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Geographic range

Synonyms[1]

List

Felis
Felis
marginata Gray, 1867 F. margaritae Trouessart, 1897 F. marguerittei Trouessart, 1905 Otocolobus
Otocolobus
margarita Heptner and Dementiev, 1937

The sand cat ( Felis
Felis
margarita), also known as the sand dune cat, is the only cat living foremost in true deserts. This small cat is widely distributed in the deserts of North Africa, the Middle East
Middle East
and Central Asia. It was listed as Near Threatened
Near Threatened
on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List since 2002 because the population was considered fragmented and small with a declining trend. It was downlisted to Least Concern
Least Concern
in 2016.[2] The sand cat inhabits both sandy and stony desert, in areas far from water. Having thickly furred feet, it is well adapted to the extremes of a desert environment and tolerant of extremely hot and cold conditions.[3]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Characteristics 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecology and behavior

4.1 Reproduction and life cycle

5 Threats 6 Conservation

6.1 In captivity

7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The sand cat is a Felis
Felis
species, a genus within the family Felidae.[1] The French soldier and naturalist Victor Loche first described the sand cat from a specimen found in the area of "Négonça" in the northern Algerian Sahara, and proposed to name the cat in recognition of Jean Auguste Margueritte, who headed the expedition into the Sahara.[4] This holotype specimen appears to have been lost.[5][6] In 1926, Russian zoologist Sergej Ognew
Sergej Ognew
described a sand cat collected in the Karakum Desert
Desert
in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
under the name Eremaelurus thinobius.[7] In 1938, British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock considered this specimen as a species under the name Felis thinobius.[8] Later he considered it a subspecies of the sand cat, which to date is widely recognised.[5][6][9][10][11] The following four subspecies are considered valid:[1]

F. m. margarita (Loche 1858) – ranges from Algeria
Algeria
southwards to Asben in northern Niger, Sinai
Sinai
and Arabia;[12] F. m. thinobia (Ognew, 1926) – ranges from the Karakum Desert
Desert
to the southeast of Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and the southern Kyzylkum desert to the west of Bukhara
Bukhara
in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and in the Transcaspian area to Repetek;[7] Some consider it as an independent species.[11] F. m. scheffeli (Hemmer, 1974) – occurs in the Nushki
Nushki
desert of Pakistan;[13] F. m. harrisoni (Hemmer, Grubb and Groves, 1976) – ranges in the Arabian Peninsula.[14]

The following two are considered synonyms of F. m. margarita:[6]

F. m. meinertzhageni Pocock, 1938 – described on the basis of one skin from the Algerian Sahara[8] F. m. aïrensis Pocock, 1951 – described on the basis of one specimen collected in French Sudan[15]

Genetic assessment supports the phylogenetic relationships of the sand cat as follows:[16][17]

Cheetah
Cheetah
( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus)

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(P. yagouaroundi)

Felis

Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus)

Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes)

Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita)

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris silvestris)

Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti)

African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. silvestris lybica)

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
( Otocolobus
Otocolobus
manul)

Prionailurus

Characteristics[edit]

The skull is arched in lateral outline with wide zygomatic arches.[18]

The sand cat's fur is of a pale sandy ochreous color. Markings vary between individuals: some have neither spots nor stripes, some are faintly spotted, some have both spots and stripes. There are blackish bars on the limbs, and the tail has a black tip with two or three dark rings alternating with buff bands.[6] It is a small cat characterised by a flat, wide head, short legs and a relatively long (23 to 31 cm (9.1 to 12.2 in)) tail. It reaches 24–36 centimetres (9.4–14.2 in) at the shoulder and weighs 1.5–3.4 kilograms (3.3–7.5 lb). The head-and-body length ranges from 39 to 52 cm (15 to 20 in). The 5–7 cm (2.0–2.8 in) long ears are set low, giving a broad flat appearance to the head. They are tawny at the base and tipped with black, and more pointed than those of Pallas's cat. The pinnae of the ears are triangular, and the ear canal is very wide, giving the cat an enhanced sense of hearing. The auditory bullae and the passages from the external ears to the ear drums are greatly enlarged relative to other small felids; the inner parts of the ears are protected from foreign objects by long, closely spaced white hairs.[18][10] The large, greenish yellow eyes are ringed with white, and the nose is blackish. The head is sandy brown, whereas the lower and upper lips, chin, throat and belly are white. In some individuals, the throat has a hint of buff. The lower part of the face is whitish, and a faint reddish line runs from the outer corner of each eye across the cheeks.[19] Its whiskers are white and up to 8 cm (3.1 in) long.[11] In northern regions, the sand cat's winter coat is very long and thick, with hairs reaching up to 2 in (5.1 cm) in length. The sand cat’s claws on the forelimbs are short and very sharp, the ones on the hind feet are small and blunt.[20] The undersides of the paws are protected from extreme temperatures by a thick covering of fur.[18] The long hairs growing between its toes create a cushion of fur over the foot pads, helping to insulate them while moving over hot sand. This feature makes the cat's tracks obscure and difficult to identify and follow.[19] The sand cat has a bite force quotient at the canine tip of 136.7.[21] Distribution and habitat[edit]

Sand cat
Sand cat
photographed in Iran

The sand cat is found primarily in both sandy and stony desert and has a wide but apparently disjunct distribution through the deserts of northern Africa and southwest and central Asia.[14] It prefers flat or undulating terrain with sparse vegetation, avoids bare sand dunes, where there is relatively little food. It can survive in temperatures ranging from −5 °C (23 °F) to 52 °C (126 °F) and retreats into burrows during extreme conditions. Although it will drink when water is available, it is able to survive for months on the body fluids in its prey.[19] In North Africa, the sand cat occurs marginally in western Morocco, including former Sahara
Sahara
Occidental, in Algeria, Mali, Niger
Niger
and in the rocky deserts of eastern Egypt
Egypt
to the Sinai
Sinai
peninsula. Sightings have been reported from Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya, but without any confirmed records. In Mauritania, it probably occurs in the Adrar mountains and the Majabat al Koubra. Spoor has been found in Senegal, Chad, and Sudan.[2] In the early 1990s, several sand cats were radio-collared in southern Israel.[22] In the late 1990s, the sand cat was also recorded in Jordan.[23] In 2000 and 2001, it was sighted and camera trapped in a protected area near Palmyra
Palmyra
in Syria.[24] In 2012, the species was recorded for the first time in Iraq's Al Najaf
Al Najaf
desert.[25] In Iran, the sand cat occurs in arid flat plains and sandy desert, including Abbas’abad Wildlife Reserve, Kavir National Park
Kavir National Park
and Petergan desert.[26] In central Asia, the sand cat occurs east of the Caspian sea throughout the Karakum Desert
Desert
from the Ustyurt Plateau in the northwest to the Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
Mountains in the south extending through the Kyzylkum
Kyzylkum
Desert
Desert
to the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
River and the northern border to Afghanistan.[20] Ecology and behavior[edit] Sand cats live solitary lives outside of the mating season. They communicate using scent and claw marks on objects in their range and by urine spraying. They do not leave their feces in exposed locations as many other felids do. They make vocalizations similar to domestic cats but also make loud, high-pitched barking sounds, especially when seeking a mate.[19] Hearing plays an important role in intraspecific communication; sand cats make a short, rasping bark in connection with mating activity.[13] They inhabit burrows and use either abandoned fox or porcupine burrows or enlarge those dug by gerbils or other rodents. The burrow is about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) deep and dug in slightly slanting ground with usually only a single entrance, though burrows with two or three entrances have also been observed. In winter, they stay in the sun during the day, but during the hot season, they are crepuscular and nocturnal.[6] Their way of moving is distinct: with belly to the ground, they move at a fast run punctuated with occasional leaps. They are capable of sudden bursts of speed and can sprint at speeds of 30 to 40 km (19 to 25 mi) per hour.[27] During a radio telemetry study in Israel, sand cats were found to have large home ranges, with one male using an area of 16 km2 (6.2 sq mi). They have been recorded to move long distances of 5–10 km (3.1–6.2 mi) in a single night and were generally active throughout the night, hunting and travelling an average of 5.4 km (3.4 mi). Before retiring below ground at dawn, the observed cats adopted the same lookout position at the mouth of the burrow. Different cats used burrows interchangeably and did not change burrows during the day.[22] Small rodents are their primary prey, with records from Africa including spiny mice, jirds, gerbils, jerboas, and young of cape hare. They have also been observed to hunt small birds like greater hoopoe lark, desert lark, and consume reptiles such as small desert monitors, fringe-toed lizards, sandfish, short-fingered gecko, horned and sand vipers, and insects. They are capable of satisfying their moisture requirements from their prey but drink readily if water is available.[2] They can dig rapidly to extract their prey from the ground and bury prey remains in the sand for later consumption.[6] Reproduction and life cycle[edit]

A sand cat kitten

Oestrus
Oestrus
in sand cats lasts from five to six days and is accompanied by calling and increased scent marking. An average litter of three kittens is born after 59 to 66 days, typically around April or May, although in some areas, sand cats may give birth to two litters per year. The kittens weigh 39 to 80 grams (1.4 to 2.8 oz) at birth, with spotted pale yellow or reddish fur. They grow relatively rapidly, reaching three quarters of the adult size within five months of birth. Sand cats are fully independent by the end of their first year and reach sexual maturity not long after.[28] Of 228 sand cats born in zoos globally to the year 2007, only 61% lived to day 30. They died primarily due to maternal neglect by first-time mothers. They can live up to 13 years in captivity.[29] The life expectancy of sand cats in the wild has not been documented.[3][19] Threats[edit] Habitat degradation
Habitat degradation
is the major threat to the sand cat. Vulnerable arid ecosystems are being rapidly degraded by human settlement and activity, especially livestock grazing. The sand cat's small-mammal prey-base depends on having adequate vegetation, which may experience large fluctuations due to drought or declines due to desertification and loss of natural vegetation. They also may be killed in traps laid out by inhabitants of oases targeting foxes and jackals or in retaliation for killing their chickens. There are occasional reports of animals shot in southeast Arabia.[2] In Israel, sand cats were thought to be endangered by predation of larger carnivores such as caracals, wolves and, of those who venture close to human settlements, dogs.[30] Conservation[edit] Felis
Felis
margarita is listed on CITES
CITES
Appendix II. Hunting is prohibited in Algeria, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Tunisia. No legal protection exists in Egypt, Mali, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates.[3] Previously having been classified as Near Threatened, it has been downlisted to Least Concern in 2016, as the estimated size of the global population exceeds the threshold for a threatened category; the extent of decline of the global population is unknown.[2] The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
started a sand cat reintroduction project in Israel's Arava Desert. Several captive-born individuals from the zoo's population were kept in an acclimatization enclosure but did not survive subsequent release into the wild.[31] In captivity[edit]

Sand cat
Sand cat
in Bristol Zoo, England

Captive sand cats are highly sensitive to respiratory diseases and infection of the upper respiratory tract. This is the main cause of death in adults. The most common disease is infectious rhinotracheitis. With sand cats being very susceptible to respiratory infections, they have to be kept in very arid enclosures where humidity and temperature do not fluctuate.[29] As of July 2009, the global captive population comprised 200 individuals in 45 institutions. As of May 2010, 29 sand cats were kept in 12 Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited institutions participating in the Species Survival Plan.[32] In January 2010, the Al Ain Zoo
Al Ain Zoo
announced the first success of an in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer procedure on sand cats, resulting in the birth of two kittens at its facilities.[33] In July 2012, four sand cat kittens were born at the Ramat Gan Zoo
Ramat Gan Zoo
as part of the European Endangered Species Programme.[34] References[edit]

^ a b c d Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 536. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c d e f Sliwa, A.; Ghadirian, T.; Appel, A.; Banfield, L.; Sher Shah, M. & Wacher, T. (2016). " Felis
Felis
margarita". The IUCN
IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T8541A50651884. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T8541A50651884.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b c Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. (1996). Sand Cat
Cat
Felis
Felis
margarita. in: Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ^ Loche, V. (1858). "Description d'une nouvelle espèce de Chat par M. le capitaine Loche" [Description of a new species of cat, Mr. Captain Loche]. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée. 2. X: 49–50.  ^ a b Haltenorth, T. (1953). "Lebende arabische Sandkatze (Felis margarita Loche, 1858)". Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 1: 71–73.  ^ a b c d e f Schauenberg, P. (1974). Données nouvelles sur le Chat des sables Felis
Felis
margarita Loche, 1858 Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine.. [New data on the sandcat Felis
Felis
margarita Loche, 1858.] Revue Suisse De Zoologie 81(4): 949–969. (in French, with German and English summaries) ^ a b Ognew, S. (1926). "A new genus and species of cat from the Transcaspian region". Annuaire du Musée Zoologique Académie des Sciences USSR. 27: 356–362.  ^ a b Pocock, R.I. (1938). "The Algerian Sand Cat
Cat
( Felis
Felis
margarita Loche)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. B108 (1): 41–46. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1938.tb00021.x.  ^ Pocock, R. I. (1951). Catalogue of the genus Felis. British Museum (Natural History), London. ^ a b Sliwa, A. (2013). " Felis
Felis
margarita Sand Cat". In Kingdon, J.; Happold, D. Mammals of Africa, Volume V: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 199–202. ISBN 1408189968.  ^ a b c Cole, F.R.; Wilson, D.E. (2015). " Felis
Felis
margarita (Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 47 (924): 63–77. doi:10.1093/mspecies/sev007.  ^ Ellerman, J. R. and Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946. Second edition. British Museum of Natural History, London. Pp. 306–307. ^ a b Hemmer, H. (1974). [Studies on the systematics and biology of the sand cat.] Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 17(1): 11–20. (in German) ^ a b Hemmer, H., Grubb, P. and C. P. Groves (1976). "Notes on the sand cat, Felis
Felis
margarita Loche 1958". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde (41): 286–303. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Pocock, R. I. (1938). A new race of the sand cat ( Felis
Felis
margarita). Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 11 1(4): 472–476. ^ Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S.J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.  ^ Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D.W.; Loveridge, A.J. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (PDF) (Reprint ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.  ^ a b c Osborn, D.; Helmy, I. (1980). "The contemporary land mammals of Egypt
Egypt
(including Sinai)". Fieldiana Zoology, New Series (5): 444–447.  ^ a b c d e Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). "Sand Cat
Cat
Felis margarita (Loche, 1858)". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 67–74. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.  ^ a b Geptner, V. G., Sludskij, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Sand Cat". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2. Carnivora
Carnivora
(Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 636–665. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Christiansen, P.; Wroe, S. (2007). "Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores". Ecology. 88 (2): 347–358. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2007)88[347:bfaeat]2.0.co;2. PMID 17479753.  ^ a b Abbadi, M. (1992). "Israel's elusive feline: sand cats". Cat News. 18: 15–16.  ^ Bunaian, F.; Mashaqbeh, S.; Yousef, M.; Buduri, A.; Amr, Z. S. (1998). "A new record of the Sand Cat, Felis
Felis
margarita, from Jordan". Zoology in the Middle East. 16: 5–7. doi:10.1080/09397140.1998.10637748.  ^ Serra, G.; Abdallah, M. S.; Al Quaim, G. (2007). "Occurrence of Ruppell's fox Vulpes
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rueppelli and Sand cat
Sand cat
Felis
Felis
margarita in Syria" (PDF). Zoology in the Middle East. 42: 99–101. doi:10.1080/09397140.2007.10638252.  ^ Mohammad, M. K.; Lahony, S. R.; Al-Rammahi, H. M. (2013). "First record of the Sand Cat, Felis
Felis
margarita Loche, 1858 (Mammalia: Carnivora, Felidae), from Iraq". Zoology in the Middle East. 59 (4): 358–359. doi:10.1080/09397140.2013.868144.  ^ Ghadirian, T., Akbari, H., Besmeli, M., Ghoddousi, A., Hamidi, A. K., Dehkordi, M. E. (2016). " Sand cat
Sand cat
in Iran
Iran
– present status, distribution and conservation challenges". Cat
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News Special
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Issue 10: 56–59. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Dragesco-Joffé, A. (1993). La Vie Sauvage au Sahara. [Wildlife in the Sahara]. Delachaux et Niestlé, Lausanne (Switzerland) and Paris (in French). ^ Mellen, J. D. (1993). "A comparative analysis of scent marking, social and reproductive behavior in 20 species of small cats (Felis)". American Zoologist. 33 (2): 151–166. doi:10.1093/icb/33.2.151.  ^ a b Sausman, K. (1997). " Sand cat
Sand cat
a true desert species". International Zoo Yearbook. 35: 78–81. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1997.tb01193.x.  ^ Mendelssohn, H. (1989). Felids in Israel. Cat
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News 10: 2–4. ^ Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
(2010). Re-introduction – Sand cats Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.. Jerusalem Biblical Zoo Animal
Animal
Reintroductions ^ Bray, S. (ed.) (2010). Sand Cat
Cat
SSP. Felid TAG Times (May 2010): 3 ^ Gulf News (2010). Al Ain zoo has reason to purr after birth of two sand cats. gulfnews.com, 27 January 2010 ^ Krystian, M. (2012). Rare Sand Kittens Born in Israel
Israel
After Years of Rumored Extinction[permanent dead link] The International Business Times TV, 15 August 2012

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Felis
Felis
margarita

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Felis
Felis
margarita.

Sand Cat
Cat
Working Group IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group: Sand Cat Sand Cats Website about sand cats Sand Cat
Cat
Sahara
Sahara
Team 2017 : First footage of wild sand cat kittens

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q175329 ADW: Felis_margarita ARKive: felis-margarita EoL: 328670 Fossilworks: 224045 GBIF: 2435028 ITIS: 183801 IUCN: 8541 MSW: 14000047 NCBI: 61

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