SALZBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Bavarian : Såizburg;
literally: "Salt Fortress") is the fourth-largest city in
the capital of the federal state of
Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) is internationally renowned for its
baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers
north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in
1997. The city has three universities and a large population of
students. Tourists also visit
Salzburg to tour the historic center and
the scenic Alpine surroundings.
Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart . In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the
musical play and film The Sound of Music .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Antiquity to the High Middle Ages
* 1.2 Independence
* 1.3 Modern era
* 1.3.1 Religious conflict
Electorate of Salzburg
* 1.5 Austrian annexation of
Salzburg under Bavarian rule
* 1.7 Division of
Salzburg and annexation by
* 1.8 20th century
* 1.8.1 First republic
* 1.8.2 Annexation by the Third Reich
World War II
World War II
* 1.8.4 Present day
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Population development
* 4 Architecture
* 4.1 Romanesque and Gothic
Renaissance and baroque
* 4.3 Classical modernism and post-war modernism
* 5 Districts
* 6 Main sights
* 7 Education
* 7.1 Universities and higher education institutions
* 8 Notable citizens
* 9 Events
* 10 Transport
* 11 Popular culture
* 12 Language
* 13 Sports
* 13.1 Football
* 13.3 Other sports
* 14 International relations
* 14.1 Twin towns—sister cities
* 15 Gallery
* 16 See also
* 17 Notes
* 18 References
* 19 Bibliography
* 20 External links
Timeline of Salzburg
ANTIQUITY TO THE HIGH MIDDLE AGES
Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to
Neolithic Age. The first settlements in
Salzburg continuous with
the present were apparently by the
Celts around the 5th century BC.
Around 15 BC the
Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city.
At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status
of a Roman municipium in 45 AD . Juvavum developed into an important
town of the
Roman province of
Noricum . After the Norican frontiers
collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it
nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the
city's rebirth. When
Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop
c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica .
Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding.
Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He traveled to evangelise among
Salzburg means "Salt Castle" (
Latin : Salis Burgium). The
name derives from the barges carrying salt on the
Salzach River, which
were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many
communities and cities on European rivers. The
Festung Hohensalzburg ,
the city's fortress , was built in 1077 by
Archbishop Gebhard, who
made it his residence. It was greatly expanded during the following
Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century.
Salzburg was the seat of the
Archbishopric of Salzburg , a
prince-bishopric of the Holy
Roman Empire . As the reformation
movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in
and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German
Peasants\' War , and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the
fortress It was besieged for three months in 1525.
Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to
an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to
18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau
, Markus Sittikus , and Paris Lodron . It was in the 17th century that
Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the
rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces.
Mozart was born in Salzburg, capital of the Archbishopric of
Salzburg, a former ecclesiastical principality in what is now Austria,
then part of the Holy
Roman Empire of the German Nation Main
On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses ,
Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of
Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to
recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant
their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted
an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia , traveling the length
and breadth of
Germany to their new homes in East Prussia. The rest
settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies
In 1772–1803, under archbishop
Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo ,
Salzburg was a centre of late
ELECTORATE OF SALZBURG
In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor
Napoleon ; he
transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany , former Grand
Duke of Tuscany , as the
Electorate of Salzburg .
AUSTRIAN ANNEXATION OF SALZBURG
Salzburg was annexed to the
Austrian Empire , along with the
Berchtesgaden Provostry .
SALZBURG UNDER BAVARIAN RULE
In 1809, the territory of
Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of
Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram .
DIVISION OF SALZBURG AND ANNEXATION BY AUSTRIA AND BAVARIA
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna with the
Treaty of Munich (1816) ,
Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau
and Berchtesgaden, which remained with
integrated into the
Salzach province and
Salzburgerland was ruled from
In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy
Salzburg , a crownland of the
Austrian Empire . The city became
Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland into the
Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the
Romantic Era led to increased
tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to
the fortress of
Salzburg in 1914
World War I
World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire; Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian
territories, became part of the new German
Austria . In 1918, it
represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian
heartlands. This was replaced by the
First Austrian Republic in 1919,
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles .
Annexation By The Third Reich
Young Austrians at celebrations just after the
Anschluss (the occupation and annexation of Austria, including
Salzburg, into the Third Reich ) took place the 12 March 1938, one day
before a scheduled referendum about Austria's independence. German
troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and
other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to
concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed. After Germany
invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the
Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city.
During the Nazi occupation, a Roma camp was built in
Salzburg-Maxglan. It was an Arbeitserziehungslager (work 'education'
camp), which provided slave labour to local industry. It also operated
as a Zwischenlager (transit camp), holding Roma before their
deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in
German-occupied territories in eastern Europe.
World War II
Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. 15
strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those
Salzburg train station. Although the town's bridges and the
dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its
remained intact. As a result, it is one of the few remaining examples
of a town of its style. American troops entered
Salzburg on 5 May
In the city of Salzburg, there were several DP Camps following World
War II. Among these were Riedenburg, Camp Herzl
(Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and
Salzburg was the centre of the American-occupied area
After World War II,
Salzburg became the capital city of the State of
Salzburg (Land Salzburg). On 27 January 2006, the 250th anniversary of
the birth of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , all 35 churches of Salzburg
rang their bells after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the
occasion. Major celebrations took place throughout the year.
Salzburg is on the banks of the
Salzach River, at the northern
boundary of the
Alps . The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with
the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak, the
Untersberg , is less than 16 kilometres (10 miles)
from the city centre. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its
baroque towers and churches and the massive
Festung Hohensalzburg .
This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the
Kapuzinerberg , which offer green relief within the city.
approximately 150 km (93 mi) east of
Munich , 281 km (175 mi)
Slovenia , and 300 km (186 mi) west of Vienna
Salzburg is part of the temperate zone. The Köppen climate
classification specifies the climate as either oceanic climate (Cfb)
or humid continental (Dfb), depending on which isotherm for winter
means are used. With the more regular −3 °C (27 °F) one for the
Salzburg would be a four-season oceanic climate with
significant temperature differences between seasons. Due to the
location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation
is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific
drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and
spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur.
CLIMATE DATA FOR SALZBURG-FLUGHAFEN (LOWS )
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
Bosnia "> Ensemble view. Sigmund Haffner Gasse –
ROMANESQUE AND GOTHIC
The Romanesque and Gothic churches , the monasteries and the early
carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The
Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica
north of the
Alps . The choir of the Franciscan Church Hall,
construction was begun by
Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan
Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious religious gothic
constructions of southern Germany. At the end of the Gothic era the
Collegiate church "Nonnberg", Margaret Chapel in St. Peter\'s Cemetery
, the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock"
Hohensalzburg Castle were constructed.
RENAISSANCE AND BAROQUE
Vincenzo Scamozzi , Prince
Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von
Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural
ideals of the late
Renaissance . Plans for a massive cathedral by
Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A
second cathedral planned by
Santino Solari rose as the first early
Baroque church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other
churches in Southern
Austria . Markus Sittikus and Paris
von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as
Hellbrunn Palace , the prince archbishop's residence, the university
buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio
Daria managed by order of Prince
Archbishop Guido von Thun the
construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli, by
order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan
church in the south of the town. The city's redesign was completed
with buildings designed by
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach ,
donated by Prince
Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun.
After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt,
which is the reason why there are no churches built in the rococo
Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of
"Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square.
With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistums Salzburg"
(Archbishopric) to Upper
Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol
(Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era
didn't end before the period of promoterism (
Gründerzeit ) brought
new life into urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and
Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city
in this era.
CLASSICAL MODERNISM AND POST-WAR MODERNISM
Hangar-7 Residential and studio house
Lechner in the old town
Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war
modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the
Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of
the old town), the "Lepi" (a public baths in Leopoldskron) (built
1964) and the original 1957 constructed congress center of Salzburg,
which was replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous
example of architecture of this era is the 1960 opening of the Großes
Clemens Holzmeister .
Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without
risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Yet some new
structures have been added: the
Mozarteum at the baroque Mirabell
garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer), the 2001 Congress house
(Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture:
Storch Ehlers partners), the 2001 "Makartsteg" bridge (Architecture:
HALLE1), and the "Residential and studio house" of the architects
Christine and Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town
(winner of the architecture award of
Salzburg 2010). Other examples
of contemporary architecture lie outside the old town: the Faculty of
Science building (Universität
Salzburg – Architecture Willhelm
Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob
Red Bull Hangar‑7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller
Salzburg Airport, home to
Dietrich Mateschitz 's Flying Bulls and
the Europark shopping mall. (Architecture:
Massimiliano Fuksas )
Salzburg Cathedral View
from Mirabellgarten at night
Salzburg has twenty-four urban districts and three extra-urban
Urban districts (Stadtteile):
Extra-urban populations (Landschaftsräume):
Gardens in Mirabell Palace, with
Salzburg fortress in the
distance The famous fountain in Mirabell Gardens (seen in the
"Do-Re-Mi" song from The Sound of Music) View of shoppers on
Getreidegasse , which is one of the oldest streets in
The Sunset at the Staatsbrücke
Salzburg is a tourist favorite, with the number of tourists
outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to
Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include:
* Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg, declared a World Heritage
Site in 1996
Baroque architecture, including many churches
Salzburg Cathedral (Salzburger Dom)
Hohensalzburg Castle (Festung Hohensalzburg), overlooking the Old
Town, is one of the largest castles in Europe
* Franciscan Church (Franziskanerkirche)
* St Peter\'s Abbey with the Petersfriedhof
Nonnberg Abbey , a Benedictine monastery
Salzburg Residenz , the magnificent former residence of the
Residenzgalerie , an art museum in the
* Mozart's Birthplace
* Mozart's Residence
* University Church
* Siegmundstor (or Neutor)
* Sphaera, a sculpture of a man on a golden sphere (Stephan
OUTSIDE THE OLD TOWN
Mirabell Palace , with its wide gardens full of flowers
* St. Sebastian's cemetery (Sebastiansfriedhof)
Schloss Leopoldskron , a rococo palace and national historic
monument in Leopoldskron-Moos, a southern district of Salzburg
Hellbrunn with its parks and castles
* The Sound of Music tour companies who operate tours of film
Hangar-7 , a multifunctional building owned by
Red Bull , with a
collection of historical airplanes, helicopters and
Formula One racing
GREATER SALZBURG AREA
Anif Castle, located south of the city in
* Shrine of Our Lady of Maria Plain, a late
Baroque church on the
northern edge of Salzburg
* Salzburger Freilichtmuseum Großgmain, an open-air museum
containing old farmhouses from all over the state assembled in an
Schloss Klessheim , a palace and casino, formerly used by Adolf
* Berghof , Hitler's mountain retreat near
Kehlsteinhaus , the only remnant of Hitler's Berghof
Salzkammergut , an area of lakes east of the city
Untersberg mountain, next to the city on the Germany-Austria
border, with panoramic views of
Salzburg and the surrounding Alps
Skiing is an attraction during winter.
Salzburg itself has no
skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to skiing areas to the
south. During the winter months its airport receives charter flights
from around Europe.
Salzburg Zoo , located south of the city in
Salzburg is a centre of education and home to three universities, as
well as several professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools) .
UNIVERSITIES AND HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
University of Salzburg , a federal public university
* Paracelsus Private Medical
University of Salzburg
University of Salzburg , a public music university
Alma Mater Europaea , a private university
* Fachhochschule Salzburg, an applied sciences school
Mozart's birthplace at
* The composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , born and raised in
Salzburg, was employed as musician at the archbishopal court from 1773
to 1781. His house of birth and residence are tourist attractions. His
family is buried in a small church graveyard in the old town, and
there are many monuments to "Wolferl" in the city.
* The composer
Johann Michael Haydn , brother of the composer Joseph
Haydn . His works were admired by Mozart and Schubert . He was also
the teacher of
Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber and
Anton Diabelli and is known
for his sacred music.
Christian Doppler , expert on acoustic theory, was born in
Salzburg. He is most known for his discovery of the
Doppler effect .
Josef Mohr , born in Salzburg. Together with Franz Gruber , he
composed and wrote the text for "Silent Night ". As a priest in
neighbouring Oberndorf he performed the song for the first time on
Christmas Eve 1818.
Otto of Greece
Otto of Greece was born Prince Otto Friedrich Ludwig of
Bavaria at the Palace of Mirabell, a few days before the city reverted
from Bavarian to Austrian rule.
Stefan Zweig , lived in
Salzburg for about 15 years, until
* Maria Von Trapp (later
Maria Trapp ) and her family lived in
Salzburg until they fled to the
United States following the Nazi
Salzburg is the birthplace of
Hans Makart , a 19th-century
Austrian painter-decorator and national celebrity. Makartplatz (Makart
Square) is named in his honour.
Thomas Bernhard , raised in
Salzburg and spent part of his
Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan , notable musician and conductor. He was born
Salzburg and died in 1989 in neighbouring
* Anthropologist Udo Ludwig was born here.
Roland Ratzenberger ,
Formula One driver, was born in Salzburg. He
died in practice for the
1994 San Marino Grand Prix .
Joseph Leutgeb , French horn virtuoso
Klaus Ager , distinguished contemporary composer and Mozarteum
professor, was born in
Salzburg on 10 May 1946.
Alex Jesaulenko , former Australian rules footballer for Carlton
Australian Football Hall of Fame member with "Legend" status was
Salzburg on 2 August 1945.
Georg Trakl , one of the most important voices in German
literature and he was also born in Salzburg.
Theodor Herzl , worked in the courts in
Salzburg during the year
after he earned his law degree in 1884.
* Skydiver and BASE Jumper
Felix Baumgartner , who set three world
records during the
Red Bull Stratos project on 14 October 2012.
* Braden, Gerald Wilhelm. "Classical Orchestral "> Salzburg
Airport Map of the
Salzburg trolleybus system .
The city is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent
east-west trains serving
Innsbruck , and
including daily high-speed ICE services. The city acts as a hub for
south-bound trains through the
Salzburg Airport has scheduled flights to European cities such as
Düsseldorf , and
Zürich , as well as
Edinburgh and Dublin
. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.
In the main city, there is the
Salzburg trolleybus system and bus
system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10
Salzburg has an
S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3,
S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they
are part of the
ÖBB network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the
world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes.
In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music used some locations in and
Salzburg and the state of
Salzburg . The movie was based on the
true story of
Maria von Trapp who took up with an aristocratic family
and fled the German
Anschluss . Although the film is not particularly
popular nor well known among Austrians, the town draws many visitors
who wish to visit the filming locations , alone or on tours.
Salzburg is the setting for the Austrian crime series
In the 2010 film
Knight & Day ,
Salzburg serves as the backdrop for a
large portion of the film.
Austrian German is widely written.
Austro-Bavarian is the German
dialect of this territory and widely spoken.
The former SV
Salzburg reached the
UEFA Cup final in 1994 .
On 6 April 2005
Red Bull bought the club and changed its name into FC
Salzburg . The home stadium of
Salzburg is the Wals
Siezenheim Stadium in a suburb in the agglomeration of
was one of the venues for the
2008 European Football Championship
2008 European Football Championship .
Salzburg plays in the Austrian Bundesliga .
Red Bull had bought the SV
Salzburg and changed its
name and team colors, some supporters of the club decided to leave and
form a new club with the old name and old colors, wanting to preserve
the traditions of their club. The reformed SV
founded in 2005 and currently plays in the Erste Liga , only one tier
below the Bundesliga.
Red Bull also sponsors the local ice hockey team, the EC
Bulls . The team plays in the
Erste Bank Eishockey Liga , an
Austria-headquartered crossborder league featuring the best teams from
Slovenia and Italy, as well as one Czech team.
Salzburg was a candidate city for the 2010 -webkit-column-count: 2;
Grand Est , France, since 1964
Veneto , Italy, since 1973
* León , Nicaragua, since 1984
* Singida , Tanzania, since 1984
Busseto , Parma ,
Emilia-Romagna , Italy, since 1988
Vilnius , Lithuania, since 1989
Saxony , Germany, since 1991
* Kawasaki , Japan, since 1992
South Tyrol ,
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol , Italy,
Shanghai , China, since 2004
Salzburg seen on takeoff from
The fortress (background),
Salzburg Cathedral (middle), River Salzach
A sunny day on the fortress
Festung Hohensalzburg (background), Kapitel Square with the
ÖBB rail connection to
Fountain in the
Palace of Mirabell .
View of the old town and fortress , seen from
Children playing the giant street chess
A night time long exposure of
town with a typical narrow alleyway
Salzburg panorama as seen from the Hohensalzburg
* List of World Heritage Sites in
Salzburg Tourism board
* ^ English: /ˈsæltsbɜːrɡ, ˈsɔːlts-, ˈsɔːlz-, ˈsælz-,
* ^ Statistik
Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach
Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2016) for Salzburg, Austria.
* ^ "Saltsburg" in the American Heritage Dictionary Archived
September 27, 2014, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Salzburg" in the Oxford English Dictionary
* ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books,
2013, p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
* ^ de Fabianis, p. 167.
* ^ de Fabianis, p. 167
* ^ Visit Salzburg, Salzburg\'s History: Coming a Long Way.
* ^ Frank L. Perry, Jr., Catholics Cleanse
Salzburg of Protestants,
The Georgia Salzburger Society.
* ^ Times Atlas of European History, 3rd Ed., 2002
* ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books,
2013, p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
* ^ "AEIOU Österreich-Lexikon – Konzentrationslager, KZ".
Austria-Forum.org. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
* ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971 – 2000 –
Salzburg-Flughafen". Retrieved 2010-06-14.
* ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Salzburg" (PDF).
Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
* ^ "Architecture :
Salzburg Sights by Period". Visit-salzburg.net.
* ^ Archived May 6, 2012, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Preisträger
Salzburg Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback
* ^ "flow – der VERBUND Blog". Verbund.com. 2012-10-15. Retrieved
* ^ "Red Bull′s
Salzburg Airport". Visit Salzburg.
* ^ "
Theodor Herzl (1860–1904)".
Jewish Agency for Israel .
Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved
2009-08-08. He received a doctorate in law in 1884 and worked for a
short while in courts in
Vienna and Salzburg.
* ^ "Salzburger Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt
Salzburg. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
* ^ "
Dresden — Partner Cities". © 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden.
Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SALZBURG (STADT) .
* Salzburg.eu – The official