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Samangan ( fa, سمنگان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west,
Balkh ), named for its green-tiled ''Gonbad'' ( fa, گُنبَد, dome), in July 2001 , image_flag = , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield ...
in the north, Baghlan in the east, and Bamyan in the south. Samangan province is divided into 7
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
and contains 674 villages. It has a population of about 368,800, which is
multi-ethnic Multiracial people (or mixed-race people) are people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds, including ''multiracial'', ''biracial'', ''multiethnic'', ''polyethnic'', '' Métis'', '' Creole'', '' Muwallad' ...
and mostly a rural society. The city of serves as the provincial capital.


History

The earliest known history of the province is linked to the identification of the Samangan by Aoros
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-koi, Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, ''Klaúdios Ptolemaîos'' ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, geographer and astrologer who wrote several scientific treati ...
as the place of the Varni or Uarni and the fortified city of Samangan on the banks of the identical to the Bhaktria regi on the Dargydus river south east of Zariaspa. The ruins found here established the city's founding by Eukratides, the King of Bactria. It was then known as Edrisi the size of the Khulm city. Historicity of the Samangan town dates to the time of the
Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire ( grc, Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; xbc, Κυϸανο, ; Late Brahmi Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia b ...
during the 4th and 5th centuries when it was a famous Buddhist centre. Witness to this period is seen now in the form of ruins at a place called the Takht-e-Rostam, which is located 3 km from the town on a hilltop. Arabs and Mongols came to this place when it was already famous as a Buddhist religious centre. Aibak was the name given to this place when, during the medieval period, caravans used to stop here. Afghanistan has various archaeological sites where caves were hewn out of rocks and inhabited by
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, ...
s. "One of the most spectacular sites is that of Takth i Raustam, near Samangan (Haybak), north of Hindu Kush passes. It includes a complex of stupa with monastery, hewn out of the rock. Other caves have been found near
Jalalabad Jalalabad (; Pashto/ prs, جلال‌آباد, ) is the fifth-largest city of Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the cross ...
and at the site of Humay Qal'a southwest of
Ghazni Ghazni ( prs, غزنی), historically known as Ghaznin () or Ghazna (), is a city in southeastern Afghanistan with a population of around 270,000 people. The city is strategically located along Highway 1 (Afghanistan), Highway 1, which has served ...
. The Buddhist in Takth i Raustam here in the form of a mound, located on the hilltop, represents the earliest link to the evolution of Buddhist architecture in Afghanistan The area was conquered by the
Hephthalites The Hephthalites ( xbc, ηβοδαλο, translit=Ebodalo), sometimes called the White Huns, were a people who lived in Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the ...

Hephthalites
followed by the Saffarids who brought
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
. The Samanids took it and controlled it until the Ghaznavids rose to power in the 10th century, they were replaced by the Ghurid Dynasty, Ghorids. After the Mongol invasion the Timurid dynasty, Timurids took possession. Between the early 16th century and the mid-18th century, the Province was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara. It was given to Ahmad Shah Durrani by Mohammad Murad Beg, Murad Beg of Bukhara after a treaty of friendship was reached in or about 1750, and became part of the Durrani Empire. It was ruled by the Durrani dynasty, Durranis followed by the Barakzai dynasty, and was untouched by the British Raj, British during the three Anglo-Afghan War, Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries. It remained peaceful for about one hundred years until the 1980s Soviet–Afghan War.


Recent history

After the Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001), Afghan Civil War, the town of Darra Souf in Samangan Province was occupied by Ustad Mohammad Mohaqiq and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban in late 1999. The Taliban forces gained control of the area from January to March 2000 including nearby Sar-e-Pol and Baghlan provinces, where they were reported to have massacred an unknown number of civilians. On May 8, 2000, several men from Baghlan were driven up to the Robotak Pass in Samangan province, approximately 20 miles north of the city of Samangan (100 miles south of Mazar-i-Sharif) and were executed, later found by local farmers in shallow graves which the Taliban had dug for them. After the removal of the Taliban government in late 2001, the Presidency of Hamid Karzai, Karzai administration took over control of Afghanistan. In the meantime, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) established a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) in the province. After getting NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan, training by ISAF, the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) are providing security for the population of the province. The province has a fairly good security situation, with the United Nations Department for Safety and Security, United Nations Department for Safety and Security (UNDSS) reporting a calm and stable condition. However, on 15 February 2011 an ISAF peacekeeper from Finland was killed in a roadside bombing near Samangan City, and on 14 July 2012, Ahmed Khan Samangani, a member of the National Assembly of Afghanistan, was killed when a suicide bomber infiltrated his daughter's wedding party in the city of Samangan. The bomb also killed the provincial head of the National Directorate of Security (NDS), and 13 other guests, and 60 were injured, including senior police and army commanders. The deputy provincial governor, Ghulam Sarkhi, claimed that the death toll was likely to rise.


Politics and governance

The current governor of the province is Mohammad Dawood Kalakani. There is a provincial Afghan National Police, Police Chief who is responsible for all Law enforcement in Afghanistan, law enforcement activities within the province. The Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior (Afghanistan), Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The Provincial Development Committee (PDC), under the directive of the Ministry of Economy of Afghanistan, was formed for the province in January 2006. It has the responsibility to implement the Provincial Development Plan, through the government departments. Stakeholder groups in the province are also involved in this process. Further, at the community and village level there are 424 Community Development Councils (CDC) in the province to implement the development plans at the district and village level. The PDC and CDC have the basic tasks of creating infrastructure facilities of water supply and sanitation, energy, transport and communications to further economic growth with involvement of the private sector. The U.S. backed president Ashraf Ghani attempted to remove governor Abdulkarim Khaddam from office in 2018, but he refused to step down, joining ranks with Atta Mohammad Noor, governor of neighbouring Balkh Province, who also openly defied Ghani's will.


Demographics

The total population of Samangan province is about 468,800, which is predominately rural with only 7% living in urban centres. "Samangan like most of Afghanistan is ethnically diverse with Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazara people, Hazara, Turkmens, Turkomen and even a minority of Pashtun people, Pashtuns living throughout the province." Roughly 72.5% people of the province speak Persian language, Persian with ethnic Tajiks comprising more than 65% of the province's population and 22.1% people speak Uzbek language, Uzbek as their native language.


Healthcare

Health services provided by the Ministry of Public Health (Afghanistan), Ministry of Health are fairly basic with 6 health centres and 3 hospitals with 60 beds. They are reasonably well staffed with 21 doctors and 33 nurses. To cater to the pharmaceutical needs of the patients, there are 24 pharmacies, two are run by the government and the rest are privately owned. In 2006, two dozen women completed a midwifery course. The percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 7% in 2005 to 18% in 2011.Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant fell from 29% in 2005 to 20% in 2011.


Education

The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 19% in 2005 to 27% in 2011. The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 37% in 2005 to 47% in 2011. Owing to its relative isolation, Samangan province is underdeveloped with no energy infrastructure and has a high rate of illiteracy, although some students have access to education in neighbouring Mazari Sharif. Educational facilities in the province is at a low level with literacy rate recorded at only 19% for the province as a whole, with 28% literacy rate among men and a low of 10% among women. The Kuchi people are the least literate, recording a literacy rate of only 3%, that too among men only. The province has 159 primary and secondary schools with attendance of 59,915 students; 83% of schools are boys’ schools with 68% students. While the village schools are within easy reach, the high schools are generally about 10 km away from the villages.


Economy

Agriculture in Afghanistan, Agriculture and some small scale mining in Afghanistan, mining are the main industries of the province. Economic condition of the people is very hard with nearly 12% households finding it difficult to meet the food requirements to sustain. This has resulted in allocations of food aid to the province. In October 2010, the first dish-making factory run by women began operations. The women were trained for several months and now work in two shifts. During the last few years, thousands of other women have worked on a variety of different projects such as tailoring and carpet knitting.


Status of infrastructure

As of 2005, safe drinking water access is available to 7% of households (falls to a low of 4% in rural areas). However, some drinking water facility is available in some form to about 71% of households. Still many households have to travel for long hours to the nearest source of water. Electricity supply is minimal, limited to only about 5% of the population with 80% supplied from government sources. The transport sector is still underdeveloped. Only 28% of roads are good for use by motorized traffic throughout the year with this percentage rising to 41% in some seasons. However roads are non-existent in 28% of the province. Education is still in a nascent state of development with only 19% being literate, as of 2005, with literacy among men limited to 28% and literacy among women limited to a mere 10%; literacy among the Kuchis population is the least at about 3% of men only. There are 59 primary and secondary schools in the province with enrolment of 59,915 students. However, travelling distance to the schools varies, with primary schools being most accessible while High Schools involve about 10 km of travel. As of 2005, basic health services maintained by the Ministry of Health were fairly developed with 6 health centres and 3 hospitals with a total of 60 beds. The health centres were well staffed with 21 doctors and 33 nurses. Food security is a major issue since nearly 12% of the population receive less than the minimum daily caloric intake to sustain good health. Food consumption is poor in both rural and urban areas and as a result food aid has become essential. From the security angle, the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS) has reported security situation in the province calm and stable. ;Mineral resource Marble export sustains Afghan economy. The marble is extracted and processed in 21 factories in the country, including the famous brown marble from Samangan province. This adds to the economy of the province.


Agriculture

The economy revolves around agriculture, with farmers in Samangan province cultivating grains, fruits, and nuts on the region's fertile river plains. The province of Samangan is second only to the northwestern Afghan province of Badghis in terms of pistachio production. As of 2005, 10 Agricultural cooperatives were functioning in the province with 665 enrolled members controlling an area of 5532 ha which brought prosperity to its members. The staple food crops grown in the province are wheat, barley and potato and flax. The horticultural or garden crops grown are grapes, pomegranates and other fruit and nut trees. Cash crops grown in a few villages were sesame, cotton and tobacco; and they are mostly in Dara-i-Soofi-Payin and Aybek districts; cotton was major crop in Hazrat-i-Sultan district while tobacco was produced on a large scale in the Roi-Do-Ab district. Use of fertilizers is also common among 60% of the on both field and garden crops Industries are almost non existent in the province, except for minor leather industry producing the karakul (sheep), karakul skin and a few small scale handicrafts producing rugs, shawls, jewellery and carpets. Horse breeding also sustains the economy of the province as it caters particularly for the popular sport of buzkashi in Afghanistan. Buzkashi is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and Kazakhstan. ;Irrigation The agricultural economy of the province is further enhanced with irrigation facility provided to 21,242 ha. The irrigated areas deciphered from the land-cover maps, under a collaborative project of FAO, the United Nations Development Programme and the Afghan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office, Kabul are in Aybak, Samangan - 5 426ha, Dara-I-Suf, Samangan - 4 149ha, Hazrati Sult, Samangan -6 884 ha, Khuram Wa Sa, Samangan - 1 733 ha and Ruyi Du Ab, Samangan -3,049 ha.


Cultural heritage

The historical cultural heritage in the province which is mainly at Samangan City, the provincial headquarters of Samangan are the Takt-e Rostam and the adjacent Buddhist caves and stupas on a top of hill. ;Takht-i Rustam Takht-i Rustam (Haibak), literal meaning the throne of Rustam, named after Rustam, a king in Persian mythology, is a hilltop settlement. It is dated to the 4th and 5th centuries of the Kushano-Sassanian period, which is corroborated by archaeological, architectural and numismatic evidence. It is located 3 km to the southwest of Samangan town. It is the location of a stupa-monastery complex which is fully carved into the mountain rock. The monastery of major Buddhist tradition of Therravada Buddhism, has five chambers, two are sanctuaries and one is a domed ceiling with an intricate lotus leaf beautification. In the adjacent hill is the stupa, which has a harmika, with several caves at its base. Above one of the caves, there is square building in which there are two conference halls; one is 22 metres square and the other is circular. In one of these caves, Archaeological excavations have revealed a cache of Ghaznavid coins. The Buddhist temples near the Takht are 10 numbers known locally as ''Kie Tehe''. ;Hazar Sum Hazar Sum is another ancient Buddhist centre in north central Afghanistan where several caves have been found and in one of these caves a Buddhist stupa has been carved.


Geography

Samangan is located in northern central Afghanistan, delimited by Baghlan province in the east, Bamyan in the south, Sar-e-Pul in the south-west and Balkh province in the northwest. Samangan encompasses an area of 11218 km2 consisting 59% of mountainous terrain, 21% of semi mountainous terrain, 12% of flat land, 4.8% of semi-flat land and the balance 2.2% is unclassified land. Some parts of the province are characterised by distinctive rolling hills and mountains and rich green valleys. The provincial jurisdiction is spread over seven administrative districts, with Samangan City as its capital. This town is located on the banks of the , in the valley formed below the junction of Hindu Kush mountains and the Central Asian Steppe; the valley has very fertile agricultural land. The highest mountain ranges of the province thus lie to the southwest of the province, southwest of Samangan City. Only 12% of the provincial area consists of flat land. The city of Samangan lies in the valley, with mountains to the west and east. It is located to the northwest of the city of Baghlan and about is north-west of the capital Kabul and the same distance south-east of Mazar-i-Sharif city. Samangan Province has a long history of earthquakes which has led to the loss of thousands of people and their homes. In 1998, two earthquakes struck measuring 5.9 and 6.6 on the Richter scale, claiming some 6,000 lives along the border with Tajikistan. A series of earthquakes struck nearby Baghlan province on March 3, 2002, killing roughly 1,000 people. In April 2010 at least 11 people were killed and more than 70 injured when a 5.7 magnitude quake at a depth of 10 km struck the province. It damaged some 300 houses and killed hundreds of cattle, causing landslides which blocks some of the main roads.


Demography

The population of Samangan province is about 368,800 settled people. The estimated figures for the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: 65% Tajik, 30% Uzbek, remaining 5% is Hazara, Arabs, Tatar and Pashtuns.


Districts

Current Map of the Districts of Samangan
(as linked to on the Districts of Afghanistan page)


Towns and villages

According to Afghanistan's Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, the province has 674 villages.


References


External links

* Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): ''An Historical Guide to Afghanistan''. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization. {{Authority control Samangan Province, Hazarajat Provinces of Afghanistan