorija, stanovništvo, proizvodne snage. N.
* Đorđević, M.; Nedeljković, S. (2015). "Политичке
прилике у београдском пашалуку у
предвечерје српске револуције (1787-1804)".
Teme-Časopis za Društvene Nauke.
* Самарџић, Р (1960). Београд и Србија у
списима француских савременика XVI-XVIII
века . Београд: Просвета.
* Radosavljević, Nedeljko (2007). Православна црква
у Београдском пашалуку 1766-1831. Istorijski
institut. ISBN 978-86-7743-065-8 .
* Svirčević, Miroslav (2002). "Knežinska i seoska samouprava u
Srbiji 1739-1788-delokrug i identitet lokalne samouprave u Srbiji od
Beogradskog mira (1739) do Austrijsko-turskog rata (1788)". Balcanica
* Miljković-Bojanić, E. (2004) Smederevski sandžak - 1476-1560 -
zemlja, naselja, stanovništvo. Beograd: Istorijski institut
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