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The Sambians
Sambians
were one of the Prussian tribes. They inhabited the Sambia Peninsula
Sambia Peninsula
(Samland) north of the city of Königsberg
Königsberg
(now Kaliningrad). Sambians
Sambians
were located in a coastal territory rich in amber and engaged in trade early on (see Amber
Amber
Road). Therefore, they established contacts with foreign nations before any other Prussians. However, as all other Prussians, they were conquered by the Teutonic Knights, and, exposed to assimilation and Germanization, became extinct sometime in the 17th century. Engaged in the amber trade, Sambia was the richest and most densely populated region of Prussia. It provides a wealth of artifacts from the Bronze Age, including imported goods from the Roman Empire. Sambians, unlike other Prussians, did not cremate their dead. They built earth barrows above graves and surrounded them with stone circles.[1] The name of the clan was first mentioned in 1073 by Adam of Bremen, who calls them "most humane people".[citation needed] Warfare with Danes
Danes
continued from the mid-9th century to beginning of the 13th century. It is known[by whom?] that there was Wiskiauten, a Viking
Viking
settlement in Sambia, that flourished for about 300 years. Swedes
Swedes
maintained more peaceful relations and fostered trade.[2] The 13th century saw the rise of another enemy, the Teutonic Knights, a crusading military order from the Holy Roman Empire. Its goal was to conquer all pagans and convert them to Roman Catholicism. The conquest of Sambia during the Prussian Crusade
Prussian Crusade
was delayed by the First Prussian Uprising that broke out in 1242. The uprising technically ended in 1249 by signing the Treaty of Christburg, but skirmishes lasted for four more years. Only in 1254–1255 could the Knights arrange a large campaign against the Sambians. King Ottokar II of Bohemia participated in the expedition and as a tribute the Knights named the newly founded Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle in his honor.[2] The Sambians
Sambians
rose against the Knights during the Great Prussian Uprising (1260–1274), but were the first ones to surrender. When other clans tried to resurrect the uprising in 1276 Theodoric, vogt of Sambia convinced the Sambians
Sambians
not to join the insurrection; Natangians
Natangians
and Warmians
Warmians
followed the Sambian lead and the uprising was crushed within a year.[3] The Bishopric of Samland
Bishopric of Samland
became one of four Prussian dioceses, the other three dioceses being Pomesania, Ermland, and Culm as arranged by the papal legate William of Modena. At the end of the 13th century, Sambians
Sambians
numbered only about 22,000.[4] They gave in to Germanization
Germanization
later than western tribes that were conquered earlier. According to Peter von Dusburg, Sambia was subdivided in 15 territorial units. Their German names (from east to west) are: Germau, Medenau, Rinau, Pobeten, Wargen, Rudau, Laptau, Quedenau, Schaaken, Waldau, Caimen, Tapiau, Labiau, Laukischken, and Wehlau.[2] References[edit]

^ Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 112. LCC 63018018.  ^ a b c Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Semba". Encyclopedia Lituanica. V. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 107–108. LCC 74-114275.  ^ Urban, William (2000). The Prussian Crusade
Prussian Crusade
(2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. pp. 344–345. ISBN 0-929700-28-7.  ^ Gimbutas, Marija. The Balts, 173.

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Clans of the Old Prussians

Included by modern historians:

Bartians Nadruvians Natangians Pogesanians Pomesanians Sambians Warmians

Included by Peter von Dusburg:

Galindians Kulmerland S

.