Sandton, Gauteng
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Sandton is an affluent area in the
Gauteng Province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
and forms part of the
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical appli ...
. The name of the town came from the combination of two of its suburbs,
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
and
Bryanston Bryanston is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in north Dorset, England, situated on the River Stour, Dorset, River Stour west of Blandford Forum. In the United Kingdom 2011 Census, 2011 census the parish had a population of ...
. In 1969 Sandton was promulgated as a municipality in its own right, but lost its status as an independent town after the re-organisation of South African local governments after Apartheid ended.


History


Early settlers

Archaeological findings suggest the area, which Sandton comprises today, had originally been occupied by various indigenous groups, before European settlement, most notably the
Tswana Tswana may refer to: * Tswana people The Tswana ( tn, Batswana, singular ''Motswana'') are a Bantu-speaking ethnic group who are native to Southern Africa Southern Africa is the south South is one of the cardinal directions or comp ...
and, to a lesser extent,
Sotho people The Sotho people, or Basotho , are a Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styl ...
. The remains of an
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
smelter was discovered in
Lone Hill Lone Hill is a suburb north of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of mega ...
, a suburb of northern Sandton. One of the first
Voortrekker The Great Trek ( af, Die Groot Trek; nl, De Grote Trek) was an eastward migration of Dutch-speaking settlers who travelled by wagon train ''Wagon Train'' is an American Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a vil ...
parties to settle in the area were the Esterhuysen family on the farm Zandfontein (
Afrikaans Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most po ...
and
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
for ''Sandy Spring'' or ''Sand Fountain''). A monument to commemorate them may be found just off Adrienne Street in
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
where the family cemetery is located. Zandfontein, Driefontein (Afrikaans and Dutch for ''Three Springs/Fountains'') and Rietfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch for ''Reed Spring'' or ''Fountain of Reeds'') encumbered what was to become Sandton. The municipal
coat of arms#REDIRECT coat of arms A coat of arms is a heraldry, heraldic communication design, visual design on an escutcheon (heraldry), escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the fu ...

coat of arms
of Sandton pays homage to the three farms with three round fountain barrels on its chevron. In the late 19th-century the Wilhelmi family of
Hannover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...

Hannover
, Germany acquired the farm Driefontein No. 3 while Rietfontein was owned by the Ehler family. The original Driefontein homestead, now within the confines of the Field & Study Centre, was looted during the
Anglo-Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire The B ...
. The ruins are visible on the northern bank of the Klein Jukskei River. The Wilhemi family, upon return from Germany built the 'new' 1906 Driefontein Farmhouse on what is present-day Fifteenth Street,
Parkmore Parkmore is a suburb of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, ...
cum
Riverclub River Club is a suburb The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as p ...
. The farmhouse served as the icon and headquarters for the now defunct Sandton Historical Foundation and is listed as a
City of Johannesburg The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that manages the local governance of Johannesburg, South Africa. It is divided into several branches and departments in or ...
Owned Heritage Site.


1960s and 1970s

Sandton was established as a separate municipality in 1969 by the office of the Administrator of the Transvaal. It had formerly not formed part of Johannesburg but was managed, in part by the 'parent city' and
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
through the North Eastern Peri-Urban Land administration. Initially it was very much a residential area consisting mostly of small holdings with a rural "horsey" lifestyle attracting many of the upper-middle classes and Johannesburg elites. It was subsequently dubbed the "mink and manure" belt. The
Rivonia Trial The Rivonia Trial took place in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and cover ...
derives its name from the locality of Liliesleaf Farm within the Sandton suburb where many of the Black freedom fighters such as
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
were captured by the South African state and subsequently tried for treason. Rivonia had previously been known as Edenburg and was changed to make itself distinct from Edenburg, Free State. It was named for the surname Riven. Sandton and its constituencies were traditionally relatively more liberal than surrounds. For example, the motion which never materialised by residents in favour for the inclusion of
Alexandra, Gauteng Alexandra, informally abbreviated to Alex, is a township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexit ...
then a demarcated black township in terms of the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the f ...
, into Sandton's jurisdiction proved troublesome for the National Party government which had a strong constituency in the adjacent town of
Randburg Randburg is an upmarket area located in the Gauteng province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele ...
.


1980s and 1990s

The construction of
Sandton City Sandton City is a large shopping mall situated in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa. It was built and owned by property development company Rapp and Maister, in partnership with brothers Hilliard and Eli Leibowitz, and was later taken over by ...
by Rapp & Maister (which was eventually taken over by the Liberty Group which still retains 75% of the complex) marked a significant change for the Sandton area. It created rapid commercialisation and industrialisation. Sandton came to symbolise the
White Flight White flight or white exodus is the sudden or gradual large-scale migration of white people White is a of people and a specifier, generally used for people of origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nationality, ...
movement of Johannesburg and secured itself as Johannesburg's second
Central Business District A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with ...
. After the demise of
Apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

Apartheid
, by 1996, Sandton initially formed part of the interim Eastern Metropolitan Substructure, and in 2000 came to be included, along with the former towns of
Randburg Randburg is an upmarket area located in the Gauteng province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele ...
and
Roodepoort Roodepoort is a town in the Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimb ...
, as part of the newly demarcated
City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality A metropolitan municipality is a type of municipality established in some countries to serve a metropolitan area. Canada In generic terms and in practical appli ...
thus losing its separate municipal government and town status. Despite this, Sandton is still unofficially earmarked as a distinct region of the city and operates as a macro-suburb.


Role in 21st century Johannesburg


Financial and business centre

Urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot, urban death and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Londo ...
in downtown Johannesburg caused many corporate offices to move from the
Johannesburg Central Business District
Johannesburg Central Business District
to Sandton in the 1990s. It has become the new financial district of South Africa and Johannesburg's premier business centre. Much of the financial focus of Johannesburg has shifted from the Central Business District to Sandton. However, three of South Africa's four largest banks have kept their head offices in downtown Johannesburg, along with
Transnet Transnet SOC Ltd is a large South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers ...

Transnet
, the transport parastatal. The other bank,
Nedbank Nedbank Group is a financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful mone ...
, has its headquarters in Sandton. A considerable amount of the city's A-grade office space is to be found in Sandton. The
JSE Securities Exchange JSE Limited (previously the JSE Securities Exchange and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Excha ...
, Johannesburg's stock exchange, relocated its offices to Sandton from the central business district in the late 1990s. Sandton's gain was the central business district's loss: it resulted from urban blight of the downtown Johannesburg area. Sandton is home to the Sandton Convention Centre, one of the largest convention centres on the continent and primary site of the 2002
World Summit on Sustainable Development The World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002, took place in South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002. It was convened to discuss ustainable developmentorganizations, 10 years after the first Earth Summit The Earth Summit was a UN ...
(also known as "Rio + 10"), which Johannesburg hosted. The convention centre also hosted the
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
' victory celebrations after the party was re-elected at the 2004 election.
Massmart Massmart Holdings Limited () is a South African firm that owns local brands such as Game, Makro South Africa, Makro, Builder's Warehouse and CBW. It is the second-largest distributor of consumer goods in Africa, the largest retailer of general m ...

Massmart
has its head office in the Massmart House in Sandton.
Ster-Kinekor Ster Kinekor is a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South ...
has its head office in the Ster-Kinekor Office Park in Eastgate, Sandton. IBM's and
Hewlett Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick" ...
's main Southern Africa and South Africa offices are in Sandhurst and
Rivonia Rivonia is a suburb of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities ...
respectively. In 2013, petrochemical giant Sasol announced the development of their new headquarters in Wierda Valley, Sandton. The Sandton Central commercial node, centred on the suburbs of
Sandown Sandown is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town, town, village, or hotel that serves as a Resort, vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfact ...
and Sandhurst has some of the best and most expensive commercial properties and offices in South Africa. A number of new developments are underway including 6 Benmore (Capital Hill), Atrium on 5th, Alice Lane and Katherine and West which is situated directly opposite the Sandton Gautrain Station.
" "Offices at Katherine & West"
One of the highest rated Green buildings in South Africa, the Upper Grayston Office Park, is located in Sandton. Industrial areas situated in Sandton are Wynberg and Kramerville. Kramerville, once a run-down area, is now trendy and is the centre of the design and textiles industry in Sandton.


Tourism and retail hub

One of the main attractions in Sandton is
Sandton City Sandton City is a large shopping mall situated in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa. It was built and owned by property development company Rapp and Maister, in partnership with brothers Hilliard and Eli Leibowitz, and was later taken over by ...
, which ranks among the largest shopping centres in Africa. The completion of this precinct by the Liberty Group was the catalyst for the subsequent development of this entire area. Together with
Nelson Mandela Square Nelson Mandela Square is a shopping centre in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa, that includes a large open area built to resemble a traditional European town square, and an office complex. The centre was formerly known as Sandton Square and ...
, the centre, with some 144,000 m2 of shopping space, is one of the largest in the Southern Hemisphere (behind
Chadstone Shopping Centre Chadstone Shopping Centre (colloquially known as Chaddy) is a super regional The NCAA Division I Baseball Championship is held each year from May through June and features 64 college baseball teams in the United States, culminating in the e ...
). Much of Johannesburg's business tourism is centred on Sandton, which has various 5-star hotels under the Southern Sun, Hilton, Radisson and Protea brands. Liberty Group announced in 2008 that Sandton City will receive a R 1,77-billion upgrade.
Nelson Mandela Square Nelson Mandela Square is a shopping centre in Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa, that includes a large open area built to resemble a traditional European town square, and an office complex. The centre was formerly known as Sandton Square and ...
, formerly known as Sandton Square, was renamed in March 2004, after the unveiling of a 6-metre bronze statue of the former South African president.
Liliesleaf Farm Liliesleaf Farm is a location in northern Johannesburg, South Africa, which is most noted for its use as a safe house for African National Congress activists in the 1960s. In 1963, the South African police raided the farm, arresting more than a do ...
, where
Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (born Rolihlahla Mandela ; ; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as the first president of South Africa Th ...

Nelson Mandela
lived in the early 1960s and where many leading political activists were arrested in 1963 and tried as part of the now infamous
Rivonia Trial The Rivonia Trial took place in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and cover ...
, is just north of Nelson Mandela Square, close to the N1 Highway, off Rivonia Road. Discovery Holdings has, in 2018, completed a large new head office along with shopping mall in the area. Old Mutual South Africa's head office, as of 2018, is being constructed. A 55-floor mixed use building, The Leonardo, become the tallest building in all of Africa at following its topping out in 2018. Concerns have been raised as to whether Sandton has the necessary road and water infrastructure to sustain the massive development that is characteristic of Johannesburg in the 21st century (since the demise of
Apartheid Apartheid (South African English South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English language dialects native to South Africans. History British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * B ...

Apartheid
and the
Group Areas Act Group Areas Act was the title of three acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the f ...
).


Sandton Central Management District

The central business area of Sandton is divided into three City Improvement Districts, which have a unified identity called the Sandton Central Management District, branded as ''Sandton Central''. This district is responsible, using additional funds levied on its behalf by the municipality, for the provision of additional services. The Sandton Central Management district provides additional cleaning, law enforcement, beautification and planning services to the area it services.


Transport


Gautrain

Sandton houses the flagship station of the
Gautrain Gautrain is an express Express or EXPRESS may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * '' Express: Aisle to Glory'', a 1998 comedy short film featuring Kal Penn * '' The Express: The Ernie Davis Story'', a 2008 film starring Dennis ...
rapid rail link. The station is located on the corner of West Street and Rivonia Road. The system has direct connections to
OR Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and mai ...
and an inter-city commuter service from
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
through Rosebank to Johannesburg Park Station


Gaubus

Sandton's Gaubus network is very extensive, with direct routes to
Fourways The area referred to as Fourways (which is a collection of suburbs, including the traditional suburb of Fourways) is the fastest-developing commercial and residential hub in Sandton, north of Johannesburg, South Africa. The main access routes to ...
, Gallo Manor,
Randburg Randburg is an upmarket area located in the Gauteng province Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele ...
and
Rivonia Rivonia is a suburb of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities ...
. People can also connect busses and travel to many parts of
Centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is ...
, Marlbro,
Parktown Parktown is a suburb of Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; Zulu language, Zulu and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in South Africa, classified as a Megacity#List of megacities, ...
, Rosebank, Gauteng, Rosebank and
Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
using the service


Roads

Sandton has an extensive road network that allows you to get around. The main freeway to get in to the city is the M1 (Johannesburg), M1 freeway through the M60 (Johannesburg), M60 offramp at Marlboro Drive, The M40 (Johannesburg), M40 at Grayston Drive and the M30 (Johannesburg), M30 at Corlett Drive. To get around, you can use the M9 (Johannesburg), M9, M27 (Johannesburg), M27, M71 (Johannesburg), M71, M75 (Johannesburg), M75 and M85 (Johannesburg), M85.


Education

The main campus of the ''Lycée Jules Verne (South Africa), Lycée Jules Verne'', a French international school, is in Sandton.Contact and access map
." ''Lycée Jules Verne (South Africa), Lycée Jules Verne''. Retrieved on 18 January 2015. "Lycée Français Jules Verne, Corner Bauhinia and Cestrum, Morningside Ext 40" and "Ecole Miriam Makeba 816 - 818 George Avenue Corner George & Eastwood, Eastwood – Arcadia, Pretoria" Sandton used to be home of the former Bond University South Africa. Sandton also houses many primary to high schools including: * Brescia House School * Bryandale Primary School * Bryanston High School * Bryanston Primary School * Bryneven Primary School * Buccleuch Primary School * Crawford College, Sandton * Grayston Preparitory School * Hyde Park High School * King David School Sandton * Montrose Primary School * Redhill School (Johannesburg), Redhill School * Rivonia Primary School * Sandown High School, Johannesburg, Sandown High School * Sandton Junior School * Sandton Primary School * St David's Marist, Inanda * St Stithians College * Wendywood Primary School * Wendywood High School


Notable people

*Donald Gordon (South African businessman), Sir Donald Gordon *Jani Allan *Leka, Crown Prince of Albania (born 1982), Leka, Crown Prince of Albania *Sibs Shongwe-La Mer


See also

*Shrine of Our Lady of the Cedars


References


External links

*
Sandton Central Management District

Sandton Gautrain station
{{Authority control Johannesburg Region E Shopping districts and streets in South Africa Financial districts 1969 establishments in South Africa