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Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini, OMCA (Italian: [alesˈsandro (ˈsandro) perˈtiːni]; 25 September 1896 – 24 February 1990)[1] was an Italian journalist and socialist politician, who served as the seventh President of the Italian Republic, from 1978 to 1985.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Resistance to Fascism 3 Prominence 4 1982 World Cup Final 5 Relationship with Pope John Paul II 6 Honours and awards 7 In popular culture 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Born in Stella (Province of Savona) as the son of a wealthy landowner, Alberto, he studied at a Salesian college in Varazze, and completed his schooling at the "Chiabrera" lyceum (high school) in Savona. His philosophy teacher was Adelchi Baratono, a reformist socialist who contributed to his approach to socialism and probably introduced him to the inner circles of the Ligurian labour movements. Pertini obtained a Law degree from the University of Genoa. Aged 19 when Italy
Italy
entered World War I
World War I
on the side of the Triple Entente, Pertini opposed the war, but nonetheless enlisted in the army where he served as a lieutenant and was decorated for bravery. After the armistice in 1918, he joined the Unitary Socialist Party, PSU, then he settled in Florence
Florence
where he also graduated in political science with a thesis entitled La Cooperazione ("Cooperation"; 1924). While in the city, Pertini also came into contact with people such as Gaetano Salvemini, the brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, and Ernesto Rossi. Pertini was physically beaten by Fascist squads on several occasions, but never lost faith in his ideals. Resistance to Fascism[edit] After the assassination of PSU leader Giacomo Matteotti
Giacomo Matteotti
by Fascists in the 1924, Pertini became even more committed to the struggle against the totalitarian regime. In 1926, he was sentenced to internment, but managed to go into hiding. Later, together with Carlo Rosselli
Carlo Rosselli
and Ferruccio Parri, he organized and accompanied the escape to France of Filippo Turati, who was the most prominent figure of the PSU. Pertini remained in the country until 1926 working as a mason. On his return to Italy, he was arrested in Pisa
Pisa
and sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. In 1935 he was interned on Santo Stefano Island, Ventotene
Ventotene
(LT), Pontine Islands, an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he remained through Italy's entry into World War II
World War II
and until 1943. There he saved the famous diaries of Antonio Gramsci. Although he had begun suffering from severe illness, Pertini never demanded pardon. He was released a month after Benito Mussolini's arrest, and joined the Italian resistance movement against the Nazi German occupiers and Mussolini's new regime – the Italian Social Republic. Arrested by the Germans, he was sentenced to death but freed by a partisan raid. Pertini then travelled north to organize partisan war as an executive member of PSU (alongside Rodolfo Morandi and Lelio Basso). Prominence[edit]

President Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
in his office at Quirinale
Quirinale
palace.

After the war ended in Italy
Italy
on 25 April 1945 and the monarchy was abolished through the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946, Pertini was elected to the Constituent Assembly (La Costituente), the body that prepared the new republican Italian Constitution. In the postwar era he was a prominent member of the directive board of the Italian Socialist Party (the PSI, which the PSU had rejoined). In spite of his intransigent attitude toward the Italian Communist Party, Pertini was suspicious of many policies enforced by the PSI. He criticized all forms of colonialism, as well as corruption in the Italian state and within the socialist party, where he kept an independent political position. He was elected president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Italian Chamber of Deputies
in 1968,[2] and in 1978, the 81-year-old Pertini was elected President of the Italian Republic, the highest office in the nation. Despite his advanced age, he displayed considerable energy and vigor, playing a major role in helping restore the public's faith in the government and institutions of Italy, as well as maintaining an active schedule of traveling and meeting foreign dignitaries. During the Brigate Rosse terrorism period of the Anni di piombo, Pertini openly denounced the violence. He also opposed organized crime in Italy, South African apartheid, Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
and other dictatorial regimes, as well as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In 1985, he stepped down from the presidency, becoming automatically senator for life. The only official role he accepted in his retirement was President of the "Filippo Turati" Foundation for Historical Studies of Florence
Florence
inaugurated in 1985 and dedicated to recording and preserving the history of the socialist movement in Italy. In December 1988 Pertini was the first person to be awarded with the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold by the United Nations Association of Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für die Vereinten Nationen, DGVN) in Berlin, "for outstanding services to peace and international understanding, especially for his political ethics and practical humanity." Pertini died in February 1990 at the age of 93 and was mourned across the nation. 1982 World Cup Final[edit] Pertini attended the 1982 World Cup Final in Madrid
Madrid
for a match between Italy
Italy
and West Germany just two days after the fourth anniversary of his inauguration. After Italy
Italy
scored their third goal, he wagged his finger to either the German delegation or King Juan Carlos I, and probably said "they [the German team] will not catch us any more".[3] Paolo Rossi, Italy's and the tournament's top scorer, later said: "I remember that when he welcomed us at the Presidential Palace after our win, he rose and said: 'This is my best day as President.'" [4] Relationship with Pope John Paul II[edit]

President Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
and Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
on a secret skiing trip on Mt. Adamello, on June 16, 1984.

Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
had a close friendship with Pope John Paul II, with whom he met often both for official and private occasions, and had frequent phone conversations. In "Accanto a Giovanni Paolo II", he is known to have referred to his mother looking over him in heaven, moved that her atheist son was friends with the Pope. On May 13, 1981, he went to the Gemelli Hospital
Gemelli Hospital
as soon as he heard that the Pope had been shot, and stayed until late in the night when he was told that the Pope was not in danger anymore. He recalled the event later that year in the annual New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
Presidential Address to the Italian People.[5] Honours and awards[edit] In 1986 he received the Freedom medal. In popular culture[edit]

In the 1975 film Last Days of Mussolini, by Carlo Lizzani, it is a character inspired to Pertini, performed by Sergio Graziani.[6] In early 1980s Andrea Pazienza created the comic book series Il Partigiano Pert ("The Partisan Pert(ini)"), a comedy strip portraying Pertini during World War II
World War II
with the same cartoonist as his helper.[7][8][9] Pertini has been mentioned in some verses of several Italian songs, as in Sotto la pioggia ("under the rain", 1982) by Antonello Venditti, Babbo Rock ("Daddy Rock", 1982) by the Skiantos, L'Italiano ("The Italian", 1983) by Toto Cutugno, Caro Presidente ("Dear President", 1984) by Daniele Shook, Pertini Dance (1984) by the S.C.O.R.T.A., Pertini Is A Genius, Mirinzini Is Not Famous (2007) by the Ex-Otago.[10][11]

References[edit]

^ Profile of Alessandro Pertini ^ With the ardor of those who drove merchants from the temple, Speaker Pertini ordered to drive away the "whips" from the aisle, accelerating the outcome of the presidential election in 1971 : Buonomo, Giampiero (2015). "Il rugby e l'immortalità del nome". L’ago e il filo.   – via  Questia (subscription required) ^ Video on Pertini exulting at the Italian team's victory on YouTube ^ Article on emagazine.credit-suisse.com Archived 19 January 2013 at Archive.is ^ "Presidential Address of New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
1981". The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic.  ^ (in Italian) "Lizzani: Pertini wrote to me that Audisio didn't shoot the Duce" (La Provincia) ^ (in Italian) "Il Partigiano Pert" (lastoriasiamonoi.rai.it) ^ (in Italian) "Pertini, the partisan president in the amazing comics of Andrea Pazienza" (slumberland.it) ^ (in Italian) "Pertini" on andreapazienza.it ^ (in Italian) "The 5 best songs dedicated to Sandro Pertini" (orrorea33giri.com) ^ (in Italian) "Sandro Pertini, our president ever, historical figure and man" (quotidianpost.it)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sandro Pertini.

A biography of Pertini from the Associazione Nazionale Sandro Pertini Fondazione Sandro Pertini

Political offices

Preceded by Brunetto Bucciarelli-Ducci President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies 1968–1976 Succeeded by Pietro Ingrao

Preceded by Giovanni Leone President of the Italian Republic 1978–1985 Succeeded by Francesco Cossiga

Party political offices

Preceded by Pietro Nenni Secretary of the Italian Socialist Party 1945–1946 Succeeded by Ivan Matteo Lombardo

Alessandro Pertini

v t e

Presidents of Italy
Italy
(List)

Enrico De Nicola Luigi Einaudi Giovanni Gronchi Antonio Segni Giuseppe Saragat Giovanni Leone Sandro Pertini Francesco Cossiga Oscar Luigi Scalfaro Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Giorgio Napolitano Sergio Mattarella

v t e

Presidents of the Italian Chamber of Deputies

Kingdom of Sardinia

Gioberti Pareto Pinelli Rattazzi Bon Compagni Cadorna Bon Compagni Rattazzi Lanza

Kingdom of Italy

Rattazzi Tecchio Cassinis Mari Lanza Brancheri Crispi Cairoli Farini Coppino Farini Coppino Branchieri Zanardelli Branchieri Villa Zanardelli Branchieri Zanardelli Chinaglia Colombo Gallo Villa Branchieri Marcora Branchieri Marcora Orlando De Nicola Rocco Casertano Giurati Ciano Grandi Orlando (de jure) Sforza (N.C.)

Italian Republic

Saragat (C.A.) Terracini (C.A.) Gronchi Leone Bucciarelli-Ducci Pertini Ingrao Iotti Scalfaro Napolitano Pivetti Violante Casini Bertinotti Fini Boldrini Fico

v t e

Italian Socialist Party

Secretary

Carlo Dell'Avalle (1892-1894) Filippo Turati
Filippo Turati
(1895-1896) Enrico Ferri (1896) Carlo Dell'Avalle (1896-1898) Alfredo Bertesi (1898-1899) Enrico Bertini (1899-1900) Savino Varazzani (1900-1904) Enrico Ferri (1904-1906) Oddino Morgari (1906-1908) Pompeo Ciotti (1908-1912) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1912-1918) Egidio Gennari (1918) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1918-1919) Arturo Vella (1919) Nicola Bombacci
Nicola Bombacci
(1919-1920) Egidio Gennari (1920-1921) Giovanni Bacci
Giovanni Bacci
(1921) Domenico Fioritto (1921-1923) Tito Oro Nobili (1923-1925) Olindo Vernocchi (1925-1930) Ugo Coccia (1930-1932) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1933-1939) Giuseppe Saragat, Oddino Morgari and Angelo Tasca (1939-1942) Giuseppe Romita (1942–1943) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1943–1945) Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
(1945) Rodolfo Morandi (1945–1946) Ivan Matteo Lombardo (1946–1947) Lelio Basso
Lelio Basso
(1947–1948) Alberto Jacometti (1948–1949) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1949–1963) Francesco De Martino (1963–1968) Mario Tanassi
Mario Tanassi
(1966–1968) Mauro Ferri (1968–1969) Francesco De Martino (1969–1970) Giacomo Mancini (1970–1972) Francesco De Martino (1972–1976) Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
(1976–1993) Giorgio Benvenuto
Giorgio Benvenuto
(1993) Ottaviano Del Turco (1993–1994) Valdo Spini (1994)

Related articles

Italian Labour Party Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Fasci Siciliani Avanti! Critica Sociale Marxism Revolutionary socialism Maximalists National syndicalism Reformist socialism Democratic socialism Division over World War I National Liberation Committee Italian resistance movement Craxism Sigonella incident Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal Mani pulite

Derivatives

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Fasci of Revolutionary Action / National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
/ Republican Fascist Party Communist Party of Italy
Italy
/ Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
/ International Communist Party Unitary Socialist Party Maximalist Italian Socialist Party Socialist Unity Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Socialists
Italian Socialists
/ Italian Democratic Socialists
Italian Democratic Socialists
/ Socialist League Labour Federation Reformist Socialist Party Socialist Party / New Italian Socialist Party Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(social-democrats faction) Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
(social-democrats faction)

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947-1948) Organic Centre-left (1962-1976) Unified Socialist Party (1966-1971) Pentapartito
Pentapartito
(1981-1993) Alliance of Progressives
Alliance of Progressives
(1994)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7407265 LCCN: n79039970 ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 3161 GND: 120135639 SUDOC: 028566424 BNF: cb120376519 (data) NLA: 35986439 NKC: uk2012689631 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV03985 BNE: XX1069017 CiNii: DA05375

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