Potosí (Spanish pronunciation: [san ˈlwis
potoˈsi] ( listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign
State of San Luis
Potosí (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de San
Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal
District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in
58 municipalities and its capital city is San Luis
It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by 8 other
Mexican states, making it the state with the most borders with other
neighboring states. The northern borders are with
Nuevo León and
Coahuila; the northeastern ones with Tamaulipas; the eastern ones with
Veracruz; the southern ones with Hidalgo, Querétaro, and Guanajuato;
and the northwestern one with Zacatecas.
In addition to the capital city, the state's largest cities include
Ciudad Valles, Matehuala, Rioverde, and Tamazunchale.
2.2 Major cities
3 Environmental issues
9 Notable people and residents
10 See also
12 External links
In pre-Columbian times the territory now occupied by the state of San
Potosí contained the cultural areas of
Aridoamerica. Its northern and western-central areas were inhabited by
the Otomi and
Chichimeca tribes. These indigenous groups were nomadic
hunter-gatherers. Although most natives died during the Spanish
settlements, huasteco groups still live, along with pame and náhuatl
although their numbers are significantly small.
View of San Luis
Potosí by Carl Nebel
In 1592, gold and silver deposits were discovered which triggered the
establishment of the state. Spanish miners established the first town
known as “San Luis de Mezquitique”, modern location of the capital
San Luis Potosí. This led to the first mayor being appointed, Juan de
The State was given the name "San Luis Rey", King Saint Louis, in
honor of Louis IX of France, and "Potosi" because the wealth of the
state compared to the rich silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Settlers
hoped of rivaling the Bolivian mine wealth, but this was never truly
accomplished. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Franciscans,
Augustinians, and Jesuits arrived in the area and settled, then began
to build churches and buildings, many of which are still standing and
have been turned into museums and universities.
In mid-1821, after the Independence of Mexico, General Jose Antonio
Echavarri intimidated and threatened the Mayor and the City Council to
surrender the city of San Luis to the
Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees of
Iturbide(Ejercito de las Tres Garantias de Iturbide), who at the time,
was emperor of Mexico. They submitted to his demand, as there was no
way to resist, and thus proclamation of Independence of San Luis
Potosí was declared. The first Constitution of San Luis
then written on October 16, 1826, and this was in effect until 1835
when Congress proclaimed it centralist. At this point, local
legislatures disappeared and state governors were appointed by the
central government. This situation lasted until the promulgation of
the 1857 Constitution.
The state participation in the
Mexican–American War in the years of
1846-1847 gave it the name "San Luis de la Patria", Saint Louis of the
Motherland, for haven contributed important leaders and ideas during
the struggle with the United States. During the Reform War, state
involvement was very prominent, and during the French Intervention in
1863, the city of San Luis
Potosí became the capital of the country
under the order of President Benito Juárez.
During the regime of Maximilian, San Luis became an important
location. The city was held by the Imperialists until late 1866. In
that year the telegraph line was opened between San Luis
Mexico City, which opened up communication lines and helped begin the
industrialization of the state.
The state lies mostly on the Mexican Plateau, with the exception of
the eastern part of the state, where the tableland breaks down into
the tropical valley of the Tampaon River (which continues flowing
northwestward until it becomes the Pánuco River, which divides San
Potosí from the north-eastern state of Tamaulipas). The surface
of the plateau is comparatively level, with some low mountainous
wooded ridges. The
Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental runs north and south through
the state, and separates the
Mexican Plateau from the Gulf Coastal
Plain to the east. The
Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental is home to the Sierra
Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The easternmost portion of the state
lies on the Gulf Coastal Plain, and covered by the
forests. The eastern part is included in the region commonly referred
to as "La Huasteca".
The Tampaón river and its tributaries drain the southern and
southeastern portion of the state. The northern and central portion of
the state, including the capital, lie on an interior drainage basin
which does not drain to the sea.
The mean elevation is about 6,000 ft ensuring a temperate climate
for the most part. The state lies partly within the arid zone of the
north, while the southern half receiving a more liberal rainfall
through the influence of the Nortes, which deliver significant amounts
of rain. The rainfall, however, is uncertain at the western and
northern regions, and much of the state does not have major rivers.
The soil is fertile and in favorable seasons large crops of wheat,
maize, beans and cotton are grown on the uplands. In the low tropical
valleys, sugar, coffee, tobacco, peppers and fruit are staple
products. Stockraising is an important industry and hides, tallow and
wool are exported. Fine cabinet and construction woods are also made
and exported to a limited extent.
Potosí (in Bolivia) was ´believed´ to have enough gold to build a
bridge between Potosi and Spain. San Luis
Potosí was compared to it
upon the discovery of the mines and therefore named after it.
At one time San Luis
Potosí ranked among the leading mining provinces
of Mexico, but the revolts following independence resulted in a great
decline in that industry. The area around
Real de Catorce
Real de Catorce has some of
the richest silver mines in the country. Other well-known silver
mining districts are Peñón Blanco, Ramos and Guadalcázar. The
development of Guadalcazar dates from 1620 and its ores yield gold,
copper, zinc and bismuth, as well as silver. In the Ramos district,
the Cocinera lode was said to have had a total yield of over
$60,000,000 in the first decade of the 20th century.
Flora and fauna of San Luis Potosí
Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori
Main article: Municipalities of San Luis Potosí
The State of San Luis
Potosí is divided into 58 municipalities
(Spanish: municipios), each headed by a municipal president (mayor).
These are similar in function to counties. Is it so divided into four
zones municipalities Altiplano (Highlands), Centro (centre), Media and
San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí (state capital).
Soledad de Graciano Sánchez
Villa De Pozos
Taquian de Escobedo
Currently one of the mountains, Wirikuta, within the state's declared
National Sacred Site is being purchased for silver mining by a
Canadian company, “First Majestic
Silver Corp”. The mountain is
an important site for the Huichol ceremonial migration,
and deer dance. On October 27, 2000 United Nations Education,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) claimed this site as a
protected area for its importance as a cultural route and endemic
flora and fauna species. Later on June 9, 2001 it was declared as a
National Sacred Site under the State of San Luis Potosí's Natural
Protection act. Canada's First Majestic
Silver Corp still decided to
purchase mineral rights on November 13, 2009 with 80% of their
interest within the protected land. The company's current methods
includes open pit mining and lixivation through cyanide, using two
kilograms of NaCN per tonne of ore. While open pit mining itself
removes entire habitats and landscapes, the addition of sodium
cyanide, NaCN, is a lethal method requiring only 0.2 grams to
kill a person. In April, 2010 the company also opened a new
cyanidation plant in Coahila,
Mexico where it has started producing
3500 tons of cyanide a day to help them expand their mining
efforts. Currently the Huicholes are trying to find outside groups
to help them in the conservation of their land and culture by
protecting this mountain.
Main article: Governor of San Luis Potosí
The current governor is
Juan Manuel Carreras López
Juan Manuel Carreras López (2015–2021) of
the PRI party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional)
The State has a unique position within the country, since it is
located in between three major cities;
Mexico City, Monterrey, and
Guadalajara, and near four major ports; Tampico, Altamira, Manzanillo,
and Mazatlán. Its varied climate patterns and territory along with
extensive communications networks enabled it to maintain attractive
Traditionally, the Real de Minas potosino has driven the industrial
engines in the state of San Luis Potosí, and as such, nowadays basic
metallurgy still has the largest contribution within the Gross
Domestic Product of the entity. The main metals and
products extracted across mines are zinc, copper, lead, gold, silver,
mercury, manganese, and arsenic. Other major industries following the
mining lead are in the sectors of chemicals, foods, beverages,
tobacco, and textiles.
The services sector, also known as tertiary, is second regarding
contribution to the state's income with a 21%, followed by commerce,
hotels and restaurants with 18%. These combined activities employ 51%
of the economically active population or EAP.
Agriculture has been a traditional activity, sometimes still practiced
Huasteca region. Currently, even if it contributes very little
to the state GDP, it nevertheless employs as much as 20% of the EAP of
the entity. The main agricultural products grown on
Potosí soil are
maize, beans, barley, sugar cane, oranges, coffee, sour lemon, prickly
pear, and mango. Livestock activities are focused on raising sheep,
cattle, and pigs.
The state is also a contributor to the large automotive industry of
General Motors now has a plant under construction, San Luis
Potosí Assembly, to employ up to 1800 which will have the capacity to
produce up to 160,000 vehicles per year, or about 440 cars per day.
Cummins Inc. has also had a manufacturing presence in San Luis Potosí
since 1980 and employs nearly 2000 people there.
ABB Group multinational in
Mexico moved its headquarters from Mexico
City to San Luis
Potosí in 2007.
Throughout the state, major industrial parks can be seen, especially
in highly urbanized areas such as the capital, San Luis Potosí, and
other major cities.
The minimum wage in the state is 66.45 pesos per day as of 2015 In
BMW announced it was establishing a $1 billion plant in San
Potosí which will employ 1,500 people, and produce 150,000 cars
annually, commencing in 2019.
The state of San Luis
Potosí reports a population of about 2,678,231
people, according to the latest projection which took place in the
year 2013. Population growth rate from 2010, the last official census,
to 2013 was about 3.6%.
The state's population is relatively young, 60% of its residents being
under 30 years of age. The state reports a life expectancy rate
similar to the national average, that is, 72 years for men, and 77
years of age for women.
Regarding cultural and ethnic diversity, 11% of the state population
is indigenous, and the most representative language is that of the
Nahuatl, followed by the Huasteco. The native people of the state are
among the tallest in
Mexico and include the Huastecs and Pame people.
Concerning immigrants and people of European ancestry, 89% of the
population has some form of European roots, mostly from Spain. During
the colonization and establishment of Mexico, there was a constant
flow of Spanish immigrants. There have also been large influxes during
instabilities in Spain, such as during the Spanish Civil War. Besides
Spanish people, there is also a significant population of descendants
of Italian immigrants, especially in cities such as Rio Verde and
Cerritos. Most of the European peoples have arrived through the state
Veracruz to the East.
Nonetheless, due to its relative isolation, the state is one of the
nine states in
Mexico which report high rates of migration into the
United States.
The average schooling rate for those over 15 years of age lies at 7.7
years of education, considerably lower than the 8.1 found nationally.
The same portion of those older than the age of 15 yield a 28% dropout
rate of primary school. Children under the age of 14 years have a 4%
dropout rate of school. The literacy rate is about 90.8%, most of the
illiterate being the older generation. There is only one major
university in the state, despite there being other minor schools
throughout. This institution of higher education is the following:
Autonomous University of San Luis
Other higher education institutions include:
Instituto Tecnológico de San Luis
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus
Universidad del Valle de México, Campus San Luis
Universidad Cuauhtémoc, Campus San Luis
Universidad Tecnológica de San Luis
Universidad Politécnica de San Luis
College of San Luis
Universidad del Centro de México (UCEM).
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport
Ponciano Arriaga International Airport serves the capital of San Luis
Potosí (named the same) with a variety of domestic and international
daily flights. Other cities such as Matehuala,
Tamuin and Rio Verde
also have airports but they but are only domestic flights only.
Besides airports, the state has an extensive road network, like the
rest of the country. Most of the roads are paved in urban areas and
highways. Some small towns, however, have cobblestone streets.
Notable people and residents
Arts and sciences
Ana Bárbara - Singer-songwriter
Cenobio Hernandez - Composer
Julián Carrillo Trujillo - Discovered the Thirteenth Sound
Francisco González Bocanegra
Francisco González Bocanegra - Author of the Mexican National Anthem
Manuel José Othón
Manuel José Othón - Poet
Miguel Barragán - President of Mexico
Carlos Jonguitud Barrios
Luis Ernesto Derbez
Alfonso Lastras Ramírez
Salvador Nava Martínez
Francisco Javier Salazar Sáenz
Enrique Márquez Jaramillo
Ivan Becerra, former professional football player
Nery Castillo, professional football player, was born in San Luis
Potosí but moved away when he was 3 months old.
Mil Máscaras (
Thousand Masks), professional wrestler
Alberto Del Rio, WWE wrestler
Jesús Blancornelas, a prize-winning journalist
North America portal
Latin America portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Luis Potosí.
^ "Las Diputaciones Provinciales" (PDF) (in Spanish).
^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 8, 2015.
^ "Panorama Economico del Estado de San Luis Potosi" (PDF). Gobierno
de San Luis Potosi. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
^ "1 Dollar to 1 Peso, May 2013". www.google.com. Retrieved May 21,
^ a b Salvemos
Wirikuta -Tamatzimahuaha: Frente en Defensa de la Zona
^ Liezel Hill 8th April 2010, TORONTO. First Majestic reports
commercial production at new cyanidation plant.
^ "GM to produce Aveo at new Mexican plant, Stephen Downer, Automotive
^ http://www.conasami.gob.mx/t_sal_mini_prof.html. Missing or
empty title= (help)
^ "Joining rivals,
BMW to set up $1bn plant in Mexico".
Retrieved 28 June 2014.
^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Archived from the
original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved
Ricketts, Taylor H., Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Loucks,
et al. (1999). Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: a Conservation
Assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C..
This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "San Luis Potosí
(state)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 152.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for San Luis Potosi (state).
Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article
San Luis Potosi.
Geographic data related to San Luis
Potosí at OpenStreetMap
(in Spanish) San Luis
Potosí state government
Events and entertainment in San Luis Potosí
Churches of San Luis Potosí
Tourism in San Luis Potosí
Administration of Justice
Art and Culture in San Luis Potosí
Interactive map of San Luis
Potosí with the tourist points of
State of San Luis Potosí
Armadillo de los Infante
Axtla de Terrazas
Cerro de San Pedro
Ciudad del Maíz
Mexquitic de Carmona
Salinas de Hidalgo
San Ciro de Acosta
San Luis Potosí
San Martín Chalchicuautla
San Nicolás Tolentino
Santa María del Río
San Vicente Tancuayalab
Soledad de Graciano Sánchez
Tancanhuitz de Santos
Tanquián de Escobedo
Villa de Arista
Villa de Arriaga
Villa de Guadalupe
Villa de La Paz
Villa de Ramos
Villa de Reyes
Villa de Hidalgo
States of Mexico
Baja California Sur
San Luis Potosí