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SAN MARINO (/sæn məˈriːnoʊ/ ( listen ); Italian: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO (Italian : Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the MOST SERENE REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINO (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy
Italy
, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains . Its size is just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562. Its capital is the City of San Marino
San Marino
and its largest city is Serravalle . San Marino
San Marino
has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe
Europe
.

The country takes its name from Marinus , a stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rab
Rab
, in modern-day Croatia
Croatia
. In 257 CE Marinus participated in the reconstruction of Rimini
Rimini
's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates . Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community on Monte Titano in 301 CE; thus, San Marino
San Marino
lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic .

San Marino
San Marino
is governed by the Constitution of San Marino (Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini), a series of six books written in Latin in the late 16th century, that dictate the country’s political system, among other matters. The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents, or constitution, still in effect.

The country's economy mainly relies on finance, industry, services and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP (per capita) , with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino
San Marino
is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus. It is the only country with more vehicles than people . Under a diplomatic point of view, following the leadership of Italy
Italy
it is one of the core members of the Uniting for Consensus
Uniting for Consensus
group .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate
Climate

* 3 Government

* 3.1 Administrative divisions

* 3.1.1 Municipalities
Municipalities
* 3.1.2 Curacies

* 3.2 Military

* 3.2.1 Crossbow
Crossbow
Corps * 3.2.2 Guard of the Rock * 3.2.3 Guard of the Grand and General Council * 3.2.4 Company of Uniformed Militia * 3.2.5 Military Ensemble * 3.2.6 Gendarmerie

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Taxation * 4.2 Tourism
Tourism
* 4.3 Conventions with Italy
Italy

* 5 Population

* 5.1 Demographics * 5.2 Religion

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 Public transport * 6.2 Railway

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 University * 7.2 Sport * 7.3 Cuisine * 7.4 UNESCO * 7.5 Music * 7.6 Public holidays and festivals

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of San Marino Illustration of Saint Marinus , the founder of the Republic
Republic
of San Marino, and prominent cultural figure

Saint Marinus left the island of Arba in present-day Croatia
Croatia
with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini
Rimini
as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano , where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, which is sometimes still called the "Titanic Republic". The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic
Republic
is 3 September 301.

In 1631, its independence was recognized by the Papacy
Papacy
.

The advance of Napoleon
Napoleon
's army in 1797 presented a brief threat to the independence of San Marino, but the country was saved from losing its liberty thanks to one of its Regents, Antonio Onofri, who managed to gain the respect and friendship of Napoleon. Thanks to his intervention, Napoleon, in a letter delivered to Gaspard Monge , scientist and commissary of the French Government for Science and Art, promised to guarantee and protect the independence of the Republic, even offering to extend its territory according to its needs. The offer was declined by the Regents, fearing future retaliation from other states' revanchism . The San Marino
San Marino
constitution of 1600

During the later phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino
San Marino
served as a refuge for many people persecuted because of their support for unification. In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
accepted the wish of San Marino
San Marino
not to be incorporated into the new Italian state.

The government of San Marino
San Marino
made United States
United States
President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."

During World War I
World War I
, when Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915, San Marino
San Marino
remained neutral and Italy
Italy
adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino
San Marino
could harbor Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station. Italy
Italy
tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic and then cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian front , the first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red Cross field hospital. The existence of this hospital later caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino.

From 1923 to 1943, San Marino
San Marino
was under the rule of the Sammarinese Fascist Party (PFS). British troops at Monte Titano during the battle of San Marino, September 1944.

During World War II
World War II
, San Marino
San Marino
remained neutral, although it was wrongly reported in an article from The New York Times
The New York Times
that it had declared war on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 17 September 1940. The Sammarinese government later transmitted a message to the British government stating that they had not declared war on the United Kingdom.

Three days after the fall of Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
in Italy, PFS rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality in the conflict. The Fascists regained power on 1 April 1944 but kept neutrality intact. Despite that, on 26 June 1944 San Marino
San Marino
was bombed by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
, in the belief that San Marino
San Marino
had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition. The Sammarinese government declared on the same day that no military installations or equipment were located on its territory, and that no belligerent forces had been allowed to enter. San Marino
San Marino
accepted thousands of civilian refugees when Allied forces went over the Gothic Line . In September 1944, it was briefly occupied by German forces, who were defeated by Allied forces in the Battle of San Marino .

San Marino
San Marino
had the world's first democratically elected communist government – a coalition between the Sammarinese Communist Party and the Sammarinese Socialist Party , which held office between 1945 and 1957.

San Marino
San Marino
is the world's smallest republic , although when Nauru gained independence in 1968 it challenged that claim, Nauru's land mass being only 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi). However Nauru's jurisdiction over its surrounding waters covers 431,000 km2 (166,000 sq mi), an area thousands of times greater than the territory of San Marino.

San Marino
San Marino
became a member of the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1988 and of the United Nations
United Nations
in 1992. It is neither a member of the European Union , nor of the Eurozone
Eurozone
although it uses the euro as its currency.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of San Marino The fortress of Guaita
Guaita
on Mount Titano .

San Marino
San Marino
is an enclave in Italy
Italy
, on the border between the regioni of Emilia Romagna
Emilia Romagna
and Marche
Marche
and about 10 km (6.21 mi) from the Adriatic coast
Adriatic coast
at Rimini. Its hilly topography, with no flat ground, is part of the Apennine mountain range. The highest point in the country, the summit of Monte Titano , is 749 m (2,457 ft ) above sea level . There are no bodies of water of any significant size. San Marino is the third smallest country in Europe
Europe
, with only Vatican City and Monaco
Monaco
being smaller. It is also the fifth smallest country in the world.

CLIMATE

The climate is Mediterranean with continental influences, having warm summers and cool winters that are typical of inland areas of the central Italian peninsula.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SAN MARINO

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7 (45) 9 (48) 14 (57) 17 (63) 23 (73) 28 (82) 30 (86) 30 (86) 25 (77) 20 (68) 13 (55) 8 (46) 18.7 (65.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 4 (39) 5.5 (41.9) 10 (50) 13 (55) 18.5 (65.3) 23 (73) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20.5 (68.9) 16 (61) 10 (50) 5.5 (41.9) 14.67 (58.33)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1 (34) 2 (36) 6 (43) 9 (48) 14 (57) 18 (64) 20 (68) 20 (68) 16 (61) 12 (54) 7 (45) 3 (37) 10.7 (51.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 34.0 (1.339) 37.6 (1.48) 34.2 (1.346) 51.5 (2.028) 41.6 (1.638) 36.0 (1.417) 34.5 (1.358) 49.2 (1.937) 85.6 (3.37) 69.8 (2.748) 59.2 (2.331) 75.4 (2.969) 608.6 (23.961)

Source: World Weather Online

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Politics of San Marino See also: Foreign relations of San Marino
San Marino
, Constitution of San Marino , Capital punishment in San Marino , San Marino passport , Law enforcement in San Marino , and Elections in San Marino Palazzo Pubblico is the seat of the government of San Marino. Four former Captains Regent: from left to right, Mirko Tomassoni , Alessandro Rossi , Alessandro Mancini , and Alberto Selva .

San Marino
San Marino
has the political framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic : the Captains Regent are both heads of state and heads of government , and there is a pluriform multi-party system . Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council . The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

San Marino
San Marino
was originally led by the Arengo , initially formed from the heads of each family. In the 13th century, power was given to the Grand and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council. As of 2016 , this method of nomination is still in use.

The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio grande e generale). The Council is a unicameral legislature with 60 members. There are elections every five years by proportional representation in all nine administrative districts. These districts (townships) correspond to the old parishes of the republic.

Citizens 18 years or older are eligible to vote. Beside general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent, the State Congress (composed of ten Secretaries with executive power), the Council of Twelve (which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council), the Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The council also has the power to ratify treaties with other countries. The council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of fifteen councillors who examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the floor of the council.

Every six months, the council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so that there is a balance of power. They serve a six-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have three days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

The practice of having two heads of state, like Roman consuls, chosen in frequent elections, is derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic
Republic
. The Council is equivalent to the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
; the Captains Regent, to the consuls of ancient Rome
Rome
. It is thought the inhabitants of the area came together as Roman rule collapsed to from a rudimentary government for their own protection from foreign rule.

San Marino
San Marino
is a multi-party democratic republic. A new election law in 2008 raised the threshold for small parties entering Parliament, causing political parties to organise themselves into two alliances: the right-wing Pact for San Marino , led by the San Marinese Christian Democratic Party ; and the left-wing Reforms and Freedom , led by the Party of Socialists and Democrats , a merger of the Socialist Party of San Marino
San Marino
and the former communist Party of Democrats . The 2008 general election was won by the Pact for San Marino with 35 seats in the Grand and General Council against Reforms and Freedom's 25.

On 1 October 2007, Mirko Tomassoni was elected as one of the heads of state, making him the first disabled person ever to have been elected as captain regent .

San Marino
San Marino
has had more female heads of state than any other country: 15 as of October 2014, including three who served twice.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Municipalities

Administrative divisions of San Marino
San Marino

San Marino
San Marino
is divided into the following nine municipalities , known locally as castelli (meaning "castles"):

* San Marino
San Marino
(City of San Marino, officially Città di San Marino) is the capital.

There are also eight minor municipalities:

* Acquaviva * Borgo Maggiore * Chiesanuova * Domagnano * Faetano * Fiorentino
Fiorentino
* Montegiardino * Serravalle

The largest settlement of the Republic
Republic
is Dogana
Dogana
, which is not an autonomous castello, but rather belongs to the Castello of Serravalle .

In a similar way to an Italian comune , each castello includes a main settlement, called capoluogo, which is the seat of the castello, and some even smaller localities known as frazioni .

Curacies

The republic is made up of 43 parishes named curacies (It: curazie): Cà Berlone , Cà Chiavello, Cà Giannino, Cà Melone, Cà Ragni, Cà Rigo, Cailungo , Caladino, Calligaria, Canepa , Capanne, Casole , Castellaro, Cerbaiola , Cinque Vie, Confine , Corianino , Crociale , Dogana
Dogana
, Falciano , Fiorina , Galavotto, Gualdicciolo , La Serra, Lesignano, Molarini, Montalbo, Monte Pulito , Murata , Pianacci, Piandivello, Poggio Casalino , Poggio Chiesanuova , Ponte Mellini, Rovereta , San Giovanni sotto le Penne , Santa Mustiola , Spaccio Giannoni, Teglio, Torraccia , Valdragone , Valgiurata and Ventoso .

MILITARY

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Main article: Military of San Marino

San Marino
San Marino
has one of the smallest military forces in the world. National defence is, by arrangement, the responsibility of Italy\'s armed forces . Different branches have varied functions, including: performing ceremonial duties; patrolling borders; mounting guard at government buildings; and assisting police in major criminal cases. The police are not included in the Military of San Marino.

Crossbow
Crossbow
Corps

Once at the heart of San Marino's army, the Crossbow
Crossbow
Corps is now a ceremonial force of approximately eighty volunteers. Since 1295, the Crossbow
Crossbow
Corps has provided demonstrations of crossbow shooting at festivals. Its uniform is medieval in design. While still a statutory military unit, the Crossbow
Crossbow
Corps has no military function today.

Guard Of The Rock

Guards of the Rock .

The Guard of the Rock is a front-line military unit in the San Marino armed forces, a state border patrol, with responsibility for patrolling borders and defending them. In their role as Fortress Guards they are responsible for guarding the Palazzo Pubblico in San Marino City , the seat of national Government.

In this role they are the forces most visible to tourists, and are known for their colourful ceremony of Changing the Guard . Under the 1987 statute the Guard of the Rock are all enrolled as 'Criminal Police Officers' (in addition to their military role) and assist the police in investigating major crime. The uniform of the Guard of the Rock is a distinctive red and green.

Guard Of The Grand And General Council

The Guard of the Grand and General Council commonly known as The Guard of the Council or locally as the 'Guard of Nobles', formed in 1740, is a volunteer unit with ceremonial duties. Due to its striking blue, white, and gold uniform, it is perhaps the best-known part of the Sammarinese military, and appears on countless postcard views of the republic. The functions of the Guard of the Council are to protect the Captains Regents , and to defend the Grand and General Council during its formal sessions. They also act as ceremonial bodyguards to government officials at both state and church festivals.

Company Of Uniformed Militia

In former times, all families with two or more adult male members were required to enroll half of them in the Company of Uniformed Militia. This unit remains the basic fighting force of the armed forces of San Marino, but is largely ceremonial. It is a matter of civic pride for many Sammarinese to belong to the force, and all citizens with at least six years residence in the republic are entitled to enroll.

The uniform is dark blue, with a kepi bearing a blue and white plume. The ceremonial form of the uniform includes a white cross-strap, and white and blue sash, white epaulets, and white decorated cuffs.

Military Ensemble

Formally this is part of the Army Militia, and is the ceremonial military band of San Marino. It consists of approximately fifty musicians. The uniform is similar to that of the Army Militia. Military Ensemble music accompanies most state occasions in the republic.

Gendarmerie

Established in 1842, the Gendarmerie of San Marino
San Marino
is a militarised law enforcement agency. Its members are full-time and have responsibility for the protection of citizens and property, and the preservation of law and order.

The entire military corps of San Marino
San Marino
depends upon the co-operation of full-time forces and their retained (volunteer) colleagues, known as the Corpi Militari Volontari, or Voluntary Military Force.

ECONOMY

Main articles: Economy of San Marino , Sammarinese euro coins , and List of banks in San Marino Tourism, together with banking, is the country's main source of revenue.

Although San Marino
San Marino
is not a European Union
European Union
member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by arrangement with the Council of the European Union
European Union
; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins . Before the euro, the Sammarinese lira was pegged to, and exchangeable with, the Italian lira . The small number of Sammarinese euro coins , as was the case with the lira before it, are primarily of interest to coin collectors .

San Marino's per capita GDP of US$55,449 and standard of living are comparable to that of Denmark
Denmark
. Key industries include banking , electronics , and ceramics . The main agricultural products are wine and cheese . San Marino
San Marino
imports mainly staple goods from Italy.

San Marino's postage stamps , which are valid for mail posted in the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and are an important source of income. San Marino
San Marino
is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation .

TAXATION

The corporate profits tax rate in San Marino
San Marino
is 19 percent. Capital gains are subject to a five percent tax; interest is subject to a 13 percent withholding tax .

In 1972, a value-added tax (VAT) system was introduced in Italy, and was applied in San Marino, in accordance with the 1939 friendship treaty. In addition, a tax on imported goods, to be levied by San Marino, was established. Such taxes, however, were not, and are not, applied to national products. Until 1996, goods manufactured and sold in San Marino
San Marino
were not subject to indirect taxation.

Under the European Union
European Union
customs agreement , San Marino
San Marino
continues to levy taxes, the equivalent of an import duty, on imported goods. Also, a general VAT was introduced, in replacement of the Italian VAT.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in San Marino

The tourist sector contributes over 2.2% of San Marino's GDP , with approximately 2 million tourists having visited in 2014.

CONVENTIONS WITH ITALY

San Marino
San Marino
and Italy
Italy
have engaged in conventions since 1862, dictating some economic activities in San Marino's territory. Cultivation of tobacco and production of goods, which are subject to Italy's government monopoly , are forbidden in San Marino. Direct import is forbidden: all goods coming from a third party have to travel through Italy
Italy
before reaching the country. Although it is allowed to print its own postal stamps, San Marino
San Marino
is not allowed to coin its own currency and is obliged to use Italy\'s mint . Gambling is legal and regulated; however, casinos were outlawed prior to 2007. There is currently one legally operating casino.

In exchange for these limitations, Italy
Italy
provides San Marino
San Marino
with an annual stipend, and at cost, sea salt (not more than 250 tons per year), tobacco (40 tons), cigarettes (20 tons) and matches (unlimited amount).

At the border there are no formalities with Italy. However, at the tourist office visitors can purchase officially cancelled souvenir stamps for their passports .

POPULATION

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of San Marino

San Marino
San Marino
has a population of approximately 33,000, with 4,800 foreign residents, most of whom are Italian citizens. Another 12,000 Sammarinese live abroad (5,700 in Italy, 3,000 in the USA, 1,900 in France
France
and 1,600 in Argentina
Argentina
).

The first census since 1976 was held in 2010. Results were expected by the end of 2011. However, 13% of families did not return their forms.

The primary language spoken is Italian ; Romagnol is also widely spoken.

Citizens of San Marino
San Marino
enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in the world.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in San Marino San Marino Cathedral

San Marino
San Marino
is a predominantly Catholic state — over 97% of the population profess the Roman Catholic faith, but it is not the established religion . Approximately half of those who profess to be Catholic practice the faith. There is no episcopal see in San Marino, although its name is part of the present diocesan title. Historically, the various parishes in San Marino
San Marino
were divided between two Italian dioceses , mostly in the Diocese
Diocese
of Montefeltro
Montefeltro
, and partly in the Diocese
Diocese
of Rimini
Rimini
. In 1977, the border between Montefeltro
Montefeltro
and Rimini was readjusted so that all of San Marino
San Marino
fell within the diocese of Montefeltro. The bishop of Montefeltro- San Marino
San Marino
resides in Pennabilli , in Italy's province of Pesaro e Urbino .

However, there is a provision under the income tax rules that the taxpayers have the right to request for allocation of 0.3% of their income tax to the Catholic Church or to "other" charities. The churches include the two religious groups of the Waldensian Church and Jehovah\'s Witnesses .

The Roman Catholic Diocese
Diocese
of San Marino- Montefeltro
Montefeltro
was until 1977 the historic diocese of Montefeltro. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia . The current diocese includes all the parishes of San Marino. The earliest mention of Montefeltro
Montefeltro
, as Mona Feretri, is in the diplomas by which Charlemagne
Charlemagne
confirmed the donation of Pepin . The first known bishop of Montefeltro
Montefeltro
was Agatho (826), whose residence was at San Leo . Under Bishop Flaminios Dondi (1724) the see was again transferred to San Leo, but later it returned to Pennabilli. The historic diocese was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Urbino . Since 1988, there is formally a apostolic nunciature to the republic, but it's vested in the nuncio to Italy.

There has been a Jewish presence in San Marino
San Marino
for at least 600 years. The first mention of Jews in San Marino
San Marino
dates to the late 14th century, in official documents recording the business transactions of Jews. There are many documents throughout the 15th to 17th centuries describing Jewish dealings and verifying the presence of a Jewish community in San Marino. Jews were permitted official protection by the government.

During World War II
World War II
, San Marino
San Marino
provided a haven for more than 100,000 Italians and Jews (approximately ten times the Sammarinese population at the time) from Nazi persecution. Today, only a few Jews remain.

Religions in San Marino
San Marino
(2011) RELIGION %

Roman Catholic 97.2%

Protestant 1.1%

Other Christian 0.7%

Jewish 0.1%

Other 0.1%

Not religious 0.7%

No answer 0.1%

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in San Marino

There are 220 km (140 mi) of roads in the country, the main road being the San Marino Highway . Authorities license private vehicles with distinctive Sammarinese license plates , which are white with blue figures and the coat of arms, usually a letter followed by up to four numbers. Many vehicles also carry the international vehicle identification code (in black on a white oval sticker), which is "RSM".

There are no public airports in San Marino, but there is a small private airstrip located in Torraccia and an international heliport located in Borgo Maggiore . Most tourists who arrive by air land at Federico Fellini International Airport close to the city of Rimini
Rimini
, then make the transfer by bus.

Two rivers flow through San Marino, but there is no major water transport, and no port or harbour.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

San Marino
San Marino
has limited public transport facilities. There is a regular bus service between Rimini
Rimini
and the city of San Marino
San Marino
that is popular with both tourists and workers commuting to San Marino
San Marino
from Italy. This service stops at approximately twenty locations in Rimini and within San Marino, with its two terminus stops at Rimini
Rimini
railway station and San Marino
San Marino
coach station.

A limited licensed taxi service operates nationwide. There are seven licensed taxi companies operating in the republic, and Italian taxis regularly operate within San Marino
San Marino
when carrying passengers picked up in Italian territory. Aerial tramway to Monte Titano

There is a 1.5 km (0.93 mi) aerial tramway connecting the City of San Marino on top of Monte Titano with Borgo Maggiore , a major town in the republic, with the second largest population of any Sammarinese settlement. From here a further connection is available to the nation's largest settlement, Dogana
Dogana
, via the local bus service.

Two aerial tramway cars (gondolas) operate, with service provided at roughly fifteen-minute intervals throughout the day. A third vehicle is available on the system, a service car for the use of engineers maintaining the tramway.

RAILWAY

Today, there is no railway in San Marino, but for a short period before World War II
World War II
, it had a single narrow-gauge line, connecting the country with the Italian rail network at Rimini. Because of the difficulties in accessing the capital, City of San Marino, with its mountain-top location, the terminus station was planned to be located in the village of Valdragone , but was extended to reach the capital through a steep and winding track comprising many tunnels. The railway was opened on 12 June 1932. An advanced system for its time, it was an electric railway, powered from overhead cables. It was well built and had a high frequency of passengers, but was almost completely destroyed during World War II. Many facilities such as bridges, tunnels, and stations remain visible today, and some have been converted to parks, public footpaths, or traffic routes.

CULTURE

Part of a series on the

CULTURE OF SAN MARINO

HISTORY

PEOPLE

LANGUAGES

CUISINE

FESTIVALS

RELIGION

Music and performing arts

* Music

Media

* Television

SPORT

Monuments

* World Heritage Sites

Symbols

* Flag * Coat of arms

* v * t * e

A painting in the Museo di Stato di San Marino
San Marino
by Pompeo Batoni .

The Three Towers of San Marino are located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital. They are depicted on both the Flag of San Marino and its coat of arms . The three towers are: Guaita
Guaita
, the oldest of the three (it was constructed in the 11th century); the thirteenth-century Cesta , located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits; and the fourteenth-century Montale , on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits, still privately owned.

UNIVERSITY

The Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino (University of the Republic
Republic
of San Marino
San Marino
) is the main university, which includes the Scuola Superiore di Studi Storici di San Marino (Advanced School of Historical Studies), a distinguished research and advanced international study center governed by an international Scientific Committee coordinated by professor Luciano Canfora. Other important institutes are the Istituto Musicale Sammarinese ( Sammarinese Musical Institute) and the Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino
San Marino
or Accademia Internazionale delle Scienze San Marino (International Academy of Sciences San Marino). The latter is known for adopting Esperanto as the language for teaching and for scientific publications; further, it makes wide use of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning).

Italian author Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
had attempted to create a "university without physical structures" in San Marino.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in San Marino See also: San Marino
San Marino
at the Olympics and Football in San Marino

In San Marino
San Marino
football is the most popular sport. Basketball
Basketball
and volleyball are also popular. The three sports have their own federations, the San Marino Football Federation , the San Marino Basketball
Basketball
Federation and the San Marino
San Marino
Volleyball
Volleyball
Federation .

Despite being the most popular sport, the San Marino
San Marino
national football team has had little success, being made up of part-timers, never qualifying for a major tournament, and recording only one win in its 10-year history, a 1–0 victory in 2004 against Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
. They have drawn 4 more, with their most notable result being a 1993 0–0 draw with the Turkish national football team . Despite being one of the worst international teams in the world, they used to hold the record for the fastest goal scored in international football (Since broken by Christian Benteke who scored in 8.1 seconds), with David Gualtieri scoring 8.3 seconds after the start of a match against the English national football team in 1993, which they went on to lose 7–1. 2005 San Marino Grand Prix held in Imola
Imola
, Italy.

A Formula One
Formula One
race, the San Marino Grand Prix , was named after the state, although it did not take place there. Instead, it was held at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in the Italian town of Imola
Imola
, about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of San Marino. This international event was removed from the calendar in 2007 .

The San Marino
San Marino
and Rimini\'s Coast motorcycle Grand Prix was reinstated in the schedule in 2007 and takes place at the Misano World Circuit , as does San Marino's round of the World Superbike Championship .

San Marino
San Marino
has a professional baseball team, T "> A piadina , a dish characteristic of the Italian region of Romagna and of its enclave of San Marino
San Marino

The cuisine of San Marino
San Marino
is extremely similar to Italian , especially that of the adjoining Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and Marche
Marche
regions, but it has a number of its own unique dishes and products. Its best known is probably the Torta Tre Monti ("Cake of the Three Mountains" or "Cake of the Three Towers"), a wafer layered cake covered in chocolate depicting the Three Towers of San Marino . The country also has a small wine industry.

UNESCO

The site San Marino: Historic Centre and Mount Titano became part of the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008. The decision was taken during the 32nd Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee composed of 21 Countries convened in Québec, Canada.

MUSIC

Main articles: Music of San Marino and San Marino
San Marino
in the Eurovision Song Contest

The country has a long and rich musical tradition, closely linked to that of Italy, but which is also highly independent in itself. In the 17th century, composers including the Sammarinese Francesco Maria Marini di Pesaro wrote some of the finest pieces of the era.

San Marino
San Marino
has taken part in the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
eight times, achieving its first final in 2014 with the third participation of Valentina Monetta and the song "Maybe ".

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

DATE NAME EXPLANATION

1 January New Year\'s Day Festival marking the beginning of the new year

6 January Epiphany Commemorates the visit of the three wise men or magi to the infant Jesus

5 February Feast of Saint Agatha Commemoration of Saint Agatha, patroness of the Republic, as well as liberation from foreign rule

Variable, the first Sunday after the full moon and the March equinox . Easter
Easter
Resurrection of Jesus
Jesus

Variable, the Monday after Easter
Easter
day Easter
Easter
Monday Monday after Easter
Easter
day

25 March Anniversary of the Arengo Anniversary of the Arengo and the Festa delle Milizie (Feast of the Militants)

1 May Labour Day Celebration of workers and employees

Variable, the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday Corpus Christi Commemoration of the body and blood of Jesus
Jesus
Christ

28 July Liberation from Fascism Commemoration of the fall of the Sammarinese Fascist Party

15 August Ferragosto (Assumption) Commemoration of the Virgin Mary's assumption into heaven

3 September The Feast of San Marino
San Marino
and the Republic National feast of San Marino, celebrating the origin of the Republic
Republic
in 301

1 November All Saints\' Day Feast dedicated to all saints

2 November Commemoration of all those who died at war Remembrance of all those who gave their lives for San Marino
San Marino
in war

8 December Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
Remembrance of the Virgin Mary's conception without original sin

24 December Christmas
Christmas
Eve Day before the commemoration of the birth of Jesus
Jesus

25 December Christmas
Christmas
Birth of Jesus
Jesus

26 December Saint Stephen\'s Day Commemoration of the death of Saint Stephen
Saint Stephen
, the first Christian martyr

31 December New Year\'s Eve Celebration which closes and marks the end of the year

SEE ALSO

* Europe
Europe
portal

* Associazione Guide Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi * City-state
City-state
* Index of San Marino-related articles * Lupin the Third Part 4 * Outline of San Marino * Telecommunications in San Marino

REFERENCES

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The World Factbook
. Central Intelligence Agency . * ^ A B C "San Marino". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2011. * ^ A B C D San Marino. Imf.org. * ^ Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index, United Nations ESCAP, February 2009 * ^ "San Marino" (PDF). UNECE Statistics Programme. UNECE . 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2010. * ^ "Informazioni sulla popolazione – Repubblica di San Marino, portale ufficiale". Sanmarino.sm. Retrieved 11 November 2016. * ^ "Europe\'s Micro-States: (04) San Marino". Deutsche Welle. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014. * ^ "The United States
United States
has "the longest surviving constitution."". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012. * ^ "‘UNITING FOR CONSENSUS’ GROUP OF STATES INTRODUCES TEXT ON SECURITY COUNCIL REFORM TO GENERAL ASSEMBLY - Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". Un.org. Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ Charles, comte de Bruc, The Republic
Republic
of San Marino
San Marino
(Cambridge: 1880). * ^ "From 1500 to beginning 1800, Napoleon
Napoleon
in San Marino". Sanmarinosite.com. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ Histoire abrégée des traités de paix entre les puissances de l' Europe
Europe
depuis la Paix de Westphalie, Christophe-Guillaume Koch, ed., Paris, 1817, vol. V, p. 19. * ^ "San Marino". United States
United States
Diplomatic History. U. S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 May 2011. * ^ Irving Wallace , The Book of Lists 3 * ^ " San Marino
San Marino
e la Prima Guerra Mondiale". Educazione.sm. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ "GALES SCATTER NAZI CHANNEL FLEETS; ITALIANS THRUST DEEPER INTO EGYPT (9/18/40)". 209.157.64.200. 18 September 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2013. * ^ Diplomatic papers, 1944 , p. 292 * ^ Diplomatic papers, 1944 , p. 291 * ^ "Guerre Mondiali e Fascismo nella storia di San Marino". Sanmarinosite.com. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ Manali Desai (27 November 2006). State Formation and Radical Democracy in India. Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-203-96774-4 . Retrieved 31 August 2013. * ^ Alan James Mayne (1 January 1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0 . Retrieved 31 August 2013. * ^ "Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: Nauru". Food and Agriculture
Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 27 May 2010.

* ^ Planet, Lonely. " San Marino
San Marino
– Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 18 November 2016. * ^ " San Marino
San Marino
weather averages". World Weather Online. Retrieved 15 June 2015. * ^ "San Marino, primo capo di Stato disabile "Via tutte le barriere architettoniche" – esteri". Repubblica.it. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ (in Italian) Regolamento Disciplina Campagna Elettorale at the Wayback Machine (archived 5 August 2009). elezioni.sm * ^ "Turismo: San Marino
San Marino
fa i conti con la recessione economica, l\'Italia guarda con fiducia al 2010" (in Italian). San Marino
San Marino
RTV. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2010. * ^ "Tourists flows" (PDF). statistica.sm. Statistical Office of San Marino. Retrieved 16 December 2015. * ^ "Convenzioni Bilaterali – Accordi bilaterali con l\'Italia" (in Italian). Segreteria di stato per gli affari esteri e politici. Retrieved 28 December 2012. * ^ "Convenzione di amicizia e buon vicinato 1939 (1980 transcript)" (PDF) (in Italian). 1980. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2012. * ^ World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. 2009. p. 856. ISBN 0-7614-7893-0 . * ^ " Diocese
Diocese
of San Marino-Montefeltro". Catholic-Hierarchy.org . David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ Knight, Kevin (2009). " Diocese
Diocese
of Montefeltro". newadvent.org. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ "San Marino". 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ "La". Publibook. * ^ Sheib, Ariel. "Virtual Jewish history tour: San Marino". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ Licensed taxi companies are listed on the Government tourism website at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 May 2010) * ^ Internacia Fervojisto (International Railways), 2005.6, p. 85. In Esperanto * ^ "Università degli Studi di San Marino". Unirsm.sm. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ "Istituto Musicale Sammarinese". Ims.sm. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ "Accademia Internazionale delle Scienze". Ais-sanmarino.org. Retrieved 24 October 2009. * ^ " Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
biography". Liquidsky.net. 16 January 1994. Retrieved 16 September 2013. * ^ "SAN MARINO VS. LIECHTENSTEIN 1 – 0". Soccerway. Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ " San Marino
San Marino
v Turkey". Scoreshelf. Retrieved 15 March 2017. * ^ " Christian Benteke nets fastest international goal in 8.1 seconds". Espnfc.com. Retrieved 16 March 2017. * ^ "2008 Mister- Baseball
Baseball
Final European Top 50 – fact, certain, about, 2008, European, baseball, season, club, dominated, This". Mister Baseball. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2009.

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