Samuel Pepys FRS (/piːps/ PEEPS; 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703)
was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament
who is most famous for the diary that he kept for a decade while still
a relatively young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose
to be the Chief
Secretary to the Admiralty
Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II
and King James II through patronage, hard work, and his talent for
administration. His influence and reforms at the
important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy.
The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was
first published in the 19th century and is one of the most
important primary sources for the
English Restoration period. It
provides a combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts
of great events, such as the
Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch
War, and the Great Fire of London.
1 Early life
2 The diary
2.1 Public life
2.2 Major events
2.2.1 Second Anglo-Dutch War
2.2.2 Great Plague
2.2.3 Great Fire of London
2.3 Personal life
2.3.1 Sexual relations
2.4 Text of the diary
2.5 Simplified Pepys family tree
3 After the diary
Member of Parliament and Secretary to the Admiralty
3.2 Royal Society
3.3 Retirement and death
4 Pepys Library
5 Publication history of the diary
7 Biographical studies
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Bookplate, c. 1680–1690, with arms of Samuel Pepys: Quarterly 1st
& 4th: Sable, on a bend or between two nag's heads erased argent
three fleurs-de-lis of the field (Pepys); 2nd & 3rd: Gules, a
lion rampant within a bordure engrailed or (Talbot). Samuel Pepys
was descended from John Pepys who married Elizabeth Talbot, the
Cottenham in Cambridgeshire. The Pepys arms are borne by
the Pepys family, Earls of Cottenham
Pepys was born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London on 23
February 1633, the son of John Pepys (1601–1680), a tailor, and
Margaret Pepys (née Kite; died 1667), daughter of a Whitechapel
butcher. His great uncle
Talbot Pepys was Recorder and briefly
Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in 1625. His father's first
Richard Pepys was elected MP for Sudbury in 1640, appointed
Baron of the Exchequer
Baron of the Exchequer on 30 May 1654, and appointed Lord Chief
Justice of Ireland on 25 September 1655.
Pepys was the fifth of eleven children, but child mortality was high
and he was soon the oldest survivor. He was baptised at St Bride's
Church on 3 March 1633. Pepys did not spend all of his infancy in
London; for a while, he was sent to live with nurse Goody Lawrence at
Kingsland, just north of the city. In about 1644, Pepys attended
Huntingdon Grammar School
Huntingdon Grammar School before being educated at St Paul's School,
London, c. 1646–1650. He attended the execution of Charles I in
Elisabeth de St Michel, Pepys' wife. Stipple engraving by James
Thomson, after a 1666 painting (now destroyed) by John Hayls.
In 1650, he went to the University of Cambridge, having received two
exhibitions from St Paul's School (perhaps owing to the influence of
Sir George Downing, who was chairman of the judges and for whom he
later worked at the Exchequer) and a grant from the Mercers'
Company. In October, he was admitted as a sizar to
Magdalene College; he moved there in March 1651 and took his Bachelor
of Arts degree in 1654.
Later in 1654 or early in 1655, he entered the household of another of
his father's cousins, Sir Edward Montagu, who was later created 1st
Earl of Sandwich.
Pepys married fourteen-year-old Elisabeth de St Michel, a descendant
Huguenot immigrants, first in a religious ceremony on 10
October 1655 and later in a civil ceremony on 1 December 1655 at St
From a young age, Pepys suffered from bladder stones in his urinary
tract—a condition from which his mother and brother John also later
suffered. He was almost never without pain, as well as other
symptoms, including "blood in the urine" (hematuria). By the time of
his marriage, the condition was very severe.
In 1657 Pepys decided to undergo surgery; not an easy option, as the
operation was known to be especially painful and hazardous.
Nevertheless, Pepys consulted surgeon Thomas Hollier and, on 26 March
1658, the operation took place in a bedroom in the house of Pepys'
cousin Jane Turner. Pepys' stone was successfully removed and
he resolved to hold a celebration on every anniversary of the
operation, which he did for several years. However, there were
long-term effects from the operation. The incision on his bladder
broke open again late in his life. The procedure may have left him
sterile, though there is no direct evidence for this, as he was
childless before the operation. In mid-1658 Pepys moved to Axe
Yard, near the modern Downing Street. He worked as a teller in the
Exchequer under George Downing.
A facsimile of part of the first entry in the diary
Samuel Pepys' bookplate. The motto reads Mens cujusque is est Quisque
– "Mind Makes the Man".
On 1 January 1660 ("1 January 1659/1660" in contemporary terms), Pepys
began to keep a diary. He recorded his daily life for almost ten
years. This record of a decade of Pepys' life is more than a million
words long and is often regarded as Britain’s most celebrated
diary. Pepys has been called the greatest diarist of all time due
to his frankness in writing concerning his own weaknesses and the
accuracy with which he records events of daily British life and major
events in the 17th century. Pepys wrote about the contemporary
court and theatre (including his amorous affairs with the actresses),
his household, and major political and social occurrences.
Historians have been using his diary to gain greater insight and
understanding of life in
London in the 17th century. Pepys wrote
consistently on subjects such as personal finances, the time he got up
in the morning, the weather, and what he ate. He talked at length
about his new watch (which had an alarm, a new thing at the time)
which he was very proud of, a country visitor who did not enjoy his
London because he felt that it was too crowded, and his cat
waking him up at one in the morning. Pepys's diary is one of the
only known sources which provides such length in details of everyday
life of an upper-middle-class man during the seventeenth century.
Aside from day-to-day activities, Pepys also commented on the
significant and turbulent events of his nation. England was in
disarray when he began writing his diary.
Oliver Cromwell had died
just a few years before, creating a period of civil unrest and a large
power vacuum to be filled. Pepys had been a strong supporter of
Cromwell, but he converted to the Royalist cause upon the
Protector’s death. As such, he was on the ship that brought Charles
II home to England. He gave a firsthand account of events, such as the
coronation of King Charles II and the Restoration of the British
Monarchy to the throne, the Anglo-Dutch war, the Great Plague, and the
Great Fire of London. Pepys did not plan on other eyes ever seeing his
diary, which is evident from the fact that he wrote in shorthand, and
many times employed more cryptic codes (utilising words based on
Spanish, French and Italian) when writing about his illicit
The women whom he pursued, his friends, and his dealings are all laid
out. His diary reveals his jealousies, insecurities, trivial concerns,
and his fractious relationship with his wife. It has been an important
London in the 1660s. The juxtaposition of his commentary on
politics and national events, alongside the very personal, can be seen
from the beginning. His opening paragraphs, written in January 1660,
Blessed be God, at the end of the last year I was in very good health,
without any sense of my old pain but upon taking of cold. I lived in
Axe yard, having my wife and servant Jane, and no more in family than
us three. My wife, after the absence of her terms for seven weeks,
gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year
she hath them again.
The condition of the State was thus.
Viz. the Rump, after being
disturbed by my Lord Lambert, was lately returned to sit again. The
officers of the army all forced to yield. Lawson lie[s] still in the
River and Monke is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert is
not yet come in to the Parliament; nor is it expected that he will,
without being forced to it.
Diary of Samuel Pepys, January 1660.
The entries from the first few months were filled with news of General
George Monck's march on London. In April and May of that year, he was
encountering problems with his wife, and he accompanied Montagu's
fleet to the
Netherlands to bring Charles II back from exile. Montagu
Earl of Sandwich
Earl of Sandwich on 18 June, and Pepys secured the position
Clerk of the Acts
Clerk of the Acts to the
Navy Board on 13 July. As secretary to
the board, Pepys was entitled to a £350 annual salary plus the
various gratuities and benefits that came with the job–including
bribes. He rejected an offer of £1,000 for the position from a rival
and soon afterwards moved to official accommodation in Seething Lane
in the City of London.
Pepys stopped writing his diary in 1669. His eyesight began to trouble
him and he feared that writing in dim light was damaging his eyes. He
did imply in his last entries that he might have others write his
diary for him, but doing so would result in a loss of privacy and it
seems that he never went through with those plans. In the end, Pepys'
fears were unjustified and he lived another 34 years without going
blind, but he never took to writing his diary again.
However, Pepys dictated a journal for two months in 1669–70 as a
record of his dealings with the Commissioners of Accounts at that
period. He also kept a diary for a few months in 1683 when he was
sent to Tangier, Morocco as the most senior civil servant in the navy,
during the English evacuation. The diary mostly covers work-related
A short letter from
Samuel Pepys to
John Evelyn at the latter's home
in Deptford, written by Pepys on 16 October 1665 and referring to
"prisoners" and "sick men" during the Second Dutch War
On the Navy Board, Pepys proved to be a more able and efficient worker
than colleagues in higher positions. This often annoyed Pepys and
provoked much harsh criticism in his diary. Among his colleagues were
Admiral Sir William Penn, Sir George Carteret, Sir
John Mennes and Sir
Pepys learned arithmetic from a private tutor and used models of ships
to make up for his lack of first-hand nautical experience, and
ultimately came to play a significant role in the board's activities.
In September 1660, he was made a Justice of the Peace; on 15 February
1662, Pepys was admitted as a Younger Brother of Trinity House; and on
30 April, he received the freedom of Portsmouth. Through Sandwich, he
was involved in the administration of the short-lived English colony
at Tangier. He joined the Tangier committee in August 1662 when the
colony was first founded and became its treasurer in 1665. In 1663, he
independently negotiated a £3,000 contract for Norwegian masts,
demonstrating the freedom of action that his superior abilities
allowed. He was appointed to a commission of the royal fishery on 8
Pepys' job required him to meet many people to dispense money and make
contracts. He often laments how he "lost his labour" having gone to
some appointment at a coffee house or tavern, only to discover that
the person was not there whom he was seeking. These occasions were a
constant source of frustration to Pepys.
Pepys' diary provides a first-hand account of the Restoration, and it
is also notable for its detailed accounts of several major events of
the 1660s, along with the lesser known diary of John Evelyn. In
particular, it is an invaluable source for the study of the Second
Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–7, the
Great Plague of 1665, and the Great
London in 1666. In relation to the Plague and Fire, C. S.
Knighton has written: "From its reporting of these two disasters to
the metropolis in which he thrived, Pepys's diary has become a
national monument." Robert Latham, editor of the definitive
edition of the diary, remarks concerning the Plague and Fire: "His
descriptions of both—agonisingly vivid—achieve their effect by
being something more than superlative reporting; they are written with
compassion. As always with Pepys it is people, not literary effects,
Second Anglo-Dutch War
Dutch Attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest,
painted c. 1667. The captured ship Royal Charles is right of centre.
In early 1665, the start of the
Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War placed great
pressure on Pepys. His colleagues were either engaged elsewhere or
incompetent, and Pepys had to conduct a great deal of business
himself. He excelled under the pressure, which was extreme due to the
complexity and under-funding of the Royal Navy. At the outset, he
proposed a centralised approach to supplying the fleet. His idea was
accepted, and he was made surveyor-general of victualling in October
1665. The position brought a further £300 a year.
Pepys wrote about the Second Anglo-Dutch War: "In all things, in
wisdom, courage, force and success, the Dutch have the best of us and
do end the war with victory on their side". And King Charles II said:
"Don't fight the Dutch, imitate them".
In 1667, with the war lost, Pepys helped to discharge the navy. The
Dutch had defeated England on open water and now began to threaten the
mainland itself. In June 1667, they conducted their Raid on the
Medway, broke the defensive chain at Gillingham, and towed away the
Royal Charles, one of the Royal Navy's most important ships. As he had
done during the Fire and the Plague, Pepys again removed his wife and
his gold from London.
The Dutch raid was a major concern in itself, but Pepys was personally
placed under a different kind of pressure: the
Navy Board and his role
Clerk of the Acts
Clerk of the Acts came under scrutiny from the public and from
Parliament. The war ended in August and, on 17 October, the House of
Commons created a committee of "miscarriages". On 20 October, a
list was demanded from Pepys of ships and commanders at the time of
the division of the fleet in 1666. However, these demands were
actually quite desirable for him, as tactical and strategic mistakes
were not the responsibility of the Navy Board.
The Board did face some allegations regarding the Medway raid, but
they could exploit the criticism already attracted by commissioner of
Peter Pett to deflect criticism from themselves. The
committee accepted this tactic when they reported in February 1668.
The Board was, however, criticised for its use of tickets to pay
seamen. These tickets could only be exchanged for cash at the Navy's
treasury in London. Pepys made a long speech at the bar of the
Commons on 5 March 1668 defending this practice. It was, in the words
of C. S. Knighton, a "virtuoso performance".
The commission was followed by an investigation led by a more powerful
authority, the commissioners of accounts. They met at Brooke House,
Holborn and spent two years scrutinising how the war had been
financed. In 1669, Pepys had to prepare detailed answers to the
committee's eight "Observations" on the Navy Board's conduct. In 1670,
he was forced to defend his own role. A seaman's ticket with Pepys'
name on it was produced as incontrovertible evidence of his corrupt
dealings but, thanks to the intervention of the king, Pepys emerged
from the sustained investigation relatively unscathed.
Further information: The
Great Plague of London
Outbreaks of plague were not particularly unusual events in London;
major epidemics had occurred in 1592, 1603, 1625 and 1636.
Furthermore, Pepys was not among the group of people who were most at
risk. He did not live in cramped housing, he did not routinely mix
with the poor, and he was not required to keep his family in
the event of a crisis. It was not until June 1665 that the unusual
seriousness of the plague became apparent, so Pepys's activities in
the first five months of 1665 were not significantly affected by
Claire Tomalin writes that "the most notable fact
about Pepys's plague year is that to him it was one of the happiest of
his life." In 1665, he worked very hard, and the outcome was that he
quadrupled his fortune. In his annual summary on 31 December, he
wrote, "I have never lived so merrily (besides that I never got so
much) as I have done this plague time". Nonetheless, Pepys was
certainly concerned about the plague. On 16 August he wrote:
But, Lord! how sad a sight it is to see the streets empty of people,
and very few upon the 'Change. Jealous of every door that one sees
shut up, lest it should be the plague; and about us two shops in
three, if not more, generally shut up.
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Wednesday, 16 August 1665.
He also chewed tobacco as a protection against infection, and worried
that wig-makers might be using hair from the corpses as a raw
material. Furthermore, it was Pepys who suggested that the Navy Office
should evacuate to Greenwich, although he did offer to remain in town
himself. He later took great pride in his stoicism. Meanwhile,
Elisabeth Pepys was sent to Woolwich. She did not return to
Seething Lane until January 1666, and was shocked by the sight of St
Olave's churchyard, where 300 people had been buried.
Great Fire of London
Further information: Great Fire of London
London after the Great Fire in 1666, showing Pepys' home
In the early hours of 2 September 1666, Pepys was awakened by his
servant who had spotted a fire in the
Billingsgate area. He decided
that the fire was not particularly serious and returned to bed.
Shortly after waking, his servant returned and reported that 300
houses had been destroyed and that
London Bridge was threatened. Pepys
went to the Tower to get a better view. Without returning home, he
took a boat and observed the fire for over an hour. In his diary,
Pepys recorded his observations as follows:
I down to the water-side, and there got a boat and through bridge, and
there saw a lamentable fire. Poor Michell's house, as far as the Old
Swan, already burned that way, and the fire running further, that in a
very little time it got as far as the Steeleyard, while I was there.
Everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the
river or bringing them into lighters that layoff; poor people staying
in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then
running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the
water-side to another. And among other things, the poor pigeons, I
perceive, were loth to leave their houses, but hovered about the
windows and balconys till they were, some of them burned, their wings,
and fell down. Having staid, and in an hour's time seen the fire: rage
every way, and nobody, to my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but to
remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and having seen it get
as far as the Steele-yard, and the wind mighty high and driving it
into the City; and every thing, after so long a drought, proving
combustible, even the very stones of churches, and among other things
the poor steeple by which pretty Mrs.———— lives, and whereof
my old school-fellow Elborough is parson, taken fire in the very top,
and there burned till it fell down...
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 2 September 1666.
The wind was driving the fire westward, so he ordered the boat to go
to Whitehall and became the first person to inform the king of the
fire. According to his entry of 2 September 1666, Pepys recommended to
the king that homes be pulled down in the path of the fire in order to
stem its progress. Accepting this advice, the king told him to go to
Thomas Bloodworth and tell him to start pulling down
houses. Pepys took a coach back as far as St Paul's Cathedral before
setting off on foot through the burning city. He found the Lord Mayor,
who said, "Lord! what can I do? I am spent: people will not obey me. I
have been pulling down houses; but the fire overtakes us faster than
we can do it." At noon, he returned home and "had an extraordinary
good dinner, and as merry, as at this time we could be", before
returning to watch the fire in the city once more. Later, he returned
to Whitehall, then met his wife in St. James's Park. In the evening,
they watched the fire from the safety of Bankside. Pepys writes that
"it made me weep to see it". Returning home, Pepys met his clerk Tom
Hayter who had lost everything. Hearing news that the fire was
advancing, he started to pack up his possessions by moonlight.
The ruins of the old St Paul's Cathedral, by Thomas Wyck, as it looked
roughly seven years after the fire
A cart arrived at 4 a.m. on 3 September and Pepys spent much of the
day arranging the removal of his possessions. Many of his valuables,
including his diary, were sent to a friend from the Navy Office at
Bethnal Green. At night, he "fed upon the remains of yesterday's
dinner, having no fire nor dishes, nor any opportunity of dressing any
thing." The next day, Pepys continued to arrange the removal of his
possessions. By then, he believed that Seething Lane was in grave
danger, so he suggested calling men from
Deptford to help pull down
houses and defend the king's property. He described the chaos in
the city and his curious attempt at saving his own goods:
Sir W. Pen and I to Tower-streete, and there met the fire burning
three or four doors beyond Mr. Howell's, whose goods, poor man, his
trayes, and dishes, shovells, &c., were flung all along
Tower-street in the kennels, and people working therewith from one end
to the other; the fire coming on in that narrow streete, on both
sides, with infinite fury. Sir W. Batten not knowing how to remove his
wine, did dig a pit in the garden, and laid it in there; and I took
the opportunity of laying all the papers of my office that I could not
otherwise dispose of. And in the evening Sir W. Pen and I did dig
another, and put our wine in it; and I my Parmazan cheese, as well as
my wine and some other things.
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Tuesday, 4 September 1666.
Pepys had taken to sleeping on his office floor; on Wednesday, 5
September, he was awakened by his wife at 2 a.m. She told him that the
fire had almost reached
All Hallows-by-the-Tower and that it was at
the foot of Seething Lane. He decided to send her and his gold—about
£2,350—to Woolwich. In the following days, Pepys witnessed looting,
disorder, and disruption. On 7 September, he went to Paul's Wharf and
saw the ruins of St Paul's Cathedral, of his old school, of his
father's house, and of the house in which he had had his stone
removed. Despite all this destruction, Pepys's house, office, and
diary were saved.
Plaque commemorating Pepys as a witness to the first performance of
the puppet show
Punch and Judy
Punch and Judy on St Paul's in Covent Garden, 1662
The diary gives a detailed account of Pepys' personal life. He liked
wine, plays, and the company of other people. He also spent time
evaluating his fortune and his place in the world. He was always
curious and often acted on that curiosity, as he acted upon almost all
his impulses. Periodically, he would resolve to devote more time to
hard work instead of leisure. For example, in his entry for New Year's
Eve, 1661, he writes: "I have newly taken a solemn oath about
abstaining from plays and wine…" The following months reveal his
lapses to the reader; by 17 February, it is recorded, "Here I drank
wine upon necessity, being ill for the want of it."
Pepys was one of the most important civil servants of his age, and was
also a widely cultivated man, taking an interest in books, music, the
theatre and science. He was passionately interested in music; he
composed, sang, and played for pleasure, and even arranged music
lessons for his servants. He played the lute, viol, violin, flageolet,
recorder and spinet to varying degrees of proficiency. He was also
a keen singer, performing at home, in coffee houses, and even in
Westminster Abbey. He and his wife took flageolet lessons from
master Thomas Greeting. He also taught his wife to sing and paid
for dancing lessons for her (although these stopped when he became
jealous of the dancing master).
Pepys was known to be brutal to his servants, once beating a servant
Jane with a broom until she cried. He kept a boy servant whom he
frequently beat with a cane, a birch rod, a whip or a rope’s
Propriety did not prevent him from engaging in a number of
extramarital liaisons with various women that were chronicled in his
diary, often in some detail, and generally using a cocktail of
languages (English, French, Spanish and Latin) when relating the
intimate details. The most dramatic of these encounters was with
Deborah Willet, a young woman engaged as a companion for Elisabeth
Pepys. On 25 October 1668, Pepys was surprised by his wife as he
embraced Deb Willet; he writes that his wife "coming up suddenly, did
find me imbracing the girl con [with] my hand sub [under] su [her]
coats; and endeed I was with my main [hand] in her cunny. I was at a
wonderful loss upon it and the girl also...." Following this event, he
was characteristically filled with remorse, but (equally
characteristically) continued to pursue Willet after she had been
dismissed from the Pepys household.
"Mrs Knep was the wife of a Smithfield horsedealer, and the mistress
of Pepys"—or at least "she granted him a share of her favours".
Scholars disagree on the full extent of the Pepys/Knep relationship,
but much of later generations' knowledge of Knep comes from the diary.
Pepys first met Knep on 6 December 1665. He described her as "pretty
enough, but the most excellent, mad-humoured thing, and sings the
noblest that I ever heard in my life." He called her husband "an ill,
melancholy, jealous-looking fellow" and suspected him of abusing
his wife. Knep provided Pepys with backstage access and was a conduit
for theatrical and social gossip. When they wrote notes to each other,
Pepys signed himself "Dapper Dickey," while Knep was "Barbry Allen"
(that popular song was an item in her musical repertory).
Pepys was known for sexually assaulting his female servants, often
fondling his maid Mary Mercer while she dressed him in the
Text of the diary
The diary was written in one of the many standard forms of shorthand
used in Pepys' time, in this case called tachygraphy and devised by
Thomas Shelton. It is clear from its content that it was written as a
purely personal record of his life and not for publication, yet there
are indications that Pepys took steps to preserve the bound
manuscripts of his diary. He wrote it out in fair copy from rough
notes, and he also had the loose pages bound into six volumes,
catalogued them in his library with all his other books, and is likely
to have suspected that eventually someone would find them interesting.
Simplified Pepys family tree
This tree resumes, in a more compact form and with a few additional
details, trees published elsewhere in a box-like form. It is
meant to help the reader of the
Diary and also integrates some
biographical informations found in the same sources.
Simplified Pepys family tree
William Pepys of
Cottenham (Cambs.) (? – 1519)
Richard Pepys (? – c. 1571)
William Pepys of Norwich, draper (1561 – c. 1639)
Richard Pepys of London, upholsterer (? – 1679)
John Pepys of South Creak (Norf.) (? – 1542)
Thomas Pepys (? – 1569)
Jerome Pepys (1548–1634)
John Pepys of Ashtead (Surrey), man of business to Chief Justice
(1576–1652) +(1610)+ Anne Walpole
Edward Pepys of Broomsthorpe (Norf.), lawyer
(1617–1663) + Elizabeth Walpole
Elizabeth Pepys + Thomas Dyke
Jane Pepys (“Madam Turner”)
(1623–1686) +(1650)+ John Turner,
Yorkshire lawyer (1631–1689)
Charles Turner + Margaret Cholmley
Theophila Turner (“The”)
(1652–1702) +(1673)+ Sir Arthur
Harris, 1st Baronet, of Stowford, M.P. for Okehampton (c. 1650 –
William Turner + Mary Foulis
(“Betty”) + William Hooker
William Pepys of
John Pepys of
Cottenham and Impington (Cambs.) (? –
+ ? ? (2)
+ Edith Talbot (? – 1583)
John Pepys 1 (? –
1604) + Elizabeth Bendish of Essex
Sir Richard Pepys, M.P. for Sudbury and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland
(1589–1659) (1) +(1620)+ Judith
Cutte (2) + Mary Gosnold
Richard Pepys of Ashen (Essex), lawyer (? – 1664)
Samuel Pepys of Dublin, clergyman
Elizabeth Pepys + Thomas Strudwick,
Judith Pepys (? – 1664) + Benjamin
Scott, pewterer (? – 1664)
Thomas Pepys (“the Black”) 1 (? –
1606) + Mary Day
Robert Pepys of Brampton (Hunts.), bailiff at Hinchingbrooke (? –
1661) + Anne, widow Trice
Thomas Pepys of St Alphage
(1595–1676) + Mary Syvret
Thomas Pepys (“the turner”), trader with the W.
Indies +(1664)+ Elizabeth Howes
Charles Pepys (“the joiner”), Master-Joiner with the Chatham yard
(c. 1632 – c. 1701) +(1662)+ Joan,
Mary Pepys (? –
1667) +(1662)+ Samuel de Santhune,
Jane Pepys (? – 1666) + John
Perkin of Parson Drove (Cambs.)
Frank Perkin, miller and fiddler
Mary Pepys (1597
– ?) + Robert Holcroft
Edith Pepys (“Aunt Bell”)
(1599–1665) + John Bell
John Pepys, tailor in Salisbury Court
(1601–1680) +(1626)+ Margaret
Kite, washmaid (? – 1667)
Mary Pepys (1627–1640)
Paulina Pepys (1628–1632)
Esther Pepys (1630–1631)
John Pepys (1632–1640)
SAMUEL PEPYS, diarist, naval administrator, and M.P. for Castle Rising
(1633–1703) +(1655)+ Élisabeth de
Saint-Michel, born from an Anglo-French wedding, of Angevin gentry by
her father (1640–1669)
Thomas Pepys (“Tom”), tailor against his will (1634–1664)
Elizabeth Taylor, an illegitimate daughter with his maid Margeret
Sarah Pepys (1635–1641)
Jacob Pepys (1637–1637)
Robert Pepys (1638–1638)
Paulina Pepys (“Pall”)
(1640–1689) +(1668)+ John Jackson,
farmer in Ellington (Hunts.) (? – 1680)
Samuel Jackson (1669 – ?)
John Jackson, secretary and heir to SP
(1673–1724) + Anne Edgeley
John Jackson (? – 1780)
1 other son and 2 daughters
Anne Jackson + Brabazon Hallows
Paulina Jackson + Admiral R. Collins
(1722–1769) +(1747)+ John
Cockerell of Bishops Hull (Somer.) (1714–1767)
Samuel Pepys Cockerell, architect (1754–1827)
Charles Robert Cockerell, architect
(1788–1863) +(1828)+ Anna Rennie
Frederick Pepys Cockerell, architect
(1833–1878) +(1867)+ Mary Mulock
9 other children
2 other children dead in infancy
John Pepys, naval administrator, unmarr. (1642–1677)
Thomas Pepys (“the Red”) 1 of Hatcham Barnes (Surrey) (? –
1615) + Kezia ?
Thomas Pepys (“the Executor”), lawyer
(1611–1675) (1) +(1654)+ Anne
Cope (2) +(1660)+ Ursula Stapleton
(? – c. 1693)
1 son and 1 daughter by the second wedding
Elizabeth Pepys +(1633)+ Percival
Angier, business man (? – 1665)
Pepys 1 +(1593)+ Henry Alcock
Apollo Pepys 1 (1576–1645)
Paulina Pepys 2
(1581–1638) +(1618)+ Sidney
Montagu (? – 1644)
Elizabeth Montagu (1620
– ?) +(1638)+ Sir Gilbert
Pickering, 1st Baronet, Lord Chamberlain to Oliver and Richard
Elizabeth Pickering +(1668)+ John
Creed, secretary to Edward Montagu and SP's principal rival (? –
11 other children
Henry Montagu (1622–1625)
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich
Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich (“My Lord”)
(1625–1672) +(1642)+ Jemima Crew
(“My Lady”) (1625–1674)
Jemima Montagu (“Lady Jem”)
(1646–1671) +(1665)+ Philip
Carteret, commissioned lieutenant in the Navy (1643–1672)
George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret,
(1667–1695) + Lady Grace Granville
John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, Prime Minister to George II
(1690–1763) + Lady Frances Worsley
2 other sons
Edward Montagu, 2nd
Earl of Sandwich
Earl of Sandwich (“Ned”)
(1648–1688) +(1668)+ Lady Anne
Boyle (? – 1671)
descent of the Earls of Sandwich
Paulina Montagu (1649–1669)
Sidney Montagu, later Wortley-Montagu
(1650–1727) + ? ?, Yorkshire
Anne Montagu (1653–1729) (1)
+(1671)+ Richard Edgcumbe
(1640–1688) (2) + Christopher
Oliver Montagu (1655–1693)
John Montagu, Dean of Durham (1655–1729)
Charles Montagu (1658–1721) (1)
+ Elizabeth Forester (2)
+ Sarah Rogers
issue by both weddings
Catherine Montagu (1661–1757) (1)
+ Nicholas Bacon, M.P. for Ipswich
(1622–1687) (2) + Balthazar
James Montagu (1664 – ?)
Talbot Pepys 2 of Impington (Cambs.), Recorder and M.P. for
Cambridge, remarried 3 times
(1583–1666) + Beatrice Castell
Roger Pepys of Impington (Cambs.), Recorder and M.P. for Cambridge
(1617–1688) (1) + Anne
Banks (2) +(c. 1646)+ Barbara Bacon
(? – 1657) (3) + Parnell
Duke (4) +(1669)+ Esther, widow
Dickenson (“the good-humoured fat widow”)
Talbot Pepys 2 (1647–1681)
Barbara Pepys (“Bab”) 2
(1649–1689) +(1674)+ Dr Thomas
Gale, High Master of St Paul's School and Dean of York (1635–1702)
Roger Gale, antiquary (1672–1744)
Samuel Gale, antiquary (1682–1754)
Elizabeth Pepys (“Betty”) 2
(1651–1716) +(1680)+ Charles Long,
fellow of Caius College and rector of Risby (Suff.)
John Pepys 3
Dr John Pepys, fellow of Trinity Hall and lawyer
(1618–1692) + Catherine, widow
Dr Thomas Pepys, physician, poorly appreciated by SP, unmarr.
Paulina Pepys + Hammond Claxton of
After the diary
Samuel Pepys painted by Sir
Godfrey Kneller in 1689
Pepys' health suffered from the long hours that he worked throughout
the period of the diary. Specifically, he believed that his eyesight
had been affected by his work. He reluctantly concluded in his
last entry, dated 31 May 1669, that he should completely stop writing
for the sake of his eyes, and only dictate to his clerks from then
on, which meant that he could no longer keep his diary.
Pepys and his wife took a holiday to France and the
Low Countries in
June–October 1669; on their return, Elisabeth fell ill and died on
10 November 1669. Pepys erected a monument to her in the church of St
Olave's, Hart Street, London. Pepys never remarried, but he did have a
long-term housekeeper named Mary Skinner who was assumed by many of
his contemporaries to be his mistress and sometimes referred to as
Mrs. Pepys. In his will, he left her an annuity of £200 and many of
Member of Parliament and Secretary to the Admiralty
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In 1672 he became an Elder Brother of
Trinity House and served in this
capacity until 1689; he was Master of
Trinity House in 1676–1677 and
again in 1685–1686. In 1673 he was promoted to Secretary to the
Admiralty Commission and elected MP for Castle Rising in Norfolk.
In 1673 he was involved with the establishment of the Royal
Mathematical School at Christ's Hospital, which was to train 40 boys
annually in navigation, for the benefit of the
Royal Navy and the
English Merchant Navy. In 1675 he was appointed a Governor of Christ's
Hospital and for many years he took a close interest in its affairs.
Among his papers are two detailed memoranda on the administration of
the school. In 1699, after the successful conclusion of a seven-year
campaign to get the master of the Mathematical School replaced by a
man who knew more about the sea, he was rewarded for his service as a
Governor by being made a Freeman of the City of London. He also served
as Master (without ever hanving been a Freeman or Liveryman) of the
Clothworkers' Company (1677-8).
At the beginning of 1679 Pepys was elected MP for Harwich in Charles
II's third parliament which formed part of the Cavalier Parliament. He
was elected along with Sir Anthony Deane, a Harwich alderman and
leading naval architect, to whom Pepys had been patron since 1662. By
May of that year, they were under attack from their political enemies.
Pepys resigned as Secretary to the Admiralty. They were imprisoned in
the Tower of
London on suspicion of treasonable correspondence with
France, specifically leaking naval intelligence. The charges are
believed to have been fabricated under the direction of Anthony
Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury. Pepys was accused, among
other things, of being a papist. They were released in July, but
proceedings against them were not dropped until June 1680.
Pepys painted by
John Closterman in the 1690s
Though he had resigned from the Tangier committee in 1679, in 1683 he
was sent to Tangier to assist Lord Dartmouth with the evacuation and
abandonment of the English colony. After six months' service, he
travelled back through Spain accompanied by the naval engineer Edmund
Dummer, returning to England after a particularly rough passage on 30
March 1684. In June 1684, once more in favour, he was appointed
King's Secretary for the affairs of the Admiralty, a post that he
retained after the death of Charles II (February 1685) and the
accession of James II. The phantom Pepys Island, alleged to be near
South Georgia, was named after him in 1684, having been first
"discovered" during his tenure at the Admiralty.
From 1685 to 1688, he was active not only as Secretary for the
Admiralty, but also as MP for Harwich. He had been elected MP for
Sandwich, but this election was contested and he immediately withdrew
to Harwich. When James fled the country at the end of 1688, Pepys's
career also came to an end. In January 1689, he was defeated in the
parliamentary election at Harwich; in February, one week after the
accession of William III and Mary II, he resigned his secretaryship.
Isaac Newton's personal copy of the first edition of his Principia
Mathematica, bearing Pepys's name
He was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society in 1665 and served as its
President from 1 December 1684 to 30 November 1686. Isaac Newton's
Principia Mathematica was published during this period, and its title
page bears Pepys' name. There is a probability problem called the
"Newton–Pepys problem" that arose out of correspondence between
Newton and Pepys about whether one is more likely to roll at least one
six with six dice or at least two sixes with twelve dice. It has
only recently been noted that the gambling advice which Newton gave
Pepys was correct, while the logical argument with which Newton
accompanied it was unsound.
Retirement and death
He was imprisoned on suspicion of
Jacobitism from May to July 1689 and
again in June 1690, but no charges were ever successfully brought
against him. After his release, he retired from public life at age 57.
He moved out of
London ten years later (1701) to a house in Clapham
owned by his friend William Hewer, who had begun his career working
for Pepys in the admiralty.
Clapham was in the country at the
time; it is now part of inner London.
Pepys lived there until his death on 26 May 1703. He had no children
and bequeathed his estate to his unmarried nephew John Jackson. Pepys
had disinherited his nephew Samuel Jackson for marrying contrary to
his wishes. When John Jackson died in 1724, Pepys' estate reverted to
Anne, daughter of Archdeacon Samuel Edgeley, niece of Will Hewer and
sister of Hewer Edgeley, nephew and godson of Pepys' old Admiralty
employee and friend Will Hewer. Hewer was also childless and left his
immense estate to his nephew Hewer Edgeley (consisting mostly of the
Clapham property, as well as lands in Clapham, London, Westminster and
Norfolk) on condition that the nephew (and godson) would adopt the
surname Hewer. So Will Hewer's heir became Hewer Edgeley-Hewer, and he
adopted the old Will Hewer home in
Clapham as his residence. That is
how the Edgeley family acquired the estates of both
Samuel Pepys and
Will Hewer, sister Anne inheriting Pepys' estate, and brother Hewer
inheriting that of Will Hewer. On the death of Hewer Edgeley-Hewer in
1728, the old Hewer estate went to Edgeley-Hewer's widow Elizabeth,
who left the 432-acre (175-hectare) estate to Levett Blackborne, the
son of Abraham Blackborne, merchant of Clapham, and other family
members, who later sold it off in lots. Lincoln's Inn barrister Levett
Blackborne also later acted as attorney in legal scuffles for the
heirs who had inherited the Pepys estate.
Pepys' former protégé and friend Hewer acted as the executor of
Pepys was buried along with his wife in
St Olave Hart Street
St Olave Hart Street in
Main article: Pepys Library
The Pepys Building of Magdalene College, Cambridge
Pepys Library c1870
Pepys was a lifelong bibliophile and carefully nurtured his large
collection of books, manuscripts, and prints. At his death, there were
more than 3,000 volumes, including the diary, all carefully catalogued
and indexed; they form one of the most important surviving
17th-century private libraries. The most important items in the
Library are the six original bound manuscripts of Pepys's diary, but
there are other remarkable holdings, including:
Incunabula by William Caxton, Wynkyn de Worde, and Richard Pynson
Sixty medieval manuscripts
The Pepys Manuscript, a late-15th-century English choirbook
Naval records such as two of the 'Anthony Rolls', illustrating the
Royal Navy's ships c. 1546, including the Mary Rose
Sir Francis Drake's personal almanac
Over 1,800 printed ballads, one of the finest collections in
Pepys made detailed provisions in his will for the preservation of his
book collection. His nephew and heir John Jackson died in 1723, when
it was transferred intact to Magdalene College, Cambridge, where it
can be seen in the Pepys Building. The bequest included all the
original bookcases and his elaborate instructions that placement of
the books "be strictly reviewed and, where found requiring it, more
Publication history of the diary
The six volumes of the diary manuscript
Motivated by the publication of Evelyn's Diary, Lord Granville
deciphered a few pages. John Smith (later the Rector of St Mary
the Virgin in Baldock) was then engaged to transcribe the diaries into
plain English. He laboured at this task for three years, from 1819 to
1822, unaware until nearly finished that a key to the shorthand system
was stored in Pepys' library a few shelves above the diary volumes.
Others had apparently succeeded in reading the diary earlier, perhaps
knowing about the key, because a work of 1812 quotes from a passage of
it. Smith's transcription, which is also kept in the Pepys
Library, was the basis for the first published edition of the diary,
edited by Lord Braybrooke, released in two volumes in 1825.
A second transcription, done with the benefit of the key, but often
less accurately, was completed in 1875 by Mynors Bright and published
in 1875–1879. This added about a third to the previously
published text, but still left only about 80% of the diary in
print. Henry B. Wheatley, drawing on both his predecessors,
produced a new edition in 1893–1899, revised in 1926, with
extensive notes and an index.
All of these editions omitted passages (chiefly about Pepys' sexual
adventures) which the editors thought too obscene ever to be printed.
Wheatley, in the preface to his edition noted, "a few passages which
cannot possibly be printed. It may be thought by some that these
omissions are due to an unnecessary squeamishness, but it is not
really so, and readers are therefore asked to have faith in the
judgement of the editor."
The complete, unexpurgated, and definitive edition, edited and
transcribed by Robert Latham and William Matthews, was published by
Bell & Hyman, London, and the University of California Press,
Berkeley, in nine volumes, along with separate Companion and Index
volumes, over the years 1970–1983. Various single-volume
abridgements of this text are also available.
The Introduction in volume I provides a scholarly but readable account
of "The Diarist", "The Diary" ("The Manuscript", "The Shorthand", and
"The Text"), "History of Previous Editions", "The
Literature", and "The
Diary as History". The Companion provides a long
series of detailed essays about Pepys and his world.
The first unabridged recording of the diary as an audiobook was
published in 2015 by Naxos AudioBooks.
On 1 January 2003 Phil Gyford started a weblog, pepysdiary.com, that
serialised the diary one day each evening together with annotations
from public and experts alike. In December 2003 the blog won the best
specialist blog award in The Guardian's Best of British Blogs.
In 1958 the BBC produced a serial called Samuel Pepys!, in which Peter
Sallis played the title role. In 2003 a television film The Private
Samuel Pepys aired on BBC2.
Steve Coogan played Pepys. The
Stage Beauty concerns
London theatre in the 17th century and
is based on Jeffrey Hatcher's play Compleat Female Stage Beauty, which
in turn was inspired by a reference in Pepys's diary to the actor
Edward Kynaston, who played female roles in the days when women were
forbidden to appear on stage. Pepys is a character in the film and is
portrayed as an ardent devotee of the theatre.
Hugh Bonneville plays
Daniel Mays portrays Pepys in The Great Fire, a 2014 BBC
television miniseries. Pepys has also been portrayed in various other
film and television productions, played by diverse actors including
Mervyn Johns, Michael Palin,
Michael Graham Cox
Michael Graham Cox and Philip Jackson.
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 has broadcast serialised radio dramatisations of the
diary. In the 1990s it was performed as a Classic Serial starring Bill
Nighy, and in the 2010s it was serialised as part of the Woman's
Hour radio magazine programme. One audiobook edition of Pepys'
diary selections is narrated by Kenneth Branagh. A fictionalised Pepys
narrates the second chapter of Harry Turtledove's science fiction
A Different Flesh (serialised 1985–1988, book form 1988). This
chapter is entitled "And So to Bed" and written in the form of entries
from the Pepys diary. The entries detail Pepys' encounter with
Homo erectus specimens (imported to
London as beasts of
burden) and his formation of the "transformational theory of life,"
thus causing evolutionary theory to gain a foothold in scientific
thought in the 17th century rather than the 19th. Deborah Swift's 2017
novel Pleasing Mr Pepys is described as a "re-imagining of the events
in Samuel Pepys's Diary".
This pub in Mayfair was named after Pepys; it closed in 2008
Several detailed studies of Pepys' life are available. Arthur Bryant
published his three-volume study in 1933–1938, long before the
definitive edition of the diary, but, thanks to Bryant's lively style,
it is still of interest. In 1974
Richard Ollard produced a new
biography that drew on Latham's and Matthew's work on the text,
benefitting from the author's deep knowledge of Restoration politics.
Other biographies include: Samuel Pepys: A Life, by Stephen Coote
(London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2000) and,
Samuel Pepys and His
World, by Geoffrey Trease (London: Thames and Hudson, 1972).
The most recent general study is by Claire Tomalin, which won the 2002
Whitbread Book of the Year award, the judges calling it a "rich,
thoughtful and deeply satisfying" account that unearths "a wealth of
material about the uncharted life of Samuel Pepys".
John Evelyn – contemporary diarist
Samuel Pepys Club
Samuel Pepys FAQ". Retrieved 28 May 2017.
^ Ollard, 1984, ch. 16
^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.287, Pepys, Earl of Cottenham
^ Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.1015, Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury
^ "- British Armorial Bindings". utoronto.ca. Retrieved 17 September
^ Debretts Peerage, 1968, p.287
^ Tomalin (2002), p3. "He was born in London, above the shop, just off
Fleet Street, in Salisbury Court."
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Knighton (2004)
^ Wheatley 1893, Particulars of the life of Samuel Pepys: "but the
place of birth is not known with certainty. Samuel Knight, … (having
married Hannah Pepys, daughter of
Talbot Pepys of Impington), says
positively that it was at Brampton"
^ Trease 1972, p.6
^ "National Portrait Gallery website: Elizabeth (sic) Pepys".
npg.org.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
Samuel Pepys – The Unequalled Self', Claire Tomalin, p.28
^ Trease 1972, p.13, 17
^ Knighton (2004). This was because religious ceremonies were not
legally recognised during the Interregnum. The couple regularly
celebrated the anniversary of the first date.
^ Trease 1972, p.16
^ The procedure, described by Pepys as being "cut of the stone", was
conducted without anaesthetics or antiseptics and involved restraining
the patient with ropes and four strong men. The surgeon then made an
incision along the perineum (between the scrotum and the anus), about
three inches (8 cm) long and deep enough to cut into the bladder.
The stone was removed through this opening with pincers from below,
assisted, from above, by a tool inserted into the bladder through the
penis. A detailed description can be found in Tomalin (2002)
^ The stone was described as being the size of a tennis ball.
Presumably a real tennis ball, which is slightly smaller than a modern
lawn tennis ball, but still an unusually large stone
^ On Monday 26 March 1660, he wrote, in his diary, "This day it is two
years since it pleased God that I was cut of the stone at Mrs.
Turner's in Salisbury Court. And did resolve while I live to keep it a
festival, as I did the last year at my house, and for ever to have
Mrs. Turner and her company with me."
^ There are references in the
Diary to pains in his bladder, whenever
he caught cold. In April 1700, Pepys wrote, to his nephew Jackson, "It
has been my calamity for much the greatest part of this time to have
been kept bedrid, under an evil so rarely known as to have had it
matter of universal surprise and with little less general opinion of
its dangerousness; namely, that the cicatrice of a wound occasioned
upon my cutting of the stone, without hearing anything of it in all
this time, should after more than 40 years' perfect cure, break out
again." After Pepys' death, the post-mortem examination showed his
left kidney was completely ulcerated; seven stones, weighing
four-and-a-half ounces (130 g), also were found. His bladder was
gangrenous, and the old wound was broken open again.
^ Edmund Lodge, The Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire",
Published 1861 (page 835)
^ "Legends of British History: Samuel Pepys". The
Diary of Samuel
Pepys. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ Kuiper, Kathleen (2011). Prose: Literary Terms and Concepts. New
York: Rosen Publishing. p. 206. ISBN 1615304940.
^ Pepys, Samuel (2000). Latham, Robert; Latham, Linnet, eds. A Pepys
anthology : passages from the diary of
Samuel Pepys (1. UK
paperback ed.). Berkeley [u.a.]: Univ. of California Pr.
^ "BBC – Primary History – Famous People – Samuel Pepys".
bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ "Pepys coded passages". pepys.info. Retrieved 17 September
^ This mention of Elizabeth Pepys' menstruation was omitted from the
bowdlerised Wheatley transcription published in 1893 and used
throughout this article. The quotation here uses the copyrighted
Latham and Mathews edition to restore the text.
Samuel Pepys FAQ". pepys.info. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ Bryant, The Years of Peril, p. 25.
^ Kennedy, Maev (13 November 2015). "Samuel Pepys' other diary on
display in new exhibition". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November
^ Knighton (2004).
^ "Short biography [of] Pepys".
Pepys Library website. Archived from
the original on 7 February 2009.
^ Tomalin (2004), p. 167
^ a b Tomalin (2004), p. 168
^ Tomalin (2004), p. 168
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 31 December 1665.
^ Tomalin (2004), pp. 174–5
^ Tomalin (2004), pp. 177–8
^ a b Tomalin (2004), p. 230
^ Tomalin (2004), p. 232
^ Biography of Thomas Greeting The Pleasant Companion-The Flageolets
^ Bryson, Bill. At Home, A Short History of Private Life, Random
House, 2010, p 122
^ Mystery of Pepys' affair solved BBC News 24 14 October 2006
^ Peter Cunningham, The Story of Nell Gwyn, Gordon Goodwin, ed.,
Edinburgh, John Grant, 1908; pp. 12, 171.
Diary entry of 8 December 1665.
^ Bryson, Bill. At Home, A Short History of Private Life, Random
House, 2010, p 123 (quoting the Dictionary of National Biography)
^ Tomalin (2002), p. xii-xiii.
^ Latham & Matthews (1970–83), Vol. X – Companion.
^ In Latham and Matthews's Companion to the diary, Martin Howard Stein
suggests that Pepys suffered from a combination of astigmatism and
^ One of his clerks was
Paul Lorrain who became well known as Ordinary
of Newgate Prison
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Monday, 31 May 1669.
^ C. S. Knighton. "Pepys, Samuel (1633–1703), naval official and
diarist". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 July
^ Henning, Basil Duke (1983). The House of Commons, 1660–1690. III,
Members M–Y. London: Secker & Warburg. p. 226.
^ Wheatley 1893 "Shaftesbury and the others not having succeeded in
getting at Pepys through his clerk, soon afterwards attacked him more
directly, using the infamous evidence of Colonel Scott"
^ Fox, Celina (2007). "The Ingenious Mr Dummer: Rationalizing the
Royal Navy in Late Seventeenth-Century England" (PDF). Electronic
Library Journal. p. 22. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
^ Eric W. Weisstein. "Newton-Pepys Problem". Wolfram MathWorld.
Retrieved 28 June 2008.
^ S. M. Stigler, '
Isaac Newton as Probabilist,' Statistical Science,
Vol. 21 (2006), pp. 400–403
^ Pepys, Samuel; Latham, Robert; Matthews, William (2001). The Diary
of Samuel Pepys: A New and Complete Transcription, Volume 10 (Footnote
on Will Hewer). University of California Press. p. 182.
ISBN 9780520227156. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ Will Hewer, The
Diary of Samuel Pepys, Samuel Pepys, 1899.
Pepys Library Website". cam.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2
March 2000. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ "UCSB English Broadside Ballad Archive". ucsb.edu. Archived from the
original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
^ J.A. Hammerton, Outline of Great Books, New York, Wise & Co.,
^ Bryson, Bill (2010), At home: a short history of private life, New
York: Doubleday, pp. 211–212, ISBN 978-0385533591.
Samuel Pepys Diary".
^ Wheatley, Henry (1893).
Diary of Samuel Pepys. Geo. Bell & Sons.
^ Wheatley 1893
^ Gyford, Phil (4 August 2011). "New unabridged diary audiobook in
2015". www.pepysdiary.com. Pepys Diary. Retrieved 18 September
^ "The best of British blogging". The Guardian. 18 December 2003.
Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. prize went to Phil
Gyford's remarkable Pepys' Diary.
^ Anomymous (3 Jan 1995). "The
Diary of Samuel Pepys: A Radio 4
Classic Serial (BBC Classic Collection)". www.amazon.co.uk. BBC
Audiobooks Ltd. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
^ Gyford, Phil (4 August 2011). "New BBC Pepys radio drama".
www.pepysdiary.com. Pepys Diary. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
^ "Pleasing Mr Pepys". Deborah Swift. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
Bryant, Arthur (1933).
Samuel Pepys (I: The man in the making. II: The
years of peril. III: The saviour of the navy) (Revised 1948. Reprinted
1934, 1961, etc. ed.). Cambridge: University Press.
LCC +B8&searchType=1&recCount=25 DA447.P4 B8.
Ollard, Richard (1984). Pepys: a biography (First published 1974 ed.).
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281466-4.
Tomalin, Claire (2002). Samuel Pepys: the unequalled self. London:
Viking. ISBN 0-670-88568-1.
Trease, Geoffrey (1972).
Samuel Pepys and his world. Norwich, Great
Britain: Jorrold and Son.
Andrew Godsell "Samuel Pepys: A Man and His Diary" in "Legends of
British History" 2008
C. S. Knighton, ‘Pepys, Samuel (1633–1703)’, Oxford Dictionary
of National Biography, (Oxford University Press, 2004).
Editions of letters and other publications by Pepys
Wheatley, Henry B., ed. (1893). The
Samuel Pepys M.A. F.R.S.
London: George Bell & Sons.
Pepys, Samuel (1995) Robert Latham ed.
Samuel Pepys and the Second
Dutch War. Pepys's Navy White Book and Brooke House Papers Aldershot:
Scholar Press for the Navy Records Society [Publications, Vol 133]
Pepys, Samuel (2004). C. S. Knighton, ed. Pepys's later diaries.
Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3656-8.
Pepys, Samuel (2005). Guy de la Bedoyere, ed. Particular friends: the
Samuel Pepys and
John Evelyn (2nd ed.). Woodbridge:
Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 1-84383-134-1.
Pepys, Samuel (2006). Guy de la Bedoyere, ed. The letters of Samuel
Pepys, 1656–1703. Woodbridge: Boydell.
Seal, Jeremy (2003). "The Wreck Detectives: Stirling Castle". Channel
4. Retrieved 6 June 2006. – Some historical background on
Pepys and the Royal Navy.
Volume I. Introduction and 1660. ISBN 0-7135-1551-1
Volume II. 1661. ISBN 0-7135-1552-X
Volume III. 1662. ISBN 0-7135-1553-8
Volume IV. 1663. ISBN 0-7135-1554-6
Volume V. 1664. ISBN 0-7135-1555-4
Volume VI. 1665. ISBN 0-7135-1556-2
Volume VII. 1666. ISBN 0-7135-1557-0
Volume VIII. 1667. ISBN 0-7135-1558-9
Volume IX. 1668–9. ISBN 0-7135-1559-7
Volume X. Companion. ISBN 0-7135-1993-2
Volume XI. Index. ISBN 0-7135-1994-0
C. S. Knighton, Pepys and the Navy (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2003).
N. A. M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain,
1649–1815 (London: 2004 / New York: 2005). Includes an extensive
specialist annotated bibliography.
James Long and Ben Long, The Plot Against Pepys (Woodstock, NY and New
York: Overlook Press, 2007). ISBN 978-1-59020-069-8. A detailed
account of the Popish Plot and Pepys' involvement in it, 1679–1680.
C. Driver and M. Berridale-Johnson, Pepys at Table (London: Bell &
Stephen Coote, Samuel Pepys: A Life (London: Hodder and Stoughton,
Find more aboutSamuel Pepysat's sister projects
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Samuel Pepys at Project Gutenberg
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Portals about Pepys
Phil Gyford's Samuel Pepys' diary, which provides a daily entry from
the diary, detailed background articles, plus annotations from
Duncan Grey's pages on Pepys
Pepys library online at Magdalene College, Cambridge, including an
essay by Robert Latham
Magdalene College Libraries' Blog, including the Pepys Library
Pepys Ballad Archive
Samuel Pepys Club
Pepys, Visits[permanent dead link]
Internet Movies Database: list of actors who have portrayed Pepys in
Parliament of England
Sir Robert Paston
Sir John Trevor
Member of Parliament for Castle Rising
With: Sir John Trevor
Sir Robert Howard
Sir John Trevor
Sir Capel Luckyn
Member of Parliament for Harwich
With: Anthony Deane
Sir Thomas Middleton
Sir Philip Parker
Sir Thomas Middleton
Sir Philip Parker
Member of Parliament for Harwich
With: Anthony Deane
Sir Thomas Middleton
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Thomas Henry Huxley
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William Thomson (1890)
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Archibald Geikie (1908)
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J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson (1915)
Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington (1920)
Ernest Rutherford (1925)
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1930)
William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg (1935)
Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale (1940)
Robert Robinson (1945)
Edgar Adrian (1950)
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (1955)
Howard Florey (1960)
Patrick Blackett (1965)
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1970)
Lord Todd (1975)
Andrew Huxley (1980)
George Porter (1985)
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Aaron Klug (1995)
Robert May (2000)
Martin Rees (2005)
Paul Nurse (2010)
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (2015)
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