Samuel Gompers  (January 27, 1850 – December 13, 1924) was
an English-born American labor union leader and a key figure in
American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of
Labor (AFL), and served as the organization's president from 1886 to
1894, and from 1895 until his death in 1924. He promoted harmony among
the different craft unions that comprised the AFL, trying to minimize
jurisdictional battles. He promoted thorough organization and
collective bargaining, to secure shorter hours and higher wages, the
first essential steps, he believed, to emancipating labor. He also
encouraged the AFL to take political action to "elect their friends"
and "defeat their enemies". He mostly supported Democrats, but
sometimes Republicans. He strongly opposed Socialists. During World
War I, Gompers and the AFL openly supported the war effort, attempting
to avert strikes and boost morale while raising wage rates and
1 Early life
2 Young worker at the bench
Cigar Makers' International Union
Cigar Makers' International Union career
4 Leading the AFL
4.1 Immigration and foreign affairs
5 Death and legacy
6.1 Other books and pamphlets
7 See also
9 Further reading
9.1 Archival collections
10 External links
Samuel Gompers was born on January 27, 1850, in London, England into a
Jewish family that originally hailed from Amsterdam. When he was
six, Samuel was sent to the Jewish Free School, where he received a
basic education. His elementary school career was brief, however,
since a mere three months after his tenth birthday Gompers was removed
from school and sent to work as an apprentice cigar maker to help earn
money for his impoverished family.
Gompers was able to continue his studies in night school, however,
during which time he learned
Hebrew and studied the Talmud, a process
that he long later recalled was akin to studying law. Gompers
Hebrew in his youth, but held
Yiddish in low regard.
Young worker at the bench
Gompers as he appeared in 1894
Owing to dire financial straits, the Gompers family immigrated to the
United States in 1863, settling in the
Lower East Side
Lower East Side of
New York City. Gompers' father was engaged in the manufacture of
cigars at home, assisted for the first year and half by Samuel. In
his free time, the young teenager formed a debate club with his
friends, an activity that provided practical experience in public
speaking and parliamentary procedure. The club drew Gompers into
contact with other upwardly mobile young men of the city, including a
Irish-American named Peter J. McGuire, who later would play a
large role in the AFL.
In 1864, at the age of 14, Gompers joined and became involved in the
activities of the Cigar Makers Local Union No. 15, the
English-speaking union of cigar makers in New York City. Gompers
later recounted his days as a cigar maker at the bench in detail,
emphasizing the place of craftsmanship in the production process:
Any kind of an old loft served as a cigar shop. If there were enough
windows, we had sufficient light for our work; if not, it was
apparently no concern of the management.... Cigar shops were always
dusty from the tobacco stems and powdered leaves. Benches and work
tables were not designed to enable the workmen to adjust bodies and
arms comfortably to [the] work surface. Each workman supplied his own
cutting board of lignum vitae and knife blade.
The tobacco leaf was prepared by strippers who drew the leaves from
the heavy stem and put them into pads of about fifty. The leaves had
to be handled carefully to prevent tearing. The craftsmanship of the
cigarmaker was shown in his ability to utilize wrappers to the best
advantage to shave off the unusable to a hairbreadth, to roll so as to
cover holes in the leaf and to use both hands so as to make a
perfectly shaped and rolled product. These things a good cigarmaker
learned to do more or less mechanically, which left us free to think,
talk, listen, or sing. I loved the freedom of that work, for I had
earned the mind-freedom that accompanied skill as a craftsman. I was
eager to learn from discussion and reading or to pour out my feelings
The day after his seventeenth birthday he married his co-worker,
sixteen-year-old Sophia Julian. They had a series of children in
rapid succession, with six surviving infancy.
In 1873, Gompers moved to the cigar maker David Hirsch & Company,
a "high-class shop where only the most skilled workmen were
employed". Gompers later called this change of employers "one of
the most important changes in my life", for at Hirsch's—a union shop
operated by an émigré German socialist—Gompers came into contact
with an array of German-speaking cigar makers—"men of keener
mentality and wider thought than any I had met before," he
recalled. Gompers learned German and absorbed many of the ideas of
his shop mates, developing a particular admiration for the ideas of
the former secretary of the International Workingmen's Association,
Karl Laurrell. Laurrell took Gompers under his wing, challenging
his more simplistic ideas and urging Gompers to put his faith in the
organized economic movement of trade unionism rather than the
socialist political movement.
Gompers later recalled:
I remember asking Laurrell whether in his opinion I ought to keep in
touch with the Socialist movement. He replied, 'Go to their meetings
by all means, listen to what they have to say and understand them, but
do not join the Party.' I never did, though it was my habit to attend
their Saturday evening meetings. There were often good speakers
present and the discussions were stimulating.
Time and again, under the lure of new ideas, I went to Laurrell with
glowing enthusiasm. Laurrel would gently say, 'Study your union card,
Sam, and if the idea doesn't square with that, it ain't true.' My
trade union card came to be my standard in all new problems.
Gompers complained that the socialist movement had been captured by
Lassallean advocates of "political party action" rather than the
"militant economic program of Marx". He warned delegates to the
1900 annual convention that when men became enthusiastic about
socialism, "they usually lost interest in their union".
Cigar Makers' International Union
Cigar Makers' International Union career
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Gompers was elected president of Cigar Makers' International Union
Local 144 in 1875.
As was the case with other unions of the day, the Cigar Maker's Union
nearly collapsed in the financial crisis of 1877, in which
unemployment skyrocketed and ready availability of desperate workers
willing to labor for subsistence wages put pressure upon the gains in
wages and the shortening of hours achieved in union shops. Gompers and
Adolph Strasser used Local 144 as a base to rebuild the
Cigar Makers' Union, introducing a high dues structure and
implementing programs to pay out-of-work benefits, sick benefits, and
death benefits for union members in good standing.
Gompers told the workers they needed to organize because wage
reductions were almost a daily occurrence. The capitalists were only
interested in profits, "and the time has come when we must assert our
rights as workingmen. Every one present has the sad experience, that
we are powerless in an isolated condition, while the capitalists are
united; therefore it is the duty of every Cigar Maker to join the
organization... One of the main objects of the organization," he
concluded, "is the elevation of the lowest paid worker to the standard
of the highest, and in time we may secure for every person in the
trade an existence worthy of human beings."
He was elected second vice president of the Cigar Makers'
International Union in 1886, and first vice president in 1896. Despite
the commitment of time and energy entailed by his place as head of the
American Federation of Labor, Gompers remained first vice president of
the Cigar Makers until his death in December 1924.
Leading the AFL
Gompers helped found the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor
Unions in 1881 as a coalition of like-minded unions. In 1886 it was
reorganized into the American Federation of Labor, with Gompers as its
president. With the exception of one year, 1895, he would remain
president of the organization until his death.
Shortly before his death, Gompers (right) sat down with 1924
independent presidential hopeful, Robert M. La Follette Sr.
Under Gompers's tutelage, the AFL coalition gradually gained strength,
undermining the position previously held by the Knights of Labor,
which as a result, had almost vanished by 1900. He was nearly jailed
in 1911 for publishing, with John Mitchell, a boycott list, but the
Supreme Court overturned the sentence in Gompers v. Buck's Stove and
Immigration and foreign affairs
Gompers, who had ties with the Cuban cigar workers in the U.S., called
for American intervention in Cuba; he supported the resulting war with
Spain in 1898. After the war, however, he joined the Anti-Imperialist
League to oppose President William McKinley's plan to annex the
Philippines. Mandel (1963) argues that his anti-imperialism was based
on opportunistic fears of threats to labor's status from low-paid
offshore workers and was founded on a sense of racial superiority to
the peoples of the Philippines.
By the 1890s, Gompers was planning an international federation of
labor, starting with the expansion of AFL affiliates in Canada,
especially Ontario. He helped the Canadian Trades and Labour Congress
with money and organizers, and by 1902, the AFL dominated the Canadian
Gompers, like most labor leaders, opposed unrestricted immigration
from Europe because it lowered wages. He strongly opposed all
immigration from Asia because it lowered wages and, in his judgement,
represented an alien culture that could not be assimilated easily into
that of the U.S. He and the AFL strongly supported the Chinese
Exclusion Act of 1882 that banned the immigration of Chinese. The AFL
was instrumental in passing immigration restriction laws from the
1890s to the 1920s, such as the 1921
Emergency Quota Act
Emergency Quota Act and the
Immigration Act of 1924, and seeing that they were strictly enforced.
At least one study concludes that the link between the AFL and the
Democratic Party rested in large part on immigration issues, as the
owners of large corporations wanted more immigration and thus,
supported the Republican Party. Other scholars have seriously
questioned this conclusion, arguing it oversimplifies the politics and
unity of labor leaders and the major parties. As one reviewer argued
in The Journal of American History, major Republican leaders, such as
William McKinley and Senator Mark Hanna, made pro-labor
statements, many unions supported their own independent labor parties,
and unity within the AFL was never so extensive as claimed.
Gompers poses with American officers for a photograph in front of an
Italian villa, 1918
World War I
World War I Gompers was a strong supporter of the war effort.
He was appointed by President Wilson to the Council of National
Defense, where he chaired the Labor Advisory Board. He attended the
Paris Peace Conference in 1919 as an official advisor on labor
During a severe period of national economic recession in the early
1890s, labor unrest was at its height. A volatile situation in Chicago
in August 1893 caused the city’s then mayor, Carter Henry Harrison,
to warn that the preponderance of the unemployed would lead to riots
that would “shake the country”, unless Congress interceded. In
late August 1893, Gompers addressed 25,000 unemployed workers who had
massed on the shore of Lake Michigan. As reported in the Chicago
Tribune on August 31, Gompers inveighed against the controllers of
capital and the titans of industry and finance. “Why should the
wealth of the country be stored in banks and elevators while the idle
workman wanders homeless about the streets and the idle loafers who
hoard the gold only to spend it on riotous living are rolling about in
fine carriages from which they look out on peaceful meetings and call
Gompers began his labor career familiar with, and sympathetic to,
Georgism and the precepts of socialism, but gradually adopted
a more conservative approach to labor relations. Labor Historian
Melvyn Dubofsky has written, "By 1896 Gompers and the AFL were moving
to make their peace with Capitalism and the American system...
Although the AFL had once preached the inevitability of class conflict
and the need to abolish 'wage slavery', it slowly and almost
imperceptibly began to proclaim the virtues of class harmony and the
possibilities of a more benevolent Capitalism." For example, Alex
Heron attributes the following quote to Gompers: "The greatest crime
an employer can perpetrate on his employees is to fail to operate at a
profit". Gompers began to take a neutral stance in politics after
the failure of the efforts to elect
Henry George as mayor of New York,
but Gompers remained a
Single Tax Georgist later in life.
Gompers's philosophy of labor unions centered on economic ends for
workers, such as higher wages, shorter hours, and safe working
conditions so that they could enjoy an "American" standard of
living—a decent home, decent food and clothing, and money enough to
educate their children. He thought economic organization was the
most direct way to achieve these improvements, but he did encourage
union members to participate in politics and to vote with their
economic interests in mind.
Gompers's trade union philosophy and his devotion to collective
bargaining with business proved to be too conservative for more
radical leaders, such as Ed Boyce, president of the Western Federation
of Miners (WFM), and, later, WFM secretary-treasurer Bill Haywood. In
1905, Haywood and the WFM helped to establish the Industrial Workers
of the World (IWW), whose members were known as Wobblies, with the
goal of organizing the entire working class. The IWW's long-term goal
was to supplant capitalism with a workers' commonwealth.
Nonetheless, when government abuses against the leaders of the WFM
seemed too egregious, Gompers relented and offered assistance.
Gompers and his AFL unions vigorously fought the IWW in the U.S. and
in Latin America, as a disruptive dual union that tried harder to
destroy capitalism than to help workers. He cooperated with widespread
government arrests of union leaders for the IWW's militant opposition
to the World War. He said, "the IWW's...are exactly what the
Bolsheviki are in Russia, and we have seen what the IWW Bolsheviki in
Russia have done for the working people." The IWW was practically
defunct by 1920.
Gompers led the anti-Socialist faction inside the AFL, losing to them
only once, in 1894. He argued that socialists believed workers and
unions could never co-exist with business interests and wanted to use
the labor unions to advance their more radical political causes. By
1920 Gompers had largely marginalized Socialist influence to a few
unions, notably coal miners and the needle trades.
Gompers was a leading Freemason, reaching the 32º in the Scottish
Rite Valley of Washington in 1906. In 1920 he wrote, "In my Masonic
life I have visited lodges in many lands, and I have learned that
Freemasonry in many countries, particularly in Latin countries, is the
principal means whereby freedom of conscience, of thought, and
expression is preserved."
Death and legacy
Gompers' grave site
Gompers' health went into serious decline starting in February 1923,
when a serious bout of influenza sent him to the hospital, sidelining
him from work for six weeks. No sooner had he recovered from the
influenza, than he was stricken by a case of bronchitis that laid him
low again. By June 1924 Gompers, who suffered from diabetes, could
no longer walk without assistance, and he was hospitalized again, this
time suffering from congestive heart failure and uremia.
He collapsed in Mexico City on Saturday, December 6, 1924, while
attending a meeting of the Pan-American Federation of Labor. It
was recognized that his condition was critical and that he might not
survive for long. Gompers expressed the desire to die on American soil
and he was placed aboard a special train that sped toward the
border. He died in San Antonio, Texas. Gompers was buried at the
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Gompers is buried
only a few yards away from industrialist Andrew Carnegie, another
important figure of industry in the Gilded Age.
Gompers inspired later generations of labor leaders, such as George
Meany, who paid tribute to Gompers as a European immigrant who
pioneered a distinctly American brand of unionism.
During the early 1920s, Gompers resided in this
Dupont Circle home in
His belief led to the development of procedures for collective
bargaining and contracts between labor and management that remain in
use today. In practice, AFL unions were important in industrial
cities, where they formed a central labor office to coordinate the
actions of different AFL unions. Issues of wages and hours were the
usual causes of strikes, but many strikes were assertions of
jurisdiction, so that the plumbers, for example, used strikes to
ensure that all major construction projects in the city used union
plumbers. In this goal they were ideally supported by all the other
construction unions in the AFL fold.
Gompers is the subject of statuary in several major American cities. A
bronze monument honoring Gompers by the sculptor Robert Aitken is in
Gompers Square on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C.. On
September 3, 2007, a life-size statue of Gompers was unveiled at
Gompers Park, named after the labor leader in 1929, on the northwest
side of Chicago. This is the first statue of a labor leader in
Chicago. Local unions throughout
Chicago donated their time and money
to build the monument. A U.S. Navy support ship and an entire
class of U.S. Navy destroyer tenders were named for Gompers. The
Samuel Gompers Houses, a public housing development on the Lower East
Side of New York, is named in his honor. There are schools
named for Gompers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Madison, Wisconsin,
and Phoenix, Arizona.
Samuel Gompers Memorial
Samuel Gompers Memorial near Eleventh and Massachusetts Avenue, NW in
Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography. In two volumes. New
York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1925.
Samuel Gompers Papers. Stuart Bruce Kaufman, Peter J. Albert, and
Grace Palladino (eds.) In twelve volumes. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 1989–2010.
Other books and pamphlets
Address of Samuel Gompers, Before the Arbitration Conference, Held at
Chicago, Ill. Dec. 17, 1900, Under the Auspices of the National Civic
Federation. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1901.
Meat vs. Rice: American Manhood against Asiatic Coolieism: Who Shall
Survive? Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1902.
Organized Labor: Its Struggles, Its Enemies and Fool Friends.
Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, n.d. .
Essence of Labor's Contention on the Injunction Abuse. Washington,
D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1908.
Speech Delivered October 13, 1908, at Dayton, Ohio. Denver:
Carson-Harper, n.d. .
Justice Wright's Denial of Free Speech and Free Press. Washington,
D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1909.
Labor in Europe and America: Personal Observations from an American
Viewpoint of Life and Conditions of Working Men in Great Britain,
France, Holland, Germany, Italy, ... [etc.]. New York: Harper
The McNamara Case; Also, an Appeal for Funds to Secure a Fair and
Impartial Trial. n.c. [Washington, D.C.]: McNamara Ways and Means
Committee, n.d. .
Investigation of Taylor System of Shop Management: Hearings before...
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1911.
The American Labor Movement: Its Makeup, Achievements and Aspirations.
Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, n.d. .
The Attitude of the
American Federation of Labor
American Federation of Labor toward Industrial
Education. New York: C.S. Nathan, n.d. .
The Essence of the Clayton Law. Washington, D.C.: American Federation
of Labor, n.d. .
The Double Edge of Labor's Sword: Discussion and Testimony on
socialism and Trade-Unionism before the Commission on Industrial
Morris Hillquit and Max S. Hayes. Chicago: Socialist
Party National Office, 1914.
Labor and Antitrust Legislation: The Facts, Theory and Argument: A
Brief and Appeal. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor,
The Workers and the Eight-Hour Workday; And, the Shorter Workday: Its
Philosophy. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, n.d.
Preparedness for National Defense: An Address Delivered before the
Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the National Civic Federation on January
18, 1916, at Washington... Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
America's Fight for the Preservation of Democracy: An Address
Samuel Gompers at Minneapolis, Minn.: And the Declaration
of Principles. n.c. [Washington, D.C.]: American Alliance for Labor
and Democracy, 1917.
Address by Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of
Labor: Under the Auspices of the National Security League at Chicago,
September 14, 1917. New York: National Security League, 1917.
Should a Political Labor Party be Formed? An address by Samuel
Gompers... to a labor conference held at New York city, December 9,
1918. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1918.
Labour and the War: Speeches Delivered in the Canadian House of
Commons, April 26, 1918 and Before the Canadian Club, Ottawa, April
27, 1918. Ottawa: [government publication], 1918.
American Labor and the War. New York: G. H. Doran, 1919.
Labor and the Common Welfare. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1919.
Labor and the Employer. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1920.
Collective Bargaining: Labor's Proposal to Insure Greater Industrial
Peace: With Questions and Answers Explaining the Principle.
Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, 1920.
Samuel Gompers and Henry J. Allen at Carnegie Hall, New
York, May 28, 1920. With Harry Justin Allen. New York: E. P. Dutton
and Co., 1920.
[Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Labor, The Eight-Hour
Workday: Its Inauguration, Enforcement, and Influences]. Washington,
D.C.: American Federation of Labor, n.d. .
Labor's Protest against a Rampant Tragedy. Washington, D.C.: American
Federation of Labor, 1920.
Samuel Gompers on the Kansas Court of Industrial Relations Law: "Laws
to make strikes unlawful will not prevent them." Washington, D.C.:
American Federation of Labor, 1920.
Letters to a Bishop: Correspondence between Samuel Gompers, President
of the American Federation of Labor, and Bishop William A. Quayle, of
the Methodist Episcopal Church. Washington, D.C.: American Federation
of Labor, 1920.
The Union Shop and Its Antithesis. Washington, D.C.: American
Federation of Labor, 1920.
The Truth about Soviet Russia and Bolshevism. Washington, D.C.:
American Federation of Labor, n.d. .
Out of Their Own Mouths: A Revelation and an Indictment of Sovietism.
With William English Walling. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1921.
The Fundamental Issues: Present Industrial Controversies an Expression
of Vital Conflict between Industry and Finance. New York: New York
Correspondence between Mr. Newton D. Baker, President of the Cleveland
Chamber of Commerce and Mr. Samuel Gompers, President of the American
Federation of Labor. With Newton D. Baker. Washington, D.C.: American
Federation of Labor, 1923.
Address of Samuel Gompers, President of the American Federation of
Labor: Before the Convention of the United Hatters of North America,
New York City, April 16, 1923. Washington, D.C.: American Federation
of Labor, n.d. .
"The Limitations of Conciliation and Arbitration", Annals of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 20 (July 1902),
pp. 29–34. in JSTOR
"Organized Labor's Attitude toward Child Labor", Annals of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 27 (March
1906), pp. 79–83. in JSTOR
"Attitude of Labor towards Government Regulation of Industry", Annals
of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 32 (July
1908), pp. 75–81. in JSTOR
"Free Speech and the Injunction Order", Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science, vol. 36, no. 2 (September 1910),
pp. 1–10. in JSTOR
"European War Influences upon American Industry and Labor", Annals of
the American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 61,
(September 1915), pp. 4–10. in JSTOR
"Labor Standards after the War", Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science, vol. 81 (January 1919),
pp. 182–186. in JSTOR
"The Development and Accessibility of Production Records Essential to
Intelligent and Just Determination of Wage-Rates", Annals of the
American Academy of Political and Social Science, vol. 100 (March
1922), pp. 54–55. in JSTOR
Organized labour portal
Cigar Makers' International Union
^ His name sometimes appears as "Samuel L. Gompers", but he had no
^ Samuel Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor. 1925; vol. 1, p. 2.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 6.
^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 6-7.
^ In his posthumously-published memoirs, Gompers notes, "I was taught
Hebrew -— not the mongrel language spoken and written by many Jews
of the present age." See: Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor,
vol. 1, p. 6.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 24, 35.
^ a b Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 28.
^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 38.
^ Gompers, Seventy Years of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 44-45.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 35-36.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 68.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 68-69.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 70.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, pp. 74-75.
^ Gompers, Seventy Year of Life and Labor, vol. 1, p. 84.
^ Stuart Bruce Kaufman, Peter J. Albert and Grace Palladino, eds. The
Samuel Gompers Papers (1996) vol 5 p 284
^ Mandel, Samuel Gompers: A Biography, 1963, p. 22.
^ Mandel, Gompers pp 201-204
^ Robert H. Babcock, Gompers in Canada: A Study in American
Continentalism before the First World War (1974)
^ Alexander Saxton, The indispensable enemy: Labor and the
anti-Chinese movement in California (1971).
^ Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political
Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875-1920, 1986.
^ Asher, "Review: Gwendolyn Mink, Old Labor and New Immigrants in
American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875-1920,"
Journal of American History, March 1988.
^ Frank L. Grubbs, The Struggle for Labor Loyalty: Gompers, the A. F.
of L., and the Pacifists, 1917–1920. (1968).
^ Larson, Erik, "Devil In The White City, Crown Publishers, 2003, p.
^ a b Gompers, Samuel (1986). The
Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of
a union leader, 1850-86, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press.
pp. 431–432. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
^ A Pictorial History of American Labor, William Cahn, 1972, page 139.
^ Melvyn Dubofsky, 'Big Bill' Haywood, 1987, page 17.
^ Heron, Professor A (1954) Reasonable Goals In Industrial Relations,
Stanford University Press,
^ Bernard Mandel, "Gompers and Business Unionism, 1873-90". Business
History Review 28:3 (September 1954)
^ Melvyn Dubofsky, We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial
Workers of the World. (2000)
^ Peter Carlson, Roughneck, The Life and Times of Big Bill Haywood,
1983, page 97.
^ Charles W. Toth, "Samuel Gompers, Communism, and the Pan American
Federation of Labor," The Americas (1967): 273-278. in JSTOR
^ John H.M. Laslett, Labor and the left: a study of socialist and
radical influences in the American labor movement, 1881-1924 (1970)
^ Daniel Bell (1996). Marxian
Socialism in the United States. Cornell
University Press. pp. 41–43, 63.
^ The Masonic Year. Masonic History Company. 1921.
^ a b c Peter J. Albert and Grace Palladino, "Introduction" to The
Samuel Gompers Papers: Volume 12: The Last Years, 1922-24. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 2010; p. xx.
^ The cause of the collapse was probably myocardial infarction,
although no medical diagnosis was ever reported.
^ "End Comes On Home Soil," Associated Press, December 14, 1924.
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Map" (PDF).
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Historic
Fund. 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
^ June 18, 1961, entry in Journals of David E. Lilienthal, 1971.
^ Philip Taft, The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers (1957); Mandel
Samuel Gompers Statue Unveiled", press release, Office of Ald.
Margaret Laurino, City of Chicago, September 3, 2007.
^ "Gompers, Samuel Houses". NYCHA Housing Developments. New York City
Housing Authority. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
^ "What's in a Name". About NYCHA. New York City Housing Authority.
Retrieved January 16, 2010.
Samuel Gompers - The School District of Philadelphia".
webgui.phila.k12.pa.us. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
^ "Welcome to the Gompers Elementary School Site Samuel Gompers
Elementary School". gompers.madison.k12.wi.us. Retrieved
^ "History". gompers.org. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
Babcock, Robert H., Gompers in Canada: A Study in American
Continentalism before the First World War. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1974.
Bernstein, Irving, The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker,
Bernstein, Irving, "
Samuel Gompers and Free Silver, 1896". Mississippi
Valley Historical Review, vol, 29, no. 3 (December 1942).
Buhle, Paul, Taking Care of Business: Samuel Gompers, George Meany,
Lane Kirkland, and the Tragedy of American Labor. New York: Monthly
Review Press, 1999.
Currarino, Rosanne, "The Politics of 'More': The Labor Question and
the Idea of Economic Liberty in Industrial America". Journal of
American History. 93:1 (June 2006). [Please remove this after
checking. Changed the publication year 2003->2006 Link:
http://archive.oah.org/issues/issues/931/index.html the first article.
Fink, Gary M., ed. Biographical Dictionary of American Labor.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984.
Foner, Philip S. History of the Labor Movement in the United States.
In 10 volumes. New York: International Publishers, 1947–1991.
Greene, Julie. Pure and Simple Politics: The American Federation of
Labor and Political Activism, 1881–1917. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1998.
Grubbs, Jr. Frank L. The Struggle for Labor Loyalty: Gompers, the A.
F. of L., and the Pacifists, 1917–1920. Durham, North Carolina: Duke
University Press, 1968.
Livesay, Harold C.
Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America.
Boston: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc., 1987.
Mandel, Bernard, Samuel Gompers: A Biography. New York: Penguin Group,
Mandel, Bernard, "Gompers and Business Unionism, 1873-90". Business
History Review. 28:3 (September 1954).
Mandel, Bernard, "
Samuel Gompers and the Negro Workers, 1886–1914".
Journal of Negro History. vol. 40, no. 1 (January 1955).
Mink, Gwendolyn, Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political
Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875–1920. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University Press, 1986.
Montgomery, David, The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the
State, and American Labor Activism, 1865–1925. New York: Press
Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1987.
Reed, Louis, The Labor Philosophy of Samuel Gompers. Columbia
University Press, 1930.
Taft, Philip, The A.F. of L. in the Time of Gompers. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1957.
Van Tine, Warren R., The Making of the Labor Bureaucrat: Union
Leadership in the United States, 1870–1920. 1973.
Whittaker, William George, "Samuel Gompers, Anti-Imperialist". Pacific
Historical Review. vol. 38, no. 4 (November 1969).
Samuel Gompers Centennial Committee Records. 2 Microfilm reels. At the
Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Samuel Gompers.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Samuel Gompers
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Works by or about
Samuel Gompers at Internet Archive
Samuel Gompers Papers Project website, University of Maryland,
College Park.—Includes index to published volumes of Gompers'
Samuel Gompers at Find a Grave
Samuel Gompers, "Labor's Service to Freedom". 1918 audio recording,
Library of Congress, American Memory Project.
AF of L President
AF of L President
Awards and achievements
John Pierpont Morgan, Jr.
Cover of Time
1 October 1923
H. H. Asquith
ISNI: 0000 0000 8129 9155
BNF: cb121348681 (data)