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Salzburg
Salzburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] ( listen);[note 1] Austro-Bavarian: Såizburg; literally: "Salt Fortress") is the fourth-largest city in Austria
Austria
and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) is internationally renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1997. The city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists also visit Salzburg
Salzburg
to tour the historic center and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg
Salzburg
was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play and film The Sound of Music.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity to the High Middle Ages 1.2 Independence 1.3 Modern era

1.3.1 Religious conflict 1.3.2 Illuminism

1.4 Electorate of Salzburg 1.5 Austrian annexation of Salzburg 1.6 Salzburg
Salzburg
under Bavarian rule 1.7 Division of Salzburg
Salzburg
and annexation by Austria
Austria
and Bavaria 1.8 20th century

1.8.1 First republic 1.8.2 Annexation by the Third Reich 1.8.3 World War II 1.8.4 Present day

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Population development 4 Architecture

4.1 Romanesque and Gothic 4.2 Renaissance
Renaissance
and baroque 4.3 Classical modernism and post-war modernism 4.4 Contemporary architecture

5 Districts 6 Main sights 7 Education

7.1 Universities and higher education institutions

8 Notable citizens 9 Events 10 Transport 11 Popular culture 12 Language 13 Sports

13.1 Football 13.2 Ice hockey 13.3 Other sports

14 International relations

14.1 Twin towns—sister cities

15 Gallery 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 Bibliography 20 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Salzburg Antiquity to the High Middle Ages[edit] Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic
Neolithic
Age. The first settlements in Salzburg
Salzburg
continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts
Celts
around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province
Roman province
of Noricum. After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.[4] The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria
Theodo of Bavaria
asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He traveled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg
Salzburg
means "Salt Castle" (Latin: Salis Burgium). The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach
Salzach
River, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. The Festung Hohensalzburg, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop
Archbishop
Gebhard, who made it his residence.[5] It was greatly expanded during the following centuries. Independence[edit] Independence from Bavaria
Bavaria
was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg
Salzburg
was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire. As the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress[6] It was besieged for three months in 1525. Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, and Paris Lodron. It was in the 17th century that Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the Baroque
Baroque
style) rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces.[7] Modern era[edit] Religious conflict[edit]

Mozart was born in Salzburg, capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a former ecclesiastical principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the German Nation

Main article: Salzburg
Salzburg
Protestants On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian
Leopold Anton von Firmian
signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, traveling the length and breadth of Germany
Germany
to their new homes in East Prussia.[8] The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America. Illuminism[edit] In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg
Salzburg
was a centre of late Illuminism. Electorate of Salzburg[edit] In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon; he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg. Austrian annexation of Salzburg[edit] In 1805, Salzburg
Salzburg
was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden
Provostry. Salzburg
Salzburg
under Bavarian rule[edit] In 1809, the territory of Salzburg
Salzburg
was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria
Bavaria
after Austria's defeat at Wagram. Division of Salzburg
Salzburg
and annexation by Austria
Austria
and Bavaria[edit] After the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
with the Treaty of Munich
Munich
(1816), Salzburg
Salzburg
was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg
Salzburg
was integrated into the Salzach
Salzach
province and Salzburgerland
Salzburgerland
was ruled from Linz.[9] In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1866 as the capital of a crownland into the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era
Romantic Era
led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to the fortress of Hohensalzburg[10]

Salzburg
Salzburg
in 1914

20th century[edit] First republic[edit] Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian territories, became part of the new German Austria. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands. This was replaced by the First Austrian Republic
First Austrian Republic
in 1919, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). Annexation by the Third Reich[edit]

Young Austrians at celebrations just after the Anschluss

The Anschluss
Anschluss
(the occupation and annexation of Austria, including Salzburg, into the Third Reich) took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed. After Germany
Germany
invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan. It was an Arbeitserziehungslager (work 'education' camp), which provided slave labour to local industry. It also operated as a Zwischenlager (transit camp), holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe.[11] World War II[edit] Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those around Salzburg
Salzburg
train station. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture
remained intact. As a result, Salzburg
Salzburg
is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style. American troops entered the city on 5 May 1945 and it became the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria. Several displaced persons camps were established in Salzburg—among them Riedenburg, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and New Palestine. Present day[edit] After World War II, Salzburg
Salzburg
became the capital city of the State of Salzburg
Salzburg
(Land Salzburg). On 27 January 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the occasion. Major celebrations took place throughout the year. As of 2017 Salzburg
Salzburg
had a GDP per capita of €46,100, which was greater than the average for Austria
Austria
and for most European countries.[12] Geography[edit] Salzburg
Salzburg
is on the banks of the Salzach
Salzach
River, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak, the 1,972‑metre-high Untersberg, is less than 16 kilometres (10 miles) from the city centre. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Festung Hohensalzburg. This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the Mönchsberg
Mönchsberg
and Kapuzinerberg, which offer green relief within the city. Salzburg
Salzburg
is approximately 150 km (93 mi) east of Munich, 281 km (175 mi) northwest of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and 300 km (186 mi) west of Vienna. Climate[edit] Salzburg
Salzburg
is part of the temperate zone. The Köppen climate classification specifies the climate as a humid continental climate (Dfb), however, with the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm for the coldest month, Salzburg
Salzburg
can be classified as a four-season oceanic climate with significant temperature differences between seasons. Due to the location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur.

Climate data for Salzburg-Flughafen (LOWS)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.1 (68.2) 21.7 (71.1) 24.9 (76.8) 27.9 (82.2) 32.2 (90) 35.6 (96.1) 38.6 (101.5) 35.6 (96.1) 32.1 (89.8) 28.2 (82.8) 23.5 (74.3) 18.6 (65.5) 38.6 (101.5)

Average high °C (°F) 3.2 (37.8) 5.6 (42.1) 10.4 (50.7) 14.3 (57.7) 19.9 (67.8) 22.2 (72) 24.4 (75.9) 24.2 (75.6) 20.1 (68.2) 14.8 (58.6) 7.8 (46) 4.0 (39.2) 14.2 (57.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 0.7 (33.3) 4.8 (40.6) 8.5 (47.3) 13.8 (56.8) 16.5 (61.7) 18.6 (65.5) 18.3 (64.9) 14.3 (57.7) 9.3 (48.7) 3.6 (38.5) 0.4 (32.7) 9.0 (48.2)

Average low °C (°F) −4 (25) −2.9 (26.8) 0.7 (33.3) 3.8 (38.8) 8.4 (47.1) 11.5 (52.7) 13.5 (56.3) 13.5 (56.3) 10.1 (50.2) 5.5 (41.9) 0.6 (33.1) −2.5 (27.5) 4.9 (40.8)

Record low °C (°F) −25.4 (−13.7) −21.8 (−7.2) −21.6 (−6.9) −3.9 (25) −2.1 (28.2) 2.0 (35.6) 3.7 (38.7) 4.3 (39.7) −1.6 (29.1) −8 (18) −17.8 (0) −26.8 (−16.2) −26.8 (−16.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.9 (2.358) 54.7 (2.154) 78.7 (3.098) 83.1 (3.272) 114.5 (4.508) 154.8 (6.094) 157.5 (6.201) 151.3 (5.957) 101.3 (3.988) 72.6 (2.858) 83.0 (3.268) 72.8 (2.866) 1,184.2 (46.622)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 24.0 (9.45) 23.9 (9.41) 21.7 (8.54) 2.9 (1.14) 0.1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 12.1 (4.76) 27.8 (10.94) 112.5 (44.29)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.1 9.5 11.9 11.8 12.1 15.0 14.4 13.2 10.8 9.3 10.8 11.8 140.7

Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 15.4 11.7 6.1 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 5.1 13.1 52.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.0 91.9 130.0 152.6 196.4 193.9 221.1 202.8 167.7 129.7 81.2 62.8 1,697.1

Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[13]

Population development[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1869 27,858 —    

1880 33,241 +19.3%

1890 38,081 +14.6%

1900 48,945 +28.5%

1910 56,423 +15.3%

1923 60,026 +6.4%

1934 69,447 +15.7%

1939 77,170 +11.1%

1951 102,927 +33.4%

1961 108,114 +5.0%

1971 129,919 +20.2%

1981 139,426 +7.3%

1991 143,978 +3.3%

2001 142,662 −0.9%

2011 145,367 +1.9%

2016 150,887 +3.8%

Source: Statistik Austria[14]

Largest groups of foreign residents[15]

Nationality Population (2018)

 Germany 6,884

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,224

 Serbia 4,705

 Turkey 2,463

 Croatia 2,374

 Romania 2,192

 Syria 1,597

 Afghanistan 1,485

 Hungary 1,346

 Italy 1,002

 Kosovo 774

Salzburg's official population significantly increased in 1935 when the city absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was constructed for American soldiers of the postwar occupation, and could be used for refugees when they left. Around 1950, Salzburg passed the mark of 100,000 citizens, and in 2006, it reached the mark of 150,000 citizens. Architecture[edit]

Ensemble view.

Sigmund Haffner Gasse – Rathaus.

Romanesque and Gothic[edit] The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The Cathedral of Archbishop
Archbishop
Conrad of Wittelsbach
Conrad of Wittelsbach
was the largest basilica north of the Alps. The choir of the Franciscan Church Hall, construction was begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious religious gothic constructions of southern Germany. At the end of the Gothic era the Collegiate church "Nonnberg", Margaret Chapel in St. Peter's Cemetery, the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock" in the Hohensalzburg
Hohensalzburg
Castle were constructed. Renaissance
Renaissance
and baroque[edit] Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, Prince Archbishop
Archbishop
Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. Plans for a massive cathedral by Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari
Santino Solari
rose as the first early Baroque
Baroque
church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany
Germany
and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as Hellbrunn
Hellbrunn
Palace, the prince archbishop's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed by order of Prince Archbishop
Archbishop
Guido von Thun the construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli, by order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan church in the south of the town. The city's redesign was completed with buildings designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, donated by Prince Archbishop
Archbishop
Johann Ernst von Thun. After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt, which is the reason why there are no churches built in the rococo style. Sigismund von Schrattenbach
Sigismund von Schrattenbach
continued with the construction of "Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square. With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistums Salzburg" (Archbishopric) to Upper Austria, Bavaria
Bavaria
(Rupertigau) and Tyrol (Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism (Gründerzeit) brought new life into urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era.[16] Classical modernism and post-war modernism[edit]

The Red Bull
Red Bull
Hangar-7

Residential and studio house Lechner in the old town

Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of the old town), the "Lepi" (a public baths in Leopoldskron) (built 1964) and the original 1957 constructed congress center of Salzburg, which was replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous example of architecture of this era is the 1960 opening of the Großes Festspielhaus
Großes Festspielhaus
by Clemens Holzmeister. Contemporary architecture[edit] Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Yet some new structures have been added: the Mozarteum
Mozarteum
at the baroque Mirabell garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer),[17] the 2001 Congress house (Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture: Storch Ehlers partners), the 2001 "Makartsteg" bridge (Architecture: HALLE1), and the "Residential and studio house" of the architects Christine and Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town (winner of the architecture award of Salzburg
Salzburg
2010).[18][19] Other examples of contemporary architecture lie outside the old town: the Faculty of Science building (Universität Salzburg
Salzburg
– Architecture Willhelm Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob architecture of Red Bull
Red Bull
Hangar‑7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller[20]) at Salzburg
Salzburg
Airport, home to Dietrich Mateschitz's Flying Bulls and the Europark shopping mall. (Architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas) Districts[edit]

Districts of Salzburg

Salzburg
Salzburg
Cathedral

View from Mirabellgarten at night

Salzburg
Salzburg
has twenty-four urban districts and three extra-urban populations. Urban districts (Stadtteile):

Aigen Altstadt Elisabeth-Vorstadt Gneis Gneis-Süd Gnigl Itzling Itzling-Nord Kasern Langwied Lehen Leopoldskron-Moos Liefering Maxglan Maxglan-West Morzg Mülln Neustadt Nonntal Parsch Riedenburg Salzburg-Süd Taxham Schallmoos

Extra-urban populations (Landschaftsräume):

Gaisberg Hellbrunn Heuberg

Main sights[edit]

Gardens in Mirabell Palace, with Salzburg
Salzburg
fortress in the distance

The famous fountain in Mirabell Gardens (seen in the "Do-Re-Mi" song from The Sound of Music)

View of shoppers on Getreidegasse, which is one of the oldest streets in Salzburg

The Sunset at the Staatsbrücke

Salzburg
Salzburg
is a tourist favourite, with the number of tourists outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include: Old Town

Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg, declared a World Heritage Site in 1996 Baroque
Baroque
architecture, including many churches Salzburg Cathedral
Salzburg Cathedral
(Salzburger Dom) Hohensalzburg
Hohensalzburg
Castle (Festung Hohensalzburg), overlooking the Old Town, is one of the largest castles in Europe Franciscan Church (Franziskanerkirche) St Peter's Abbey with the Petersfriedhof Nonnberg Abbey, a Benedictine monastery Salzburg
Salzburg
Residenz, the magnificent former residence of the Prince-Archbishops Residenzgalerie, an art museum in the Salzburg
Salzburg
Residenz Mozart's Birthplace Mozart's Residence University Church Siegmundstor (or Neutor) Getreidegasse Sphaera, a sculpture of a man on a golden sphere (Stephan Balkenhol, 2007)

Outside the Old Town

Mirabell Palace, with its wide gardens full of flowers St. Sebastian's cemetery (Sebastiansfriedhof) Schloss Leopoldskron, a rococo palace and national historic monument in Leopoldskron-Moos, a southern district of Salzburg Hellbrunn
Hellbrunn
with its parks and castles The Sound of Music tour companies who operate tours of film locations Hangar-7, a multifunctional building owned by Red Bull, with a collection of historical airplanes, helicopters and Formula One
Formula One
racing cars

Greater Salzburg
Salzburg
area

Anif
Anif
Castle, located south of the city in Anif Shrine of Our Lady of Maria Plain, a late Baroque
Baroque
church on the northern edge of Salzburg Salzburger Freilichtmuseum Großgmain, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses from all over the state assembled in an historic setting Schloss Klessheim, a palace and casino, formerly used by Adolf Hitler Berghof, Hitler's mountain retreat near Berchtesgaden Kehlsteinhaus, the only remnant of Hitler's Berghof Salzkammergut, an area of lakes east of the city Untersberg
Untersberg
mountain, next to the city on the Germany- Austria
Austria
border, with panoramic views of Salzburg
Salzburg
and the surrounding Alps Skiing
Skiing
is an attraction during winter. Salzburg
Salzburg
itself has no skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to skiing areas to the south. During the winter months its airport receives charter flights from around Europe. Salzburg
Salzburg
Zoo, located south of the city in Anif

Education[edit] Salzburg
Salzburg
is a centre of education and home to three universities, as well as several professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools). Universities and higher education institutions[edit]

University of Salzburg, a federal public university Paracelsus Private Medical University of Salzburg Mozarteum
Mozarteum
University of Salzburg, a public music university Alma Mater Europaea, a private university Fachhochschule Salzburg, an applied sciences school SEAD, Salzburg
Salzburg
Experimental Academy for Dance

Notable citizens[edit]

Saint Liutberga (died c. 870).

Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse
Getreidegasse
9

The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, born and raised in Salzburg, was employed as musician at the archbishopal court from 1773 to 1781. His house of birth and residence are tourist attractions. His family is buried in a small church graveyard in the old town, and there are many monuments to "Wolferl" in the city. The composer Johann Michael Haydn, brother of the composer Joseph Haydn. His works were admired by Mozart and Schubert. He was also the teacher of Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
and Anton Diabelli
Anton Diabelli
and is known for his sacred music. Christian Doppler, expert on acoustic theory, was born in Salzburg. He is most known for his discovery of the Doppler effect. Josef Mohr, born in Salzburg. Together with Franz Gruber, he composed and wrote the text for "Silent Night". As a priest in neighbouring Oberndorf he performed the song for the first time on Christmas Eve 1818. King Otto of Greece
Otto of Greece
was born Prince Otto Friedrich Ludwig of Bavaria at the Palace of Mirabell, a few days before the city reverted from Bavarian to Austrian rule. Writer Stefan Zweig, lived in Salzburg
Salzburg
for about 15 years, until 1934. Maria von Trapp
Maria von Trapp
(later Maria Trapp) and her family lived in Salzburg until they fled to the United States following the Nazi takeover. Salzburg
Salzburg
is the birthplace of Hans Makart, a 19th-century Austrian painter-decorator and national celebrity. Makartplatz (Makart Square) is named in his honour. Writer Thomas Bernhard, raised in Salzburg
Salzburg
and spent part of his life there. Herbert von Karajan, notable musician and conductor. He was born in Salzburg
Salzburg
and died in 1989 in neighbouring Anif. Roland Ratzenberger, Formula One
Formula One
driver, was born in Salzburg. He died in practice for the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. Joseph Leutgeb, French horn virtuoso. Klaus Ager, distinguished contemporary composer and Mozarteum professor, was born in Salzburg
Salzburg
on 10 May 1946. Alex Jesaulenko, former Australian rules footballer for Carlton and Australian Football Hall of Fame
Australian Football Hall of Fame
member with "Legend" status was born in Salzburg
Salzburg
on 2 August 1945. Georg Trakl, one of the most important voices in German literature and he was also born in Salzburg. Theodor Herzl, worked in the courts in Salzburg
Salzburg
during the year after he earned his law degree in 1884.[21] Skydiver and BASE Jumper Felix Baumgartner, who set three world records during the Red Bull
Red Bull
Stratos project on 14 October 2012.

Events[edit]

The Salzburg Festival
Salzburg Festival
is a famous music festival that attracts visitors during the months of July and August each year. A smaller Salzburg Easter Festival is held around Easter each year. The Europrix multimedia award takes place in Salzburg.

Transport[edit]

Salzburg
Salzburg
Airport

Map of the Salzburg
Salzburg
trolleybus system.

The city is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east–west trains serving Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich, including daily high-speed ICE services. The city acts as a hub for south-bound trains through the Alps
Alps
into Italy. Salzburg Airport
Salzburg Airport
has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels, Düsseldorf, and Zürich, as well as Hamburg, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Dublin. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights. In the main city, there is the Salzburg
Salzburg
trolleybus system and bus system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg
Salzburg
has an S-Bahn
S-Bahn
system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are part of the ÖBB
ÖBB
network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes. Popular culture[edit] In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music used some locations in and around Salzburg
Salzburg
and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, who took up with an aristocratic family and fled the German Anschluss. Although the film is not particularly popular nor well known among Austrians, the town draws many visitors who wish to visit the filming locations, alone or on tours. Salzburg
Salzburg
is the setting for the Austrian crime series Stockinger. In the 2010 film Knight & Day, Salzburg
Salzburg
serves as the backdrop for a large portion of the film. Language[edit] Austrian German
Austrian German
is widely written. Austro-Bavarian
Austro-Bavarian
is the German dialect of this territory and widely spoken. Sports[edit] Football[edit] The former SV Austria
Austria
Salzburg
Salzburg
reached the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
final in 1994. On 6 April 2005 Red Bull
Red Bull
bought the club and changed its name into FC Red Bull Salzburg. The home stadium of Red Bull
Red Bull
Salzburg
Salzburg
is the Wals Siezenheim Stadium in a suburb in the agglomeration of Salzburg
Salzburg
and was one of the venues for the 2008 European Football Championship. The FC Red Bull
Red Bull
Salzburg
Salzburg
plays in the Austrian Bundesliga. After Red Bull
Red Bull
had bought the SV Austria
Austria
Salzburg
Salzburg
and changed its name and team colors, some supporters of the club decided to leave and form a new club with the old name and old colors, wanting to preserve the traditions of their club. The reformed SV Austria
Austria
Salzburg
Salzburg
was founded in 2005 and currently plays in the Erste Liga, only one tier below the Bundesliga. Ice hockey[edit] Red Bull
Red Bull
also sponsors the local ice hockey team, the EC Salzburg
Salzburg
Red Bulls. The team plays in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, an Austria-headquartered crossborder league featuring the best teams from Austria, Hungary, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Italy, as well as one Czech team. Other sports[edit] Salzburg
Salzburg
was a candidate city for the 2010 & 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost to Vancouver
Vancouver
and Sochi
Sochi
respectively. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria Twin towns—sister cities[edit] Salzburg
Salzburg
is twinned with:[22]

Reims, Marne, Grand Est, France, since 1964 Verona, Verona, Veneto, Italy, since 1973 León, Nicaragua, since 1984 Singida, Tanzania, since 1984 Busseto, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, since 1988 Vilnius, Lithuania, since 1989 Dresden, Saxony, Germany, since 1991[23] Kawasaki, Japan, since 1992 Meran, South Tyrol, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy, since 2000 Shanghai, China, since 2004

Gallery[edit]

The Salzburg
Salzburg
basin

Salzburg
Salzburg
seen on takeoff from Salzburg
Salzburg
Airport

The fortress (background), Salzburg Cathedral
Salzburg Cathedral
(middle), River Salzach (foreground)

A sunny day on the fortress

Festung Hohensalzburg
Festung Hohensalzburg
(background), Kapitel Square with the "Pferdeschwemme", (foreground)

ÖBB
ÖBB
rail connection to Salzburg
Salzburg
in Innsbruck

Untersberg
Untersberg
mountain

Mozart monument

Fountain
Fountain
in the Residenzplatz

Palace of Mirabell.

Mozart's birthplace

View of the old town and fortress, seen from Kapuzinerberg

View of Salzach
Salzach
river

Children playing the giant street chess

A night time long exposure of Salzburg

Salzburg
Salzburg
old town with a typical narrow alleyway

Salzburg
Salzburg
Altstadt Panorama

Salzburg
Salzburg
panorama as seen from the Hohensalzburg
Hohensalzburg
Castle

See also[edit]

Austria
Austria
portal

List of World Heritage Sites in Austria Salzburgerland Salzburg
Salzburg
Tourism board

Notes[edit]

^ English: /ˈsæltsbɜːrɡ, ˈsɔːlts-, ˈsɔːlz-, ˈsælz-, ˈzæltsbʊərk/[2][3]

References[edit]

^ Statistik Austria
Austria
- Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2016) for Salzburg. ^ "Saltsburg" in the American Heritage Dictionary Archived September 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Salzburg" in the Oxford English Dictionary ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1 ^ de Fabianis, p. 167. ^ de Fabianis, p. 167 ^ Visit Salzburg, Salzburg's History: Coming a Long Way. ^ Frank L. Perry, Jr., Catholics Cleanse Salzburg
Salzburg
of Protestants, The Georgia Salzburger Society. ^ Times Atlas of European History, 3rd Ed., 2002 ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1 ^ "AEIOU Österreich-Lexikon – Konzentrationslager, KZ". Austria-Forum.org. Retrieved 2013-06-24.  ^ E.B. (26 September 2017). "The Salzburg Festival
Salzburg Festival
is a boon to the local economy". The Economist.  ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971 – 2000 – Salzburg-Flughafen". Retrieved 2010-06-14.  ^ [1] ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Salzburg" (PDF). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2016-11-03.  ^ "Architecture : Salzburg
Salzburg
Sights by Period". Visit-salzburg.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ [2] Archived May 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Preisträger Salzburg
Salzburg
Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "flow – der VERBUND Blog". Verbund.com. 2012-10-15. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "Red Bull′s Hangar-7
Hangar-7
at Salzburg
Salzburg
Airport". Visit Salzburg. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ " Theodor Herzl
Theodor Herzl
(1860–1904)". Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08. He received a doctorate in law in 1884 and worked for a short while in courts in Vienna
Vienna
and Salzburg.  ^ "Salzburger Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ "Dresden — Partner Cities". © 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Salzburg External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salzburg
Salzburg
(Stadt).

Information-related

Salzburg.eu – The official information platform for Salzburg City Bus System – Official site "Business Location Salzburg
Salzburg
– A powerful region", Salzburg's economy

Culture-related

Fine Arts and Culture in Salzburg – article by local students Official Website of the Salzburg Festival
Salzburg Festival
Salzburger Festspiele Mozart's Salzburg – article by Brian Robins Digitized Salzburg
Salzburg
objects in The European Library Georgia Salzburger Society – The website of the Georgia Salzburger Society, descendents of the refugees who settled in Georgia after their expulsion from Salzburg
Salzburg
in 1731.

Olympic-related

Salzburg
Salzburg
2014 – 2014 Olympic bid website

Tourism-related

Salzburg
Salzburg
(city) travel guide from Wikivoyage Salzburg
Salzburg
Tourist Office – salzburg city tourist board website. Salzburg
Salzburg
Umgebung - Salzburg
Salzburg
Region Tourist Office – tourist board website. More than 1000 articles and photos from Salzburg Various Salzburg
Salzburg
Information Sorted by categories. Choose from 5 languages. Salzburg
Salzburg
Photo Gallery The Sound Of Music : Salzburg
Salzburg
1964–2011 Salzburg
Salzburg
Travel Guide & Panoramic Virtual Tours The City Guide Salzburg
Salzburg
– Portal Christmas in Salzburg, Christmas spirit all year – Thewotme travel blog

v t e

Principal cities of Austria

Bregenz Feldkirch Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Leoben Lienz Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Steyr Vienna Villach Wels Wiener Neustadt

v t e

Cities and districts (Bezirke) of the state of Salzburg

Cities

Salzburg

Districts

Hallein Salzburg-Umgebung St. Johann im Pongau Tamsweg Zell am See

v t e

Administrative seats of Austrian states

Bregenz Eisenstadt Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Linz Salzburg Sankt Pölten Vienna

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Austria

Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
Cultural Landscape Semmering Railway City of Graz
Graz
– Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg Wachau
Wachau
Cultural Landscape Fertő / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape1 Historic Centre of Vienna Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps2

1 Shared with Hungary 2 Shared with France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Switzerland

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143061561 LCCN: n80024359 GND: 40769

.