Sandton, Johannesburg
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Sandton is an affluent area in the
Gauteng Province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
and forms part of the
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical appli ...
. The name of the town came from the combination of two of its suburbs,
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
and
Bryanston Bryanston is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in north Dorset, England, situated on the River Stour, Dorset, River Stour west of Blandford Forum. In the United Kingdom 2011 Census, 2011 census the parish had a population of ...
. In 1969 Sandton was promulgated as a municipality in its own right, but lost its status as an independent town after the re-organisation of South African local governments after Apartheid ended.


History


Early settlers

Archaeological findings suggest the area, which Sandton comprises today, had originally been occupied by various indigenous groups, before European settlement, most notably the
Tswana Tswana may refer to: * Tswana people The Tswana ( tn, Batswana, singular ''Motswana'') are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or comp ...
and, to a lesser extent,
Sotho people The Sotho people, or Basotho , are a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styl ...
. The remains of an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
smelter was discovered in
Lone Hill Lone Hill is a suburb north of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of mega ...
, a suburb of northern Sandton. One of the first
Voortrekker The Great Trek ( af, Die Groot Trek; nl, De Grote Trek) was an eastward migration of Dutch-speaking settlers who travelled by wagon train ''Wagon Train'' is an American Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a vil ...
parties to settle in the area were the Esterhuysen family on the farm Zandfontein (
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and
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for ''Sandy Spring'' or ''Sand Fountain''). A monument to commemorate them may be found just off Adrienne Street in
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
where the family cemetery is located. Zandfontein, Driefontein (Afrikaans and Dutch for ''Three Springs/Fountains'') and Rietfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch for ''Reed Spring'' or ''Fountain of Reeds'') encumbered what was to become Sandton. The municipal
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
of Sandton pays homage to the three farms with three round fountain barrels on its chevron. In the late 19th-century the Wilhelmi family of
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Hannover
, Germany acquired the farm Driefontein No. 3 while Rietfontein was owned by the Ehler family. The original Driefontein homestead, now within the confines of the Field & Study Centre, was looted during the
Anglo-Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire The B ...
. The ruins are visible on the northern bank of the Klein Jukskei River. The Wilhemi family, upon return from Germany built the 'new' 1906 Driefontein Farmhouse on what is present-day Fifteenth Street,
Parkmore Parkmore is a suburb of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, ...
cum
Riverclub River Club is a suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as p ...
. The farmhouse served as the icon and headquarters for the now defunct Sandton Historical Foundation and is listed as a
City of Johannesburg The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that manages the local governance of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is divided into several branches and departments in or ...
Owned Heritage Site.


1960s and 1970s

Sandton was established as a separate municipality in 1969 by the office of the Administrator of the Transvaal. It had formerly not formed part of Johannesburg but was managed, in part by the 'parent city' and Pretoria through the North Eastern Peri-Urban Land administration. Initially it was very much a residential area consisting mostly of small holdings with a rural "horsey" lifestyle attracting many of the upper-middle classes and Johannesburg elites. It was subsequently dubbed the "mink and manure" belt. The Rivonia Trial derives its name from the locality of Liliesleaf Farm within the Sandton suburb where many of the Black freedom fighters such as Nelson Mandela were captured by the South African state and subsequently tried for treason. Rivonia had previously been known as Edenburg and was changed to make itself distinct from Edenburg, Free State. It was named for the surname Riven. Sandton and its constituencies were traditionally relatively more liberal than surrounds. For example, the motion which never materialised by residents in favour for the inclusion of Alexandra, Gauteng then a demarcated black township in terms of the Group Areas Act, into Sandton's jurisdiction proved troublesome for the National Party (South Africa), National Party government which had a strong constituency in the adjacent town of Randburg.


1980s and 1990s

The construction of Sandton City by Rapp & Maister (which was eventually taken over by the Liberty Group which still retains 75% of the complex) marked a significant change for the Sandton area. It created rapid commercialisation and industrialisation. Sandton came to symbolise the White flight, White Flight movement of Johannesburg and secured itself as Johannesburg's second Central Business District. After the demise of Apartheid, by 1996, Sandton initially formed part of the interim Eastern Metropolitan Substructure, and in 2000 came to be included, along with the former towns of Randburg and Roodepoort, as part of the newly demarcated
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical appli ...
thus losing its separate municipal government and town status. Despite this, Sandton is still unofficially earmarked as a distinct region of the city and operates as a macro-suburb.


Role in 21st century Johannesburg


Financial and business centre

Urban decay in downtown Johannesburg caused many corporate offices to move from the Johannesburg CBD, Johannesburg Central Business District to Sandton in the 1990s. It has become the new financial district of South Africa and Johannesburg's premier business centre. Much of the financial focus of Johannesburg has shifted from the Central Business District to Sandton. However, three of South Africa's four largest banks have kept their head offices in downtown Johannesburg, along with Transnet, the transport parastatal. The other bank, Nedbank, has its headquarters in Sandton. A considerable amount of the city's A-grade office space is to be found in Sandton. The JSE Securities Exchange, Johannesburg's stock exchange, relocated its offices to Sandton from the central business district in the late 1990s. Sandton's gain was the central business district's loss: it resulted from urban blight of the downtown Johannesburg area. Sandton is home to the Sandton Convention Centre, one of the largest convention centres on the continent and primary site of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (also known as "Rio + 10"), which Johannesburg hosted. The convention centre also hosted the African National Congress' victory celebrations after the party was re-elected at the 2004 election. Massmart has its head office in the Massmart House in Sandton. Ster-Kinekor has its head office in the Ster-Kinekor Office Park in Eastgate, Sandton. IBM's and Hewlett Packard's main Southern Africa and South Africa offices are in Sandhurst and Rivonia, Gauteng, Rivonia respectively. In 2013, petrochemical giant Sasol announced the development of their new headquarters in Wierda Valley, Sandton. The Sandton Central commercial node, centred on the suburbs of
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
and Sandhurst, Gauteng, Sandhurst has some of the best and most expensive commercial properties and offices in South Africa. A number of new developments are underway including 6 Benmore (Capital Hill), Atrium on 5th, Alice Lane and Katherine and West which is situated directly opposite the Sandton Gautrain Station.
" "Offices at Katherine & West"
One of the highest rated Green buildings in South Africa, the Upper Grayston Office Park, is located in Sandton. Industrial areas situated in Sandton are Wynberg and Kramerville. Kramerville, once a run-down area, is now trendy and is the centre of the design and textiles industry in Sandton.


Tourism and retail hub

One of the main attractions in Sandton is Sandton City, which ranks among the largest shopping centres in Africa. The completion of this precinct by the Liberty Group was the catalyst for the subsequent development of this entire area. Together with Nelson Mandela Square, the centre, with some 144,000 m2 of shopping space, is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere (behind Chadstone Shopping Centre). Much of Johannesburg's business tourism is centred on Sandton, which has various 5-star hotels under the Southern Sun, Hilton, Radisson and Protea brands. Liberty Group announced in 2008 that Sandton City will receive a R 1,77-billion upgrade. Nelson Mandela Square, formerly known as Sandton Square, was renamed in March 2004, after the unveiling of a 6-metre bronze statue of the former South African president. Liliesleaf Farm, where Nelson Mandela lived in the early 1960s and where many leading political activists were arrested in 1963 and tried as part of the now infamous Rivonia Trial, is just north of Nelson Mandela Square, close to the N1 Highway, off Rivonia Road. Discovery Holdings has, in 2018, completed a large new head office along with shopping mall in the area. Old Mutual South Africa's head office, as of 2018, is being constructed. A 55-floor mixed use building, The Leonardo (Sandton), The Leonardo, become the tallest building in all of Africa at following its topping out in 2018. Concerns have been raised as to whether Sandton has the necessary road and water infrastructure to sustain the massive development that is characteristic of Johannesburg in the 21st century (since the demise of Apartheid and the Group Areas Act).


Sandton Central Management District

The central business area of Sandton is divided into three City Improvement District (Gauteng), City Improvement Districts, which have a unified identity called the Sandton Central Management District, branded as ''Sandton Central''. This district is responsible, using additional funds levied on its behalf by the municipality, for the provision of additional services. The Sandton Central Management district provides additional cleaning, law enforcement, beautification and planning services to the area it services.


Transport


Gautrain

Sandton houses the flagship station of the Gautrain rapid rail link. The station is located on the corner of West Street and Rivonia Road. The system has direct connections to OR Tambo International Airport and an inter-city commuter service from Pretoria through Rosebank to Johannesburg Park Station


Gaubus

Sandton's Gaubus network is very extensive, with direct routes to Fourways, Gallo Manor, Randburg and Rivonia. People can also connect busses and travel to many parts of Centurion, Gauteng, Centurion, Marlboro, Gauteng, Marlbro, Parktown, Rosebank, Gauteng, Rosebank and Pretoria using the service


Roads

Sandton has an extensive road network that allows you to get around. The main freeway to get in to the city is the M1 (Johannesburg), M1 freeway through the M60 (Johannesburg), M60 offramp at Marlboro Drive, The M40 (Johannesburg), M40 at Grayston Drive and the M30 (Johannesburg), M30 at Corlett Drive. To get around, you can use the M9 (Johannesburg), M9, M27 (Johannesburg), M27, M71 (Johannesburg), M71, M75 (Johannesburg), M75 and M85 (Johannesburg), M85.


Education

The main campus of the ''Lycée Jules Verne (South Africa), Lycée Jules Verne'', a French international school, is in Sandton.Contact and access map
." ''Lycée Jules Verne (South Africa), Lycée Jules Verne''. Retrieved on 18 January 2015. "Lycée Français Jules Verne, Corner Bauhinia and Cestrum, Morningside Ext 40" and "Ecole Miriam Makeba 816 - 818 George Avenue Corner George & Eastwood, Eastwood – Arcadia, Pretoria" Sandton used to be home of the former Bond University South Africa. Sandton also houses many primary to high schools including: * Brescia House School * Bryandale Primary School * Bryanston High School * Bryanston Primary School * Bryneven Primary School * Buccleuch Primary School * Crawford College, Sandton * Grayston Preparitory School * Hyde Park High School * King David School Sandton * Montrose Primary School * Redhill School (Johannesburg), Redhill School * Rivonia Primary School * Sandown High School, Johannesburg, Sandown High School * Sandton Junior School * Sandton Primary School * St David's Marist, Inanda * St Stithians College * Wendywood Primary School * Wendywood High School


Notable people

*Donald Gordon (South African businessman), Sir Donald Gordon *Jani Allan *Leka, Crown Prince of Albania (born 1982), Leka, Crown Prince of Albania *Sibs Shongwe-La Mer


See also

*Shrine of Our Lady of the Cedars


References


External links

*
Sandton Central Management District

Sandton Gautrain station
{{Authority control Johannesburg Region E Shopping districts and streets in South Africa Financial districts 1969 establishments in South Africa