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Sambal or Sambali is a Sambalic language spoken primarily in the Zambal municipalities of Santa Cruz, Candelaria, Masinloc, Palauig, and Iba, and in the Pangasinense municipality of Infanta in the Philippines; speakers can also be found in Panitian, Quezon, Palawan and Barangay Mandaragat or Buncag of Puerto Princesa.[citation needed] Sambal is also termed Tina in some references. However, the term is considered offensive to the language's speakers. The pejorative term was first used in around the period 1976 to 1979 by researchers from the Summer Institute of Linguistics
Summer Institute of Linguistics
(now SIL International).[3]

Contents

1 Name 2 Phonology

2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants 2.3 Stress 2.4 Historical sound changes

3 Grammar

3.1 Nouns 3.2 Zambal Pronouns

3.2.1 Common singular pronouns 3.2.2 Common plural pronouns 3.2.3 Personal singular pronouns 3.2.4 Personal plural 3.2.5 Plural nominal article 3.2.6 Pronouns (Panghalip)

3.3 Demonstrative Pronouns 3.4 Enclitic Particles 3.5 Existential 3.6 Interrogative Words

4 Sample texts

4.1 Philippine national proverb 4.2 The Lord’s Prayer

4.2.1 Version from Matthew 4.2.2 Version from Luke

5 Examples

5.1 Loan words 5.2 Numbers 5.3 Common expressions

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Name[edit] The name Tina or Tina Sambal was used by Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) researchers 1976–1979.[4] It is considered pejorative by many Sambals as it means 'bleach', a pun in Sambal Botolan.[5][6] Sambals would not normally recognize the reference.[7] Phonology[edit]

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Sambali has 19 phonemes: 16 consonants and three vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Vowels[edit] Sambali has three vowels. They are:

/a/ an open front unrounded vowel similar to English ‘father’ /i/ a close front unrounded vowel similar to English ‘machine’ /u/ (written as ‘o’) a close back unrounded vowel similar to English ‘flute’

There are five main diphthongs: /aɪ/, /uɪ/, /aʊ/, /ij/, and /iʊ/. Consonants[edit] Below is a chart of Tina consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal

Stops Voiceless p t

k (-) [ʔ]

Voiced b d

g

Affricates Voiceless

(ts) [tʃ]

Voiced

Fricatives

s

h

Nasals m n

ng [ŋ]

Laterals

l

Flaps

r

Semivowels w

y [j]

Note: Consonants [d] and [ɾ] sometimes interchange, as they were once allophones. Dy is pronounced [dʒ], ny [ɲ], sy [ʃ], and ty [tʃ]. Stress[edit] Stress is phonemic in Sambal. Stress on words is very important, they differentiate words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. hikó (I) and híko (elbow). Historical sound changes[edit] Many words pronounced with /s/ and /ɡ/ in Cebuano ang Tagalog are pronounced with /h/ and /j/, respectively, in their cognates in Sambal. Compare hiko and ba-yo with the Tagalog siko and bago. Grammar[edit] Nouns[edit] Zambal Pronouns[edit] Common singular pronouns[edit] ang, 'yung (iyong) – yay hikon-mong, ya-rin hikon-moy ng, n'ung (niyong) – nin kon-moyo Sa – ha Nasa – Ison ha (near), Itaw ha (far) Common plural pronouns[edit] ang mgá, 'yung mgá (iyong mgá) – yay + first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. yay bawbabayi – ang mga babae; yay lawlalaki – ang mga lalaki) ng mgá, n'ung mgá (niyong mgá) – nin yay + first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. nin bawbabayi – ng mga babae, nin lawlalaki – ng mga lalaki) sa mgá – ha first letter of plural word + aw (e.g. habawbabayi – sa mga babae, halawlalaki – sa mga ki) Nasa mga – Iti, ison, itaw + pronoun Personal singular pronouns[edit] Si – hi Ni – Ni Kay – Kun ni na kay – hikun Personal plural[edit] Sina – Hila Nina – ni Kina – Kun li Nakina – Hikunla Note: In a general conversation, “hi” is usually omitted or contracted from the pronoun. E.g. Hikunla tana hiya rin (sa kanila na lang iyan) is simply ‘kunla tana ‘ya-rin or even shorter as ‘kunlay na rin. Example: The man arrived. Dumating ang lalaki: 1) Nakalato hiyay lalaki or nakalato ‘yay lalaki or ‘yay tawo . 2) Linu-mato hiyay lalaki; or 3) Lin’mato ‘yay lalaki or ‘yay tawo. Yay (referring to object) Hiyay (singular person) Hikamon (plural second person) Hilay (plural third person) Nakita ni Juan si Maria – Na-kit ni Juan hi Maria. "John saw Mary." Note that in Philippine languages, even the names of people require an article. Plural nominal article[edit] Pupunta sina Elena at Roberto sa bahay ni Miguel. Maku hila Elena tan Roberto ha bali ni Miguel. Pupunta ako – maku-ko Papunta – ma-mako Punta – mako Pumupunta – ampako Pupuntahan – ampaku-tawanmakuku-son "Helen and Robert will go to Miguel's house." Nasaan ang mga aklat? Ayti yay lawlibro? Na kay Tatay ang mga susi. Hikun niTatay yay sawsusi or ‘Kunni Tatay yay sawsusi "Father has the keys." Malusog ang sanggol. Maganda yay lalaman nya-nin makating/makalog. "That baby is healthy." Pronouns (Panghalip)[edit] Personal pronouns are categorized by case. The indirect forms also function as the genitive. 1st person singular Ako – hiko Ko – ko Akin – hikunko (shortened to ‘kunko) 1st person dual Kita – ta, kunta 1st person plural inclusive Tayo – hitamo or ‘tamo Natin – hikuntamo or ‘kuntamo Atin – hikuntamo or ‘kuntamo 1st person plural exclusive Kami – hikami or ‘kami Namin – mi Amin – hikunmi or ‘kunmi 2nd person singular ikáw – hika mo – mo iyó – hikunmo or ‘kunmo 2nd person plural Kayo – hikamo or ‘kamo Ninyo –moyo Inyo – hikunmoyo or ‘kunmoyo 3rd person singular Siya – hiya Niya – naya Kaniya – hikunnaya or ‘kunnaya 3rd person plural Silá – hila Nilá – la Kanilá – hikunla or ‘kunla Examples: Sulat is hulat (Masinloc) or sulat (Sta. Cruz) Sumulat ako. Humulat ko or Sumulat ko. "I wrote." Sinulatan ako ng liham. Hinulatan nya hiko or hinulatan nya’ ko. "He/She wrote me a letter." Hinomulat ya ‘kunko, nanulat ya kunko, or hinulatan mya ko. Ibibigay ko sa kaniyá. Ebi ko ‘kunna (hikuna). "I will give it to him/her." Genitive pronouns follow the word they modify. Oblique pronouns can take the place of the genitive pronoun but they precede the word they modify. Ang bahay ko. Yay bali ko. Ang aking bahay. Yay ‘kunkon bali. "My house." Demonstrative Pronouns[edit] Enclitic Particles[edit] Existential[edit] Interrogative Words[edit] Sambal – Tagalog – English Ayri/Ayti - Saan – Where Anya - Ano - What Anta/Ongkot - Bakit - why hino - sino - who nakano -kailan -when Sample texts[edit] Philippine national proverb[edit] Below is a translation in Sambal of the Philippine national proverb[8] “He who does not acknowledge his beginnings will not reach his destination,” followed by the original in Tagalog.

Sambal: “Hay kay tanda mamanomtom ha pinangibatan, kay maka-lato ha ampako-taw-an.” Tagalog: “Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararating sa paroroonan.”

The Lord’s Prayer[edit] Version from Matthew[edit] Ama mi an ison ha langit, sambawon a ngalan mo. Ma-kit mi na komon a pa-mag-ari mo. Ma-honol komon a kalabayan mo iti ha lota a bilang anamaot ison ha langit. Biyan mo kami komon nin pa-mangan mi para konan yadtin awlo; tan patawaron mo kami komon ha kawkasalanan mi a bilang anamaot ha pa-matawad mi konlan ampagkasalanan komi. Tan komon ando mo aboloyan a matokso kami, nokay masbali ipa-lilih mo kamin kay makagawa doka, ta ikon moy kaarian, kapangyarian tan karangalan a homin panganggawan. Amen.[9] Version from Luke[edit] Ama mi, maipatnag komon a banal mon kapangyarian. Lomato ana komon an awlon sikay mag-ari. Biyan mo kamin pa-mangan mi sa inawlo-awlo. Inga-rowan mo kami sa kawkasalanan mi bilang pa-nginganga-ro mi konlan nagkasalanan komi tan ando mo kami aboloyan manabo sa tokso. Wamoyo.[9] Examples[edit] Loan words[edit] Numbers[edit] One= a`sa Two = luwa numbers from 3 to 9 generally use the same word as tagalog. Three= tulo Four= a`pat Five= lima Six= a`num Seven= pito Eight= walo Nine= siyam

Ten= mapulo Common expressions[edit] kay ko tanda / tanda ko= i don't know / i know (english) = hindi ko alam / alam ko (tagalog) papo = grandparent (english) = lola/lolo (tagalog) kaka = sibling or cousin (english) = ate/kuya/pinsan (tagalog) kay ko labay / labay ko = i don't like / i like (english) = hindi ko gusto / gusto ko (tagalog) murong tamoy na= lets go home/back (english) = uwi/balik na tayo (tagalog) hadilap = tomorrow (english) = bukas (tagalog) hawanin = now/today (english) = ngayon (tagalog) naapon = yesterday (english) = kahapon (tagalog) ya = yes (english) = oo (tagalog) ka`i = no (english) = hindi (tagalog) See also[edit]

Sambal people Zambales Languages of the Philippines

References[edit]

^ Sambal at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tina Sambal". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Call Me Sambal – Don't Call Me Tina ^ http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/sipl/SIPL_2-2_032-034.pdf ^ Don't Call Me Tina ^ http://angsambal.wordpress.com/2010/12/16/call-me-sambal/ ^ Elgincolin, Priscilla R.; Goshnick, Hella E. (1979). "Interclausal relationships in Tina Sambal". Studies in Philippine Linguistics. 3 (1): 84.  ^ National Philippine Proverb in Various Philippine Languages ^ a b Sambal, Tina

External links[edit]

"Publications in Tina and other Philippine languages".  Sample recordings from the GRN Network in Tina and its Candelariero sub-variety

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