Sam Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author,
philosopher, neuroscientist, blogger, and podcast host. He is a critic
of religion and proponent of the liberty to criticize religion. He
is concerned with matters that touch on spirituality, morality,
neuroscience, free will, and terrorism. He is described as one of the
"Four Horsemen of atheism", with Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens
and Daniel Dennett.
Harris's first book
The End of Faith (2004) won the PEN/Martha Albrand
Award for First Nonfiction. In
The Moral Landscape
The Moral Landscape (2010), he argues
that science answers moral problems and can aid human well-being.
He published a long-form essay Lying in 2011, the short book Free Will
in 2012, Waking Up: A Guide to
Religion in 2014
and, with British writer Maajid Nawaz,
Islam and the Future of
Tolerance: A Dialogue in 2015. Harris is a proponent of secular
1 Early life and education
2.1 Criticism of Abrahamic religions
2.2 On atheism
2.3 On Indian tradition
2.4 On spirituality
2.5 Science and morality
2.6 Free will
2.7 Social and economic politics
4.1 Writings and media appearances
Waking Up podcast
6 Personal life
9 External links
Early life and education
Harris was born on April 9, 1967 in Los Angeles, the son of actor
Berkeley Harris and TV producer
Susan Harris (née Spivak), who
created The Golden Girls. His father came from a Quaker background
and his mother is a secular Jew. He was raised by his mother
following his parents' divorce when he was aged two. Harris has
stated that his upbringing was entirely secular, and his parents
rarely discussed religion, though it was always a subject that
interested him. Fellow critic of religion
Christopher Hitchens once
referred to Harris as a "Jewish warrior against theocracy and bigotry
of all stripes". While a student at Stanford University,
Harris experimented with MDMA, and has written and spoken about the
insights he experienced under its influence.
Though his original major was in English, he became interested in
philosophical questions while at
Stanford University after an
experience with the psychedelic drug MDMA. The experience led him
to be interested in the idea that he might be able to achieve
spiritual insights without the use of drugs. Leaving Stanford in
his second year, a quarter after his psychedelic experience, he went
India and Nepal, where he studied meditation with Buddhist and
Hindu religious teachers, including Dilgo Khyentse. Eleven
years later, in 1997, he returned to Stanford, completing a B.A.
degree in philosophy in 2000. Harris began writing his
first book, The End of Faith, immediately after the September 11
He received a
Ph.D. degree in cognitive neuroscience in 2009 from the
University of California, Los Angeles, using functional
magnetic resonance imaging to conduct research into the neural basis
of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty. His thesis was titled
"The moral landscape: How science could determine human values", and
his advisor was Mark S. Cohen.
Criticism of Abrahamic religions
Harris states that religion contains bad ideas, calling it "one of the
most perverse misuses of intelligence we have ever devised". He
compares modern religious beliefs to the myths of the Ancient Greeks,
which were once accepted as fact but which are obsolete today. In a
January 2007 interview with PBS, Harris said, "We don't have a word
for not believing in Zeus, which is to say we are all atheists in
respect to Zeus. And we don't have a word for not being an
astrologer." He goes on to say that the term atheist will be retired
only when "we all just achieve a level of intellectual honesty where
we are no longer going to pretend to be certain about things we are
not certain about".
Harris advocates a benign, noncoercive, corrective form of
intolerance, distinguishing it from historic religious persecution. He
promotes a conversational intolerance, in which personal convictions
are scaled against evidence, and where intellectual honesty is
demanded equally in religious views and non-religious views. He
also believes there is a need to counter inhibitions that prevent the
open critique of religious ideas, beliefs, and practices under the
auspices of "tolerance". He has stated that he has received death
threats for some of his views on religion.
Harris speaking in 2010 at TED
Islam to be "especially belligerent and inimical to
the norms of civil discourse," relative to other world religions. He
asserts that the "dogmatic commitment to using violence to defend
one’s faith, both from within and without" to varying degrees, is a
central Islamic doctrine that is found in few other religions to the
same degree, and that "this difference has consequences in the real
In 2006, after the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy,
Harris wrote, "The idea that
Islam is a 'peaceful religion hijacked by
extremists' is a dangerous fantasy—and it is now a particularly
dangerous fantasy for Muslims to indulge. It is not at all clear how
we should proceed in our dialogue with the Muslim world, but deluding
ourselves with euphemisms is not the answer. It now appears to be a
truism in foreign policy circles that real reform in the Muslim world
cannot be imposed from the outside. But it is important to recognize
why this is so—it is so because the Muslim world is utterly deranged
by its religious tribalism. In confronting the religious literalism
and ignorance of the Muslim world, we must appreciate how terrifyingly
isolated Muslims have become in intellectual terms."
He states that his criticism of the religion is aimed not at Muslims
as people, but at the doctrine of Islam.
Harris wrote a response to controversy over his criticism of Islam,
which also aired on a debate hosted by
The Huffington Post
The Huffington Post on whether
Islam are unfairly labeled as bigots:
Is it really true that the sins for which I hold
Islam accountable are
“committed at least to an equal extent by many other groups,
especially [my] own”? ... The freedom to poke fun at Mormonism is
guaranteed [not by the First Amendment but] by the fact that Mormons
do not dispatch assassins to silence their critics or summon murderous
hordes in response to satire. ... Can any reader of this page imagine
the staging of a similar play [to The Book of Mormon] about
the United States, or anywhere else, in the year 2013? ... At this
moment in history, there is only one religion that systematically
stifles free expression with credible threats of violence. The truth
is, we have already lost our First Amendment rights with respect to
Islam—and because they brand any observation of this fact a symptom
of Islamophobia, Muslim apologists like Greenwald are largely to
Harris has criticized common usage of the term "Islamophobia". "My
Islam is a criticism of beliefs and their consequences,"
he wrote following a controversial clash with
Ben Affleck in October
2014 on the show Real Time with Bill Maher, "but my fellow liberals
reflexively view it as an expression of intolerance toward people."
During an email exchange with Glenn Greenwald, a critic of the New
Atheists, Harris argued that "
Islamophobia is a term of propaganda
designed to protect
Islam from the forces of secularism by conflating
all criticism of it with racism and xenophobia. And it is doing its
job, because people like you have been taken in by it."
Harris has referred to
Catholicism as "ghoulish machinery set to
whirling through the ages by the opposing winds of shame and sadism",
and asserts that the Catholic Church has spent "two millennia
demonizing human sexuality to a degree unmatched by any other
institution, declaring the most basic, healthy, mature, and consensual
behaviors taboo." Harris has criticized the Catholic Church's
structure and forced celibacy within its ranks for attracting
pedophiles, and blames its opposition to the use of contraception for
poverty, shorter lifespans, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS.
See also: Criticism of Judaism, Criticism of the Talmud, and Criticism
In The End of Faith, Harris is critical of the Jewish faith and its
The gravity of Jewish suffering over the ages, culminating in the
Holocaust, makes it almost impossible to entertain any suggestion that
Jews might have brought their troubles upon themselves. This is,
however, in a rather narrow sense, the truth. […] the ideology of
Judaism remains a lightning rod for intolerance to this day. […]
Jews, insofar as they are religious, believe that they are bearers of
a unique covenant with God. As a consequence, they have spent the last
two thousand years collaborating with those who see them as different
by seeing themselves as irretrievably so. Judaism is as intrinsically
divisive, as ridiculous in its literalism, and as at odds with the
civilizing insights of modernity as any other religion. Jewish
settlers, by exercising their "freedom of belief" on contested land,
are now one of the principal obstacles to peace in the Middle East.
Regarding Israel and Judaism, Harris has said, "I don't think Israel
should exist as a Jewish state. I think it is obscene, irrational and
unjustifiable to have a state organized around a religion. So I don't
celebrate the idea that there's a Jewish homeland in the Middle East.
I certainly don't support any Jewish claims to real estate based on
the Bible. Though I just said that I don't think Israel should exist
as a Jewish state, the justification for such a state is rather easy
to find. We need look no further than the fact that the rest of the
world has shown itself eager to murder the Jews at almost every
opportunity. So, if there were going to be a state organized around
protecting members of a single religion, it certainly should be a
Jewish state. Now, friends of Israel might consider this a rather
tepid defense, but it's the strongest one I've got. I think the idea
of a religious state is ultimately untenable."
Harris has been referred to, along with Daniel Dennett, Richard
Dawkins, and Christopher Hitchens, as one of the "new atheists", but
he considers the term "atheist" to be problematic. He said, "while I
am now one of the public voices of atheism, I never thought of myself
as an atheist before being inducted to speak as one [...] I think that
'atheist' is a term that we do not need, in the same way that we don't
need a word for someone who rejects astrology."
On Indian tradition
In contrast to the "Abrahamic religions", Harris states "the Indian
tradition is comparatively free of problems of this[which?] kind."
The "Indian tradition" includes
Advaita Vedanta and
Buddhism (with a
particular emphasis on Dzogchen).
Harris holds that there is "nothing irrational about seeking the
states of mind that lie at the core of many religions. Compassion,
awe, devotion, and feelings of oneness are surely among the most
valuable experiences a person can have."
Harris rejects the dichotomy between religious spirituality on the one
hand and scientific rationality on the other, and favors a middle path
that preserves spirituality and science, but does not involve
religion. He writes that spirituality should be understood in
light of scientific disciplines like neuroscience and psychology.
Science, he contends, can show how to maximize human well-being, but
may fail to answer certain questions about the nature of being,
answers to some of which he says are discoverable directly through our
experience. His conception of spirituality does not involve a
belief in God.
In Waking Up: A Guide to
Religion (2014), Harris
writes that the purpose of spirituality (as he defines it – he
concedes that the term's uses are diverse and sometimes indefensible)
is to become aware that our sense of self is illusory, and says this
realization brings both happiness and insight into the nature of
consciousness. He argues this process of realization is based
on experience and is not contingent on faith. In the same book, he
describes his experience with Dzogchen, a
Tibetan Buddhist meditation
practice, and recommends it to his readers.
With regard to spirituality, Harris has spoken freely about
psychedelics in numerous interviews, podcasts, and in two of his
books. In his view, "There is no guarantee that anything will happen"
in regards to meditation, yoga, or other forms of contemplation,
whereas with psychedelics, an experience is guaranteed. Such
certainty, he writes, proves to be an initial rite of passage to
convince people of the possibilities within consciousness.
Science and morality
In his third book, The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine
Human Values, Harris says that "Human well-being is not a random
phenomenon. It depends on many factors—ranging from genetics and
neurobiology to sociology and economics." Harris says that it is time
to promote a scientific approach to normative morality, rejecting the
idea that religion determines what is good. He believes that once
scientists begin proposing moral norms in papers, supernatural moral
systems will join "astrology, witchcraft and
Greek mythology on the
Harris says the idea of free will "cannot be mapped on to any
conceivable reality" and is incoherent. According to Harris,
science "reveals you to be a biochemical puppet." People's
thoughts and intentions, Harris says, "emerge from background causes
of which we are unaware and over which we exert no conscious control."
Every choice we make is made as a result of preceding causes. These
choices we make are determined by those causes, and are therefore not
really choices at all. Harris also draws a distinction between
conscious and unconscious reactions to the world. Harris argues that
this realization about the human mind does not undermine morality or
diminish the importance of social and political freedom, but it can
and should change the way we think about some of the most important
questions in life.
Social and economic politics
Harris describes himself as a liberal, and states that he supports
raising taxes on the very wealthy, the decriminalizing of drugs and
same-sex marriage. He was critical of the Bush administration's war in
Iraq, fiscal policy, and treatment of science.
During the 2016 United States presidential election, Harris supported
Hillary Clinton in the Democratic Party presidential primaries against
Bernie Sanders, and despite calling her "a terribly flawed
candidate for the presidency", he favored her in the general election
and came out strongly in opposition to Donald Trump's candidacy.
Building on his interests in belief and religion, Harris completed a
PhD in cognitive neuroscience at UCLA. He used fMRI to explore
whether the brain responses differ between sentences that subjects
judged as true, false, or undecidable, across a wide range of
categories including autobiographical, mathematical, geographical,
religious, ethical, semantic, and factual statements.
In another study, Harris and colleagues examined the neural basis of
religious and non-religious belief using fMRI. Fifteen committed
Christians and fifteen nonbelievers were scanned as they evaluated the
truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both
groups, statements of belief (sentences judged as either true or
false) were associated with increased activation of ventromedial
prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain involved in emotional
judgment, processing uncertainty, assessing rewards and thinking about
oneself. A "comparison of all religious trials to all nonreligious
trials produced a wide range of signal differences throughout the
brain," and the processing of religious belief and empirical belief
differed in significant ways. The regions associated with increased
activation in response to religious stimuli included the anterior
insula, the ventral striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the
posterior medial cortex.
Writings and media appearances
Harris's writing focuses on neuroscience and criticism of religion,
for which he is best known. He formerly blogged for the Washington
Post, the Huffington Post, and Truthdig. His articles have appeared in
publications such as Newsweek, The New York Times, the Los Angeles
Times, the Boston Globe, and the British national newspaper The
Harris has made numerous TV and radio appearances, including on The
O'Reilly Factor, ABC News, Tucker, Book TV, NPR, Real Time, The
Colbert Report, and The Daily Show. In 2005, Harris appeared in the
documentary film The
God Who Wasn't There. Harris was a featured
speaker at the 2006 conference Beyond Belief: Science, Religion,
Reason and Survival. He made two presentations and participated in the
ensuing panel discussions. Harris has also appeared a number of times
Point of Inquiry
Point of Inquiry radio podcast. Harris engaged in a lengthy
Andrew Sullivan on the internet forum Beliefnet. In
April 2007, Harris debated with the evangelical pastor
Rick Warren for
Newsweek magazine. In April 2011, he debated
William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig on
whether there can be an objective morality without God.
Waking Up podcast
In September 2013, Harris began the
Waking Up podcast, in which he
discusses his views, responds to critics, and interviews guests. The
podcasts vary greatly in length, anywhere from 8 minutes to over 4
hours. The podcast has no regular release schedule, although the
frequency of releases has increased over time. In 2017, the UK
Business Insider included it in their list of "8 podcasts that will
change how you think about human behavior" and
PC Magazine included it
in their list of "Podcasts You Should Download Now". The
Waking Up podcast won the 2017
Webby Award for "People's Voice" in the
category "Science & Education" under "Podcasts & Digital
Harris's practice developed from
Vipassana and Dzogchen. He states
that the key aim of meditation is to enable its practitioners to see
that the feeling of self is an illusion. He is in the process of
creating a meditation smartphone app, inspired by Headspace.
Harris is a student of the martial arts and practices Brazilian
jiu-jitsu. Harris was at one point a vegetarian, but gave it
up after six years, citing health concerns. In 2015, he returned
to vegetarianism for ethical reasons, with the intention of eventually
going vegan, and supported the idea of cultured meat. After
discussing Peter Singer's drowning child thought experiment and the
philosophy of effective altruism with
William MacAskill on his
podcast, Harris pledged to donate several thousand dollars of the
revenue generated by each new podcast episode to effective charitable
Harris has been reluctant to discuss personal details such as where he
now lives, citing security reasons. In 2004, Harris married Annaka
Harris, an editor of nonfiction and scientific books. They have
The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason (2004).
Letter to a Christian Nation
Letter to a Christian Nation (2006). ISBN 0-307-26577-3
The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values (2010).
Lying (2011) ISBN 978-1940051000
Free Will (2012). ISBN 978-1451683400
Waking Up: A Guide to
Islam and the Future of Tolerance
Islam and the Future of Tolerance (2015) ISBN 978-0674088702
^ Paul Pardi (May 15, 2012). "An Analysis of Sam Harris' Free Will".
Philosophy News. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
^ a b Don, Katherine (October 17, 2010). "'The Moral Landscape': Why
science should shape morality." Salon.
^ "How to Meditate". Retrieved June 19, 2017.
^ Current Biography, January 2012, Vol. 73 Issue 1, p37
^ Anderson, Jon (October 20, 1985). "'Girls' Series is solid gold for
Chicago Tribune TV Week. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
^ Samuels, David. May 29, 2012. Q&A: Sam Harris. Tablet.
Retrieved: 6 October 2014. "I was never a religious Jew. My mother is
Jewish, so for some people I count as a Jew. But for me, being Jewish
amounts to little more than just getting all the jokes in a Woody
Allen movie. So, for the people for whom my Judaism is relevant, those
people tend to be either overtly anti-Semitic or concerned about crazy
conspiracies. The YouTube comments that reference my Judaism are
completely crazy. For the most part, for anyone who is seriously
engaging with my ideas, the fact that I was born to a Jewish woman who
herself was not religious nor were her parents religious is completely
^ "I'm Not the Sexist Pig You're Looking For". www.samharris.org.
Sam Harris - Extended Interview; PBS:
Religion & Ethics
Newsweekly; January 5, 2007; "I have an unremarkable history. I
don’t have a religious upbringing that I’m rebelling against. I
had a totally secular upbringing and was just encouraged to explore
things as I saw fit. I was never raised an atheist as opposed to
religious. It just was not an issue. In my teens I just got interested
in spiritual experience and what happens after death and just began to
see that religion is really the discourse that treats these phenomena
and started exploring meditation and other specifically Eastern brands
of religious thinking, but I have studied Western religion as well and
have been interested in religion for decades."
^ Hitchens, Christopher (20 November 2007). "'Martin Amis is no
racist'". The Guardian.
God Exist?". American Jewish University. November 6, 2007.
Archived from the original on May 20, 2009.
^ a b c d e Segal, David (October 26, 2006). "Atheist Evangelist". The
^ "Sam Harris." (2008). The Science Studio. Science Network. October
3, 2008. Transcript.
^ Harris, Sam (June 28, 2011). "
MDMA Caution with Sam Harris".
^ Cogent Canine (2017-12-06), First Time
Sam Harris Took E, retrieved
^ a b c Miller, Lisa (2010). "
Sam Harris Believes in God".
^ a b Segal, David (October 26, 2006). "Atheist Evangelist" .The
^ Harris, Sam (November 11, 2012). "Science on the Brink of Death".
Retrieved November 14, 2012.
^ Rice, Lewis I. "The Iconoclast:
Sam Harris wants believers to stop
believing". Stanford Magazine.
^ "Sam Harris". The Information Philosopher. Retrieved April 30,
^ Greenberg, Brad A. (April 1, 2008). "Making Belief".
^ a b c d Healy, Melissa (September 30, 2009). "Religion: The heart
believes what it will, but the brain behaves the same either way". Los
Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2014.
^ Harris, Sam (2009). "The moral landscape How science could determine
human values". ProQuest. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
Sam Harris (September 28, 2007). "The Problem with Atheism". The
Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
^ Harris, Sam (2005). "Interview: Sam Harris". PBS.
^ Harris, Sam. Does
God Exist? A debate between bestselling authors
Rabbi David Wolpe and Sam Harris. Jewish Television Network. Event
occurs at 1:00:00. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009.
Retrieved May 20, 2011.
Brian Flemming & Sam Harris, 2005. The
God Who Wasn't There,
Beyond Belief Media.
^ Harris, Sam (January 2, 2013). "The Riddle of the Gun". Sam Harris.
^ Harris, Sam (June 21, 2014). "Response to Controversy". Retrieved
October 23, 2016.
^ a b Taylor, Jerome (April 12, 2013). "Atheists Richard Dawkins,
Christopher Hitchens and
Sam Harris face
Islamophobia backlash". The
^ Boorstein, Michelle (February 11, 2015). "Chapel Hill killings shine
light on particular tensions between
Islam and atheism". The
^ Harris, Sam (February 7, 2006). "
Sam Harris on the Reality of
^ Kaufman, Scott (January 22, 2015). "Sam Harris: Liberals like
Greenwald and Aslan support the 'thuggish ultimatum' of radical
Islam". The Raw Story
^ "Huffington Post".
^ Response to Controversy Version 2.3 (April 7, 2013)
^ Harris, Sam, Can Liberalism Be Saved From Itself?, London, retrieved
December 26, 2014
^ Bringing the Vatican to Justice; SanHarris.org; May 10, 2010
^ Harris, Sam (July 27, 2014). "Why Don’t I Criticize Israel?". Sam
^ Harris, Sam. "The Problem with Atheism".
Sam Harris Blog. The
Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2007.
^ a b Harris, Sam (2015). Waking Up: A Guide to
Religion. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 23, 132.
^ a b c d e f Clothier, Peter (2 September 2016). "'Waking Up', by Sam
Harris: A Book Review". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 October
^ Smith, Holly (17 September 2014). "Waking Up: A Guide to
Spirituality Without Religion". Washington Independent Review of
Books. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
^ "Waking Up: A Guide to
Spirituality Without Religion". Kirkus
Reviews. August 29, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ a b Harris, Sam (2015). Waking Up: A Guide to
Religion. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 193–199.
^ Harris, Sam (October 20, 2010). "Morality: 'We can send religion to
the scrap heap'". New Scientist.
^ Pardi, Paul (May 15, 2012). "An Analysis of Sam Harris' Free Will".
^ Harris, Sam. "Free Will and "Free Will"". SamHarris.Org. Retrieved
18 December 2016. [...] I believe that popular confusion on this point
is worth lingering over, because certain moral impulses -- for
vengeance, say -- depend upon a view of human agency that is both
conceptually incoherent and empirically false. I also believe that the
conventional illusion of free will can be dispelled -- not merely
ignored, tinkered with, or set on new foundations.
^ Nahmias, Eddy (August 13, 2012). "Does Contemporary Neuroscience
Support or Challenge the Reality of Free Will?" Big Questions Online.
^ Harris, Sam (September 18, 2006). "Head-in-the-Sand Liberals:
Western civilization really is at risk from Muslim extremists." Los
Angeles Times. Archived at the Wayback Machine.
Sam Harris Q&A: "Why I'm Voting For Hillary Clinton", Feb 18,
2016". YouTube. Missing or empty url= (help); access-date=
requires url= (help)
^ Harris, Sam. Trump in Exile. samharris.org, October 13, 2016.
Retrieved April 22, 2017
^ Harris, S.; Sheth, S. A.; Cohen, M. S. (2008). "Functional
neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty". Annals of
Neurology. 63 (2): 141–147. doi:10.1002/ana.21301.
^ a b Harris, S.; Kaplan, J. T.; Curiel, A.; Bookheimer, S. Y.;
Iacoboni, M.; Cohen, M. S. (2009). Sporns, Olaf, ed. "The Neural
Correlates of Religious and Nonreligious Belief". PLoS ONE. 4 (10):
e7272. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.7272H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007272.
PMC 2748718 . PMID 19794914.
^ "About Sam Harris". Sam Harris. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
^ Harris, Sam; Sullivan, Andrew (January 16, 2007). "Is Religion
'Built Upon Lies'?" Beliefnet.
^ Harris, Sam; Warren, Rick (April 8, 2007). "NEWSWEEK Poll: 90%
Believe in God". Newsweek.
^ Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist". The Chronicle of
^ Harris, Sam (August 15, 2011). "The
God Debate". Sam Harris.
Waking Up with Sam Harris". iTunes – Podcasts. Retrieved 17 July
^ "8 podcasts that will change how you think about human behavior".
Business Insider Inc. Retrieved 23 April
^ "Podcasts You Should Download Now". pcmag.com. Ziff Davis, LLC.
PCMag Digital Group. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
^ "The 2017 Webby Awards for the best science and education podcasts".
webbyawards.com. The Webby Awards. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
^ "10% Happier with Dan Harris by
ABC News on Apple Podcasts". Apple
Podcasts. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
^ Harris, Sam. "The Path and the Goal". samharris.org. Retrieved
October 17, 2017.
^ Harris, Sam (2012). Free Will. Free Press.
^ Wood, Graeme (April 24, 2013). "The Atheist Who Strangled Me". The
Atlantic. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
^ "Can You Defend Eating Meat with Sam Harris".
^ Harris, Sam. "Ask Me Anything #2".
^ "Meat Without Misery A Conversation with Uma Valeti". Retrieved 10
^ Harris, Sam. "Being Good and Doing Good". Retrieved
^ Piccalo, Gina (October 2, 2006). "Oh, dear God—it's him again".
Los Angeles Times.
Project Reason Trustees / Advisory Board". Project Reason.
Retrieved May 5, 2015.
^ Harris, Sam (2014-09-09). Waking Up: A Guide to
Religion. ISBN 9781451636031. For Annaka, Emma, and Violet
^ Harris, Sam (July 4, 2011). "Drugs and the Meaning of Life". Sam
Harris. I have two daughters who will one day take drugs.
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