SAN MIGUEL DE ALLENDE (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a city and
municipality located in the far eastern part of the state of
Guanajuato in central
However, the town waned during war times and at the beginning of the
20th century was in danger of becoming a ghost town during influenza
pandemic that caused regional diaspora. Its Baroque /Neoclassical
colonial structures were "discovered" by foreign artists who moved in
and began art and cultural institutes such as the Instituto Allende
and the Escuela de Bellas Artes. This gave the town a reputation,
attracting artists such as
David Alfaro Siqueiros
This attracted foreign art students, especially former U.S. soldiers
studying on the
G.I. Bill after the
Second World War
The main attraction of the town is its well-preserved historic center, filled with buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. This and the nearby Sanctuary of Atotonilco have been declared World Heritage Sites in 2008.
* 1 Founding of the city * 2 Colonial period * 3 Independence * 4 20th century to the present * 5 The historic center * 6 Demographics * 7 Landmarks
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Foreign influence * 8.2 Festivals * 8.3 Arts and literature
* 9 Economy
* 9.1 Tourism and commerce * 9.2 Agriculture * 9.3 Industry
* 10 The municipality
* 10.1 Geography, ecology and climate
* 11 Landmarks in the municipality
* 11.1 Atotonilco * 11.2 El Charco del Ingenio
* 12 International relations
* 12.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
FOUNDING OF THE CITY
The city was called Izcuinapan by the indigenous peoples. The city
has since been known by various names since the Spanish settlements.
The Spanish called it San Miguel el Grande and sometimes San Miguel de
los Chichimecas . San Miguel refers to the Father Juan de San Miguel,
an original Spanish settler. The name of the town was changed in 1826
San Miguel de Allende
Before the arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century, San
Miguel was an indigenous
The village was officially re-established in 1555 by Juan de San Miguel's successor, Bernardo Cossin and indigenous leader Fernando de Tapia . It was refounded both as a mission and as a military outpost. The new site was just northwest of the old one at a place with two fresh water springs (called Batan and Izcuinapan) and with terrain better suited for defense. The two springs supplied all of the town's water until the 1970s. Today, this second site is occupied by the Santa Escuela Church, which colloquially became known as the "old parish" by the 18th century.
The House of the Counts of the Canal, built in the 18th century
and currently owned by
By the mid 16th century, silver had been discovered in
a major road between this area and
Eventually, major roads would connect the town with the mining
San Luis Potosí
Statues of Allende and Hidalgo in the municipal palace
The prominence of the city declined at the beginning of the 19th
century, mostly due to the
Mexican War of Independence . However, it
played an important early role in this conflict. It is the birthplace
of two significant protagonists,
Ignacio Allende and
Juan Aldama .
Both were involved in a conspiracy against the colonial government in
While there was no other military action in the area, economically
the town waned as agriculture suffered and the population declined.
This continued for most of the rest of the 19th century as the country
was torn between Liberal and Conservative factions vying for power .
After the war, the town was declared a city by the state congress in
1826 and its name was modified to
San Miguel de Allende
There was some economic recovery near the end of the 19th century
during the rule of
20TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, the town began to attract artists and writers. One prominent artist and writer was Stirling Dickinson , an American, who came in 1938. Dickinson met Peruvian intellectual, author and painter, Felipe Cossio del Pomar who had the idea of establishing an art colony in the heart of Mexico. The first art school was established in 1938 in an old convent which Cossio del Pomar secured from then Mexican president Lazaro Cardenas, it was called Bellas Artes, today in existence and locally known as Bellas Artes or Centro Cultural El Nigromante. In the 1940s, Dickinson would also assist Cossio del Pomar and Enrique Fernández Martinez the former governor of the state of Guanajuato to establish what became the Instituto Allende. Despite their rural location, both schools would find success after the Second World War. U.S. veterans studying under the G.I. Bill were permitted to study abroad, and these schools took advantage, attracting former soldiers as students. Enrollment at the schools rose and this began the town's cultural reputation. This attracted more artists and writers, including José Chávez Morado and David Alfaro Siqueiros, who taught painting at the Escuela de Bellas Artes. This, in turn, spurred the opening of hotels, shops and restaurants to cater to the new visitors and residents. Many of the American veterans who came to study in San Miguel would later come back to retire, and have been credited with saving the town.
The town's cultural, foreign and cosmopolitan nature has continued
since that time. In the 1960s,
The city and nearby sanctuary were declared a World Heritage Site
Due to the world economic crisis the housing market dropped in 2010,
with prices falling between 20 and 40 percent compared to two years
earlier. The Asociacion de Profesionales Inmobilarios, a real estate
group, blames news articles of Mexico's problems with drug related
violence as the principal cause of keeping foreign buyers away.
However, many Mexican buyers, mostly from large urban areas like
THE HISTORIC CENTER
Hernandez Macias street in the historic center
At the entrance of the city are statues of Ignacio Allende, Juan Aldama, Miguel Hidalgo and Josefa Ortiz de Dominguez, with one of the Archangel Michael in the center. While the outlying areas of the town and municipality have changed over time, the historic center remains much as it was 250 years ago. The layout of the center of the city is mostly a straight grid, which was favored by the Spanish during colonial times. However, due to the terrain, many roads are not straight. There are no parking meters, no traffic signals and no fast food restaurants. These roads are lined with colonial era homes and churches. With a few exceptions, the architecture is domestic rather than monumental, with well-tended courtyards and rich architectural details. The houses have solid walls against the sidewalks, painted in various colors, many with bougainvillea vines falling down the outside and the occasional iron-grated window. Many of the larger structures have large front doors which used to be used by horses and carriages.
In the historic center, there are an estimated two thousand doors, behind which there are at least two thousand courtyards of various sizes. Many of these have been restored to their former colonial state, with façades of ochre, orange and yellow, windows and doors framed by handcrafted ironwork and made of hewn wood. The interior roofs are flat, of heavy mortar supported by large beams. Very few structures have atriums or front yards; instead, open private space is behind the main façade in courtyards. These courtyards are where the private gardens were, protected from dust, excess water and crime.
The town is noted for its streetscapes with narrow cobblestone lanes,
that rise and fall over the hilly terrain, and occasionally defy
colonial attempts to make a straight grid. It is still a small city,
and at night, many wander the narrow streets with relative safety.
The people on the streets are a mix of Mexicans, foreigners and
indigenous. Its cultural and artistic reputation has brought many
Since the 1920s, steps have been taken to preserve the historic center’s charm. The first set of protections was put into place by the INAH when it was declared a national monument. This required that all restorations and new construction conform to the area's colonial architecture. To preserve the city’s trademark colonial look, a civil society regulates the renovation and maintenance of the city, especially its historic center. This includes aspects such as traffic, garden spaces and even the kinds of social events that may be held. The town has also put much effort into preserving the cobblestone streets. The most recent designation is that of a World Heritage site, along with the religious sanctuary in nearby Atotonilco, which also puts restrictions and protections into place.
About half of the colonial buildings have been partially or fully converted into businesses such as stores, restaurants, galleries, workshops and hotels. Since there is no zoning, residential and commercial establishments are well-mixed. Although it is small and rural, it has a wide variety of upscale and ethnic restaurants, specialty shops and art galleries. All around the historic center there are over 80 bars and cantinas as well as various nightclubs. To compete, many offer two-for-one drink specials. Others rely on gimmicks such as the frontier themed bar on Mesones Street called “El Gato” with swinging cantina doors like those seen on “Old West” movies.
In September 2010, the first contemporary architectural structure arrived in the historic colonial center with the opening of Hotel Matilda. The hotel's four buildings have a modern design, with public areas decorated with the art works of contemporary Latin artists, many of them very large pieces. Only the exterior street wall, along Calle Aldama, reflects the colonial style.
View of calle Umaran in the downtown.
Despite being less than five percent of the total municipal population, foreign residents have considerable cultural and economic impact. Most foreign residents are retirees from the United States, Canada and Europe attracted by the mild climate, cultural opportunities and low crime. It is only a ten-hour drive to the U.S. border. Many of the home buyers are from this segment of the population as well. Estimates of foreign residents range from 5,000 to 8,000 with at least half of these from the United States. The large foreign presence has established a number of institutions here. The most noted one is the Biblioteca Publica, which has the second largest English language book collection in Mexico, located in the former convent of Santa Ana. It acts as the community center for foreigners. There is also a chapter of the Lion's Club (est. 1987). A post of The American Legion and The Veterans of Foreign Wars is located there , and Mexico's only Audubon Society chapter.
While the town and municipality have grown since the coming of foreigners in the 1940s, the highest rates of growth occurred between 1980 and 2000, rising from 77,624 to 110,692, or about 43%. However, since that time growth has slowed and as of the 2005 census, the population stood at 139,297. Most of the drop has been due to the fall in birthrates. However, the overall population of the municipality is young: about 40% is under the age of 15, with those between 15 and 64 making up about 54% of the population. The majority of the municipality lives in the town of San Miguel proper, which has a population of 59,691. The next three largest towns are under 3,000 people: Los Rodriguez (2,768,) Colonia San Luis Rey (1,850) and Corral de Piedras de Arriba (1,701). Most of the municipality's population is located in rural areas in communities that do not exceed 2,500 people. About 46% is considered to live in an urban environment in the city of San Miguel.
Outside of the main town and in these smaller communities are the
municipality's indigenous groups, mostly Otomi and Nahuas. The Otomi
are the largest group, accounting for just under 38% of the municipal
population. The Nahuas follow at about 20%. Other groups include the
Ninety six percent of the population professes the Catholic faith, with the rest divided among Protestant and Evangelical groups. The municipality is home to three institutions of higher education, Instituto Tecnologico SSC, a campus of the Universidad de León, and Universidad Tecnologica de San Miguel de Allende. The city also has bilingual schools with accordance to the American educational system. As of 2000, 17.5% of the population is considered to be illiterate, compared to 12.1% for the rest of the state.
Parish church of San Miguel
The oldest part of the town is the El Chorro neighborhood. This is where the village of San Miguel was moved to in 1555. The Nahuatl name for the area was Izcuinapan or “place of dogs,” and according to legend, dogs led Juan de San Miguel to this area to find this spring. This area is the home of the Parish of San Miguel, the Jardin Principal or Main Garden and an earlier church called the San Rafael or Santa Escuela Church.
LA PARROQUIA DE SAN MIGUEL ARCáNGEL, the current parish church of
San Miguel, is unique in
At the entrance of the main church, there is an inscription that
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
In front of the church complex is the
The CENTRO CULTURAL IGNACIO RAMIREZ, also called the Escuela de Bellas Artes or El Nigromante, is housed in the former Hermanas de la Concepción (Sisters of the Conception) convent. The Concepcion convent and adjoining church were founded by a member of the De la Canal family, María Josefina Lina de la Canal y Hervás in 1775. In the latter 19th century, the convent was closed by the Reform Laws and it remained empty from then until the mid 20th century. The Escuela de Bellas Artes, was established in 1938 by Peruvian Felipe Cossío del Pomar and American Stirling Dickinson. This and other art institutions began to attract American exchange students who came to study and live. The cultural center today is part of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA) and is often referred to by locals as "Bellas Artes." It is a two story cloister surrounded an extremely large courtyard with large streets with a large fountain in the middle. It houses art exhibits, classrooms for drawing, painting, sculpture, lithography , textiles, ceramics dramatic arts, ballet, regional dance, piano and guitar.
One hall of the old convent is dedicated to a mural by David Alfaro
Siqueiros along with students from the art school, but it was never
finished. The complex has a museum, an auditorium, two art galleries
and the Las Musas restaurant, which serves both inside and outside in
the courtyard area. Next to the cultural center is the INMACULADA
CONCEPCION CHURCH, locally known as Las Monjas (The Nuns). It was
originally constructed as part of the convent. The church was
constructed between 1755 and 1842 with an elegant cupola added by
Zeferino Gutierrez in 1891, inspired by the
The CASA DE ALLENDE (ALLENDE HOUSE) MUSEUM was the home of Ignacio Allende, who was a principal protagonist in the early part of the Mexican War of Independence. The structure was built in 1759 with Baroque and Neoclassical elements, located next to the San Miguel parish church. The museum it houses is officially called the Museo Histórico de San Miguel de Allende, and it is one of many “regional museums” of Mexico. This kind of museum focuses on the history of the local area from the prehistoric period to the present, especially the area’s role in Mexico’s national history. The lower floor contains exhibits about the founding of the town, its role in protecting the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Road and more. The upper floor contains exhibits related to Ignacio Allende and some of the rooms are preserved as they looked when he lived there. There are 24 rooms that chronicle the history of the area from the foundation of the town to the Ruta de la Plata (Silver Route), the genealogy of Ignacio Allende and the Mexican War of Independence. It remodeled as part of the preparations for Mexico's Bicentennial. The restored museum was re-inaugurated by President Felipe Calderon in 2009.
The CASA DEL MAYORAZGO DE LA CANAL dates from the 18th century,
constructed by Mariano Loreto de la Canal y Landeta. During the late
colonial period, this house was the most important secular building,
being home to the De la Canal family, one of the richest in New Spain
. The original construction was inspired by French and Italian
palaces of between the 16th and 18th centuries. The house is
considered to be a transitional work between Baroque and Neoclassical,
as its façade was redesigned by
On the north side of the Jardin Principal is the MUNICIPAL PALACE. It was first constructed in 1736 and called the Casa Consistorial. However, this building was heavily damaged several times since then and little of the original structure remains. The current building has two floors. It is home to what is considered to be the first “independent” or modern municipal government formed after the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. This reestablishment of the city government under Liberal principles was done by Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and Ignacio Aldama on 17 September 1810. Main portal of the Nuestra Señora de la Salud Church
The ORATORIO DE SAN FELIPE NERI CHURCH was built by Juan Antonio
Perez Espinosa in 1712. This church was partially built by
incorporating a former chapel used by the mulatto population of the
town. That church became the chapel on the east side. The façade is
of pink sandstone in Baroque style with profuse vegetative
ornamentation. The decorative work of the portal also contains
indigenous influences. The interior of the church has a number of
The NUESTRA SEñORA DE LA SALUD CHURCH was built by Luis Felipe Neri
in the 18th century. The main portal is in
Very close to the Nuestra Señora de la Salud and Oratorios de San
Felipe Neri churches is the PLAZA CIVICA OR CIVIC PLAZA. This plaza
was originally constructed in 1555 and was supposed to be the original
center of the town. It is next to the
The SAN FRANCISCO CHURCH was begun in 1778 and was finished more than
twenty years later, when architectural styles were changing. The
façade is pure
The BIBLIOTECA PúBLICA OR PUBLIC LIBRARY serves as the community
center for San Miguel's large foreigner population. This library was
established by Helen Wale, a Canadian, who wanted to reach out to
local children. It is the largest privately funded, publicly
accessible library in
To the far south of the historic center is PARQUE JUáREZ OR JUAREZ PARK. This park was established at the beginning of the 20th century on the banks of a river in French style with fountains, decorative pools, wrought iron benches, old bridges and footpaths. There is an area for children with playground and basketball. The garden area is filled with plants and trees of the region, chirimoyos , various berries and walnuts. The water areas host a large number of herons . After dark on many days, it is possible to catch a impromptu concert by local amateur musicians. Nearby there is a small commercial center on Zacateros Street where typical of the area such as objects made of brass and glass can be found. Near here there is a fountain dedicated to Ignacio Allende. Entrance to the Mercado de Artesanias
Another important market is the MERCADO DE ARTESANIAS, which sells a wide variety of items such as those made from wool, brass, paper mache and blown glass. There are also piñatas, tin lanterns, silver jewelry and more. One figure that features prominently on merchandise is that of a frog, as the state's name of Guanajuato means "place of frogs". The market is located in a narrow alley filling three blocks behind the city's main fruit and vegetable market. The merchandise here is more authentic and cheaper than that found around the main square.
The Institute Allende is located in an enormous complex, which the De la Canal family built as a retreat and hacienda . The old house is filled with various courtyards, a private chapel with colonial era frescos, modern art gallery and restaurant. In 1951, it was converted into an art institute which offers courses in silverwork, ceramic and Spanish, attracting hundreds of students each year.
Other important churches in the town include the Santo Domingo church, the Santa Cruz del Chorro Chapel, Tercera Orden Church and the San Juan de Dios Church. The Santo Domingo church was part of a monastery complex. The church has a sober façade and dates from 1737. The Santa Cruz del Chorro Chapel is one of the oldest religious buildings. The Tercera Orden Church dates from the beginning of the 17th century. The San Juan de Dios Church and San Rafael Hospital are attributed to Juan Manuel de Villegas in 1770. The complex has a main portal in sandstone with two portals. The first has an access arch and a door made of mesquite wood, with reliefs of geometric shapes, fish and more, along with a hand with pomegranate in sandstone. These symbolize the Archangel Raphael and John of God .
The CASA DE INQUISIDOR (Inquisitor’s House) is located between Hernandez Macias and Hospicio streets. It was built in 1780 with an elaborate French façade and was the seat of the inquisition in the late 18th century.
The ANGELA PERALTA THEATER was originally designed to host opera. It
was inaugurated in 1873 with a performance by the most famous soprano
Other cultural venues include the Otra Cara de Mexico, the bullring,
the old train station, the casa de Marqués de Jaral de Berrio, the
Casa de los Condes de Loja and the Museo de la Esquina and Museo
Interactiveo Fragua de la Independencia. La Otra Cara de
Entrance to a crafts store in the historic center of the town
Stirling Dickinson is without doubt the person most responsible for
San Miguel de Allende
Due to its growth as a tourist destination, some of the most obvious culture seen on the streets of the town relates to visitors, both foreign and Mexican. To cater to these visitors, the town contains organic cafes, boutiques, art galleries, upscale restaurants and hotels, and a wide variety of bars and nightclubs. Bars and nightclubs range from DJs or loud bands catering to young people, to jazz clubs, sports bars and even those that specialize in traditional Mexican music such as mariachi. Some were founded by foreigners and reflect that ownership, for example the Berlin Bar it has a lot of open space along with a café and restaurant. San Miguel has several schools for learning Spanish, most catering to foreign visitors. These include the Instituto Allende (with credits transferable to U.S. or Canadian colleges), Language Point and Warren Hardy Spanish. Some universities such as the University of Texas-Pan American offer study abroad programs in the city, not only in Spanish but also in arts and literature, and creative writing.
Youths with bulls at the Sanmiguelada Fiesta de San Miguel Arcángel.
Many of the festivals here are purely Mexican, combining social activity with religious expression. Throughout the year there are pilgrimages, all-night vigils, ringing church bells, processions and fireworks. The largest celebration of the year is that of the town's patron saint, the Archangel Michael. The angel's feast day is 29 September, but festivities take place for an entire week. Activities include private parties, sporting events, cultural events, indigenous dance and more. The week is popularly called the Fiestas de San Miguel de Allende. An event, now discontinued for safety concerns, was the "Sanmiguelada", a running of the bulls event similar to that in Pamplona. Youths fill the streets showing off their "matador" talents in front of the bulls. The finale is a parade through the street in honor of Michael and a fireworks "castle" competition to see who can build the most elaborate frame from which fireworks are lit.
There are also secular, cultural festivals during the year. The
annual Festival de Música de Cámara or Chamber Music Festival occurs
each year in August in the city's historic center. One of the purposes
of the event is to bring this type of music to streets and other
public venues as well as traditional concert halls such as the event's
home of the
SMART is a multi-media cultural festival, held annually in May, that combines exhibits by Mexican artists with a variety of culinary and social events at local hotels, including the festival founder Hotel Matilda, Dos Casas Hotel and L’Otel.
ARTS AND LITERATURE
View of the room containing the unfinished Siqueiros mural
San Miguel de Allende
TOURISM AND COMMERCE
Much of the municipality's economy is now tied to the influx of
tourists and foreigners who come to live, mostly retirees. A
Hotel occupancy typically reaches 80% on weekends with about 50%
occupancy on weekdays, when rates can be about half. Most visitors are
vacationers and about 60% are domestic visitors, interested in the
town's history and role in the Mexican War of Independence. Another
attraction for visitors are the two main art/cultural institutions of
Instituto Allende and Bellas Artes as well as a number of Spanish
language schools. Most domestic visitors come from Mexico's large
urban centers like
Vineyards and vendimia celebration near San Miguel de Allende.
Outside of the town of San Miguel, the economy is more traditional. A bit over half of the land is used for grazing with 37% used for crops. Over 80% of the crops are grown during the rainy season with less than 20% grown on irrigated lands. Forestry is minimal. Agriculture produces 25% of the employment in the municipality. Principal crops include corn, beans, wheat, and alfalfa , which account for 84% of harvests. Another important agricultural activity is fruit orchards. The most important livestock is domestic fowl, especially poultry. The municipality raises over 12% of the state's chickens. Another important product is honey, of which the municipality provides 7.5% of the state’s total. Since the 1990s, there have been active reforestation efforts to replace much of what was lost previously to logging.
Industry is not as well developed here as in other parts of the state although it provides about 33% of the jobs. One important industry is the production of electrical energy. Other industries include metal products, food processing, wood products and mineral processing. The area is known for the crafting of objects from brass and glass. Two notable artisans here are the brothers Marcelino and Abeck Leon Rosa, who produce handmade glass items. They began producing pieces in the courtyard of their home, but today they have a studio with two large workshops and operate a school for glassmakers, which trains about 50 people per year. One of their specialties is Tiffany-style lamps.
A more recent development is the use of the town as a backdrop for
the production of films and television programs. Both Mexican and
foreign productions have been shot here, many of which feature
gunfights by mustached protagonists. Projects that have been filmed
here include Once Upon a Time in
Former Mayor of San Miguel de Allende, Luz María Núñez Flores (Spring 2012)
As the municipal seat, the town of
San Miguel de Allende
GEOGRAPHY, ECOLOGY AND CLIMATE
The municipality is located in the far eastern side of the state of
Guanajuato. It has an average altitude of 1,870 meters above sea
level. It borders the municipalities of
San Luis de la Paz
The main river in the area is the Laja, which crosses from north to south before finally emptying in the Lerma River in the municipality of Salamanca. The river currently has serious pollution issues because it is used for discharge of wastewater without prior treatment. Most of this discharge is from the residential areas of San Miguel and Dolores Hidalgo. In addition to the river, there are four principal arroyos that pass by the municipal seal, the La Cañadita, El Atascadero, Las Cachinches and El Obraje. The last receives most of the area’s runoff during the rainy season which feeds the Las Colonias and El Obraje dams. The most important dam in the area is the Ignacio Allende dam, located in the west of the municipality. While this dam controls flooding along the Laja River, local residents say that the water collected in its reservoir goes to the area around Guadalajara, far to the west of San Miguel, due to the provisions of the federal act creating the dam and reservoir. Other dams in the area include La Cantera and Bordo Grande located in the south and north of the municipality respectively along with the aforementioned Las Colonias and El Obraje, which are mostly used for irrigation. The municipality also has fresh water, thermal and alkaline springs, many of which are used as ecotourist attractions such as the El Chorro, Montecillo, El Cortijo, Cieneguita, Atotonilco and Taboada spas. One other spa is the El Xoté, which has sulfur-laden waters. The climate in the area is mostly temperate and semi-arid, with average temperatures varying between 16 and 22 °C. Summers are moderately hot with a rainy season that generally producing sporadic thunderstorms. Winters are moderate. The temperature varies between 16 and 22 °C with cool winters. One exception to this is the extreme west of the municipality where the climate is wetter. Ecosystems include shrublands , forests of oak , and areas where nopal cactus and/or grass dominate.
SAN MIGUEL DE ALLENDE
CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )
J F M A M J J A S O N D
14 23 6 7.2 25 7 6 29 10 19 30 12 42 31 14 100 29 14 129 27 14 94 27 14 94 26 14 42 26 11 13 25 8 6.5 23 6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
J F M A M J J A S O N D
0.5 73 43 0.3 77 45 0.2 83 50 0.7 86 54 1.7 87 57 3.9 84 58 5.1 81 57 3.7 81 57 3.7 79 56 1.6 78 52 0.5 76 47 0.3 74 44
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
CLIMATE DATA FOR SAN MIGUEL DE ALLENDE (1951-2010)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 34.5 (94.1) 35.5 (95.9) 38.0 (100.4) 39.0 (102.2) 39.6 (103.3) 39.0 (102.2) 36.8 (98.2) 36.0 (96.8) 37.0 (98.6) 37.0 (98.6) 34.5 (94.1) 32.5 (90.5) 39.6 (103.3)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 25.2 (77.4) 28.5 (83.3) 30.2 (86.4) 30.7 (87.3) 29.1 (84.4) 27.2 (81) 27.2 (81) 26.3 (79.3) 25.5 (77.9) 24.6 (76.3) 23.2 (73.8) 26.7 (80.1)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 14.5 (58.1) 16.2 (61.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.3 (70.3) 22.2 (72) 21.7 (71.1) 20.5 (68.9) 20.5 (68.9) 19.9 (67.8) 18.3 (64.9) 16.5 (61.7) 14.8 (58.6) 18.8 (65.8)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 7.3 (45.1) 10.0 (50) 12.4 (54.3) 13.8 (56.8) 14.4 (57.9) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 13.5 (56.3) 11.1 (52) 8.4 (47.1) 6.4 (43.5) 10.9 (51.6)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −3.0 (26.6) −8.0 (17.6) −1.0 (30.2) 1.5 (34.7) 6.0 (42.8) 8.0 (46.4) 6.5 (43.7) 7.0 (44.6) 4.0 (39.2) −2.0 (28.4) −6.0 (21.2) −5.0 (23) −8.0 (17.6)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 13.7 (0.539) 7.2 (0.283) 6.0 (0.236) 18.9 (0.744) 42.2 (1.661) 100.1 (3.941) 128.7 (5.067) 94.4 (3.717) 94.2 (3.709) 41.5 (1.634) 12.7 (0.5) 6.5 (0.256) 566.1 (22.287)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 2.1 1.1 0.9 2.6 5.2 9.4 11.8 8.3 8.6 4.5 1.8 1.7 58.0
Source: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional
LANDMARKS IN THE MUNICIPALITY
View of part of the ceiling inside the Sanctuary of Atotonilco
With only 597 people as of 2005 , Atotonilco (formally Sanctuary of Atotonilco ) is not the largest community in the municipality, but it is the best known due to its religious sanctuary, which has World Heritage Site status along with the historic center of San Miguel. The sanctuary is located fourteen km outside of the main town and dates from the 18th century. The church building itself has plain, very high walls on the outside, and consists of one large church, with several smaller chapels. It is officially called the "Santuario de Dios y de la Patria" (Sanctuary of God and Country), but it is better known as the Sanctuary of Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco. It is the church from which Miguel Hidalgo took the Virgin of Guadalupe standard for his army.
The Atotonilco sanctuary has plain high fortress-like walls.
However, the inside is completely covered in murals with a large
number of personages and scenes from the Bible without much overall
structure in how these images were placed. All of the wall and ceiling
space is completely covered with little empty space. This mural work
was done by Miguel Antonio Martínez de Pocasangre over thirty years.
The style of the painting imitates
EL CHARCO DEL INGENIO
Wetland at the Presa Las Colonias, El Charco del Ingenio botanical garden
El Charco del Ingenio is located outside of the town is an ecological reserve and botanical garden which is privately funded. It is dedicated to the restoration and preservation of Mexican flora and propagates species in danger of extinction. The reserve is centered on a canyon, at the bottom of which is a fresh spring which forms a natural pool. The canyon was the center of a number of myths and legends during the pre-Hispanic period. There are the remains of a colonial era aqueduct and other waterworks on the property. An old dam still holds back stream waters in a part of the park. Areas of the reserve are crisscrossed with walking paths. There are opportunities for mountain biking, rock climbing, bird watching, camping and horseback riding. There is a gift shop, a juice bar and a cafeteria.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
San Miguel de Allende
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD
AE AF AG AH AI "Estado de
Guanajuato - Allende" . Enciclopedia de los
Municipios de México (in Spanish). Mexico: Instituto Nacional para el
Federalismo y el Desarrollo Municipal. 2005. Retrieved October 20,
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Maruja Gonz. "San Miguel de Allende,
paradigma del encanto provinciano (Guanajuato)" (in Spanish). Mexico