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Saṃvatsarī (Sanskrit: संवत्सरी) (lit. Annual Day or fig. Forgiveness
Forgiveness
Day) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
festival observed annually by the followers of Shwetambar
Shwetambar
sect of Jainism. It falls on Shukla Panchami (5th day of waxing fortnight) each year in Jain calendar month of Bhadrapada, somewhere between the middle of August and September in the Gregorian calendar. On this day, Jains forgive and seek forgiveness for their mistakes committed knowingly or unknowingly from all the living beings. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called "samvatsari pratikramana" is performed on this day. After the pratikramana, Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world, including friends and relatives by uttering the phrase — Micchami Dukkadam
Micchami Dukkadam
or its variants like "Khamau Sa", "Uttam Kshama" or "Khamat Khamna".

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Customs and Traditions 3 Samvatsari
Samvatsari
and Kshamavaani 4 References 5 See also

Etymology[edit] Samvatsari
Samvatsari
is derived from the Hindi word "Samvatsara" which itself has its origin in the Sanskrit language. Samvatsara refers to a "year" in Vedic literature such as the Rigveda
Rigveda
and other ancient texts.[1]. Thus, Samvatsari
Samvatsari
literally refers to a day that comes annually. Customs and Traditions[edit] As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam. No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages, telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness.[2] Being the holiest day of the Jain
Jain
calendar,[3][4] many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. Samvatsari
Samvatsari
and Kshamavaani[edit] While Samvatsari
Samvatsari
and Kshamavaani
Kshamavaani
are typically associated with Shwetambar
Shwetambar
sect and Digambara
Digambara
respectively, there is no major difference between the two days and both are observed as Forgiveness Days. Rather, the two are usually used interchangeably. However, a major difference between the two is that despite both Samvatsari
Samvatsari
and Kshamavaani
Kshamavaani
falling on the last day of Paryushan, they are in fact two different days. This is because the Paryushan
Paryushan
festival for the two sects itself commences on different dates and is of varying duration. As a result, while Samvatsari
Samvatsari
is observed on Shukla Panchami of Bhadrapada month by the Shwetambars, the Digambaras celebrate it on the first day of Ashvin Krishna month of the lunar-based Jain calendar. References[edit]

^ Bettina Bäumer; Kapila Vatsyayan (1992). Kalātattvakośa: A Lexicon of Fundamental Concepts of the Indian Arts. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 215–216. ISBN 978-81-208-1044-0.  ^ Hastings, James (2003), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 10, Kessinger Publishing ISBN 978-0-7661-3682-3 p.876 ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Volume I and II. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. ISBN 1-898723-30-3.  p. 212 ^ "Jains pray for peace, brotherhood". The Hindu. 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 

See also[edit]

Paryushan Kshamavaani Forgiveness
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