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Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized U.S. citizen. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
in 1969, with Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
and Alfred Hershey, for their discoveries on the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.[1] Salvador Luria
Salvador Luria
also showed that bacterial resistance to viruses (phages) is genetically inherited.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Phage
Phage
research 3 Later work 4 Political Activism 5 Death 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Luria was born Salvatore Edoardo Luria, in Turin, Italy to an influential Italian Sephardi Jewish family. His parents were Ester (Sacerdote) and Davide Luria.[2] He attended the medical school at the University of Turin
Turin
studying with Giuseppe Levi. There, he met two other future Nobel laureates: Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
and Renato Dulbecco. He graduated from the University of Turin
Turin
in 1935. From 1936 to 1937, Luria served his required time in the Italian army as a medical officer. He then took classes in radiology at the University of Rome. Here, he was introduced to Max Delbrück's theories on the gene as a molecule and began to formulate methods for testing genetic theory with the bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria. In 1938, he received a fellowship to study in the United States, where he intended to work with Delbrück. Soon after Luria received the award, Benito Mussolini's fascist regime banned Jews from academic research fellowships. Without funding sources for work in the U.S. or Italy, Luria left his home country for Paris, France in 1938. As the Nazi German armies invaded France in 1940, Luria fled on bicycle to Marseille
Marseille
where he received an immigration visa to the United States. Phage
Phage
research[edit] Luria arrived in New York City on September 12, 1940, and soon changed his first and middle names. With the help of physicist Enrico Fermi, whom he knew from his time at the University of Rome, Luria received a Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
fellowship at Columbia University. He soon met Delbrück and Hershey, and they collaborated on experiments at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and in Delbrück's lab at Vanderbilt University. His famous experiment with Delbrück in 1943, known as the Luria–Delbrück experiment, demonstrated statistically that inheritance in bacteria must follow Darwinian rather than Lamarckian principles and that mutant bacteria occurring randomly can still bestow viral resistance without the virus being present. The idea that natural selection affects bacteria has profound consequences, for example, it explains how bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. From 1943 to 1950, he worked at Indiana University. His first graduate student was James D. Watson, who went on to discover the structure of DNA
DNA
with Francis Crick. In January 1947, Luria became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1950, Luria moved to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. In the early 1950s, Luria and Giuseppe Bertani discovered the phenomenon of host-controlled restriction and modification of a bacterial virus: a culture of E. coli can significantly reduce the production of phages grown in other strains; however, once the phage become established in that strain, they also become restricted in their ability to grow in other strains.[3][4] It was later discovered by other researchers that bacteria produce enzymes that cut viral DNA
DNA
at particular sequences but not the bacteria's own DNA, which is protected by methylation. These enzymes became known as restriction enzymes and developed into one of the main molecular tools in molecular biology.[5]

Salvador Luria
Salvador Luria
with Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
at the 1953 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium. In the background are Aaron Novick, Bruce Stocker, Haig Papazian and Geraldine Lindegren.

Later work[edit] In 1959, he became chair of Microbiology
Microbiology
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At MIT, he switched his research focus from phages to cell membranes and bacteriocins.[citation needed] While on sabbatical in 1963 to study at the Institut Pasteur
Institut Pasteur
in Paris, he found that bacteriocins impair the function of cell membranes. Returning to MIT, his lab discovered that bacteriocins achieve this impairment by forming holes in the cell membrane, allowing ions to flow through and destroy the electrochemical gradient of cells. In 1972, he became chair of The Center for Cancer Research at MIT. The department he established included future Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners David Baltimore, Susumu Tonegawa, Phillip Allen Sharp
Phillip Allen Sharp
and H. Robert Horvitz. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Luria received a number of awards and recognitions. He was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1960. From 1968 to 1969, he served as president of the American Society for Microbiology. In 1969, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University
Columbia University
together with Max Delbrück, co-winner with Luria of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine in 1969. In the U.S. he won the 1974 National Book Award in Science for his popular science book Life: the Unfinished Experiment[6] and received the National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
in 1991.[7] Political Activism[edit] Throughout his career, Luria was an outspoken political advocate. He joined with Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
in 1957 to protest against nuclear weapon testing. Luria was an opponent of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and a supporter of organized labor. In the 1970s, he was involved in debates over genetic engineering, advocating a compromise position of moderate oversight and regulation rather than the extremes of a complete ban or full scientific freedom. Due to his political involvement, he was blacklisted from receiving funding from the National Institutes of Health for a short time in 1969. He was a friend of the noted linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky's, and communicated with the Jewish American writer Elie Wiesel through a letter, in which he criticized Israel's involvement in the Guatemalan genocide
Guatemalan genocide
and, satirically, Wiesel's silence on any issue concerning Israel's terrorist activities world-wide. As described by Chomsky: "In the mid-1980s, Salvador Luria, a friend of mine who is a Nobel laureate in biology and politically active, knew about this [The genocide]. It wasn’t a big secret. He asked me to collect articles from the Hebrew press which described Israel’s participation in genocidal attacks in Guatemala — not just participation, it’s a leadership role — because he wanted to send it to Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
with a polite letter saying: as a fellow Nobel laureate, I would like to bring this to your attention. Could you use your influence — he didn’t ask him to say anything, that’s too much, but privately could you communicate to the people you know well at a high level in Israel and say it’s not nice to take part in genocide. He never got a response.""[8] Death[edit] He died in Lexington, Massachusetts
Lexington, Massachusetts
of a heart attack. See also[edit]

List of Jewish Nobel laureates Phage
Phage
group Luria–Delbrück experiment

References[edit]

^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1969". Nobel Foundation.  ^ "FREE Essay on The Life of Salvador Luria". www.directessays.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15.  ^ Luria SE, Human ML (Oct 1952). "A nonhereditary, host-induced variation of bacterial viruses". Journal of Bacteriology. 64 (4): 557–69. PMC 169391 . PMID 12999684.  ^ Bertani G, Weigle JJ (Feb 1953). "Host controlled variation in bacterial viruses". Journal of Bacteriology. 65 (2): 113–21. PMC 169650 . PMID 13034700.  ^ Roberts RJ (April 2005). "How restriction enzymes became the workhorses of molecular biology". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (17): 5905–8. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.5905R. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500923102. PMC 1087929 . PMID 15840723.  ^ "National Book Awards – 1974". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-07. ^ "Salvador E. Luria". The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-07. ^ https://chomsky.info/201502__/

"The Salvador E. Luria Papers". Profiles in Science. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2007-09-22.  "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1969". Nobel Foundation. 1969. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 

External links[edit]

The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize The Salvador E. Luria Papers - Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene
Gene
E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Presidents of the American Society for Microbiology

1900–1925

William Thompson Sedgwick
William Thompson Sedgwick
(1900) William Henry Welch
William Henry Welch
(1901) Herbert William Conn
Herbert William Conn
(1902) Theobald Smith
Theobald Smith
(1903) Frederick George Novy (1904) Edwin Oakes Jordan
Edwin Oakes Jordan
(1905) Erwin Frink Smith
Erwin Frink Smith
(1906) James Carroll (1907) Harry Luman Russell (1908) Joseph James Kinyoun
Joseph James Kinyoun
(1909) Veranus Alva Moore (1910) Frederic Poole Gorham (1911) William Hallock Park
William Hallock Park
(1912) Charles-Edward Amory Winslow
Charles-Edward Amory Winslow
(1913) Charles Edward Marshall (1914) David Hendricks Bergey (1915) Thomas Jonathan Burrill
Thomas Jonathan Burrill
(1916) Leo Frederick Rettger (1917) Robert Earle Buchanan (1918) Samuel Cate Prescott (1919) Charles Krumwiede Jr. (1920) Francis Charles Harrison (1921) Lore Alford Rogers
Lore Alford Rogers
(1922) Edwin George Hastings (1923) Arthur Parker Hitchens (1924) Norman MacLeod Harris (1925)

1926–1950

Hans Zinsser
Hans Zinsser
(1926) Robert Stanley Breed (1927) Alice Catherine Evans
Alice Catherine Evans
(1928) Ludvig Hektoen (1929) Stanhope Bayne-Jones
Stanhope Bayne-Jones
(1930) James Howard Brown (1931) Edwin Broun Fred (1932) William Mansfield Clark (1933) Milton Joseph Rosenau (1934) Karl Friedrich Meyer
Karl Friedrich Meyer
(1935) Thomas Milton Rivers
Thomas Milton Rivers
(1936) James Morgan Sherman (1937) Paul Franklin Clark (1938) Arthur Trautwein Henrici (1939) Charles Thom
Charles Thom
(1940) Oswald Theodore Avery
Oswald Theodore Avery
(1941) Selman Abraham Waksman
Selman Abraham Waksman
(1942) Rebecca Craighill Lancefield
Rebecca Craighill Lancefield
(1943) Ira L. Baldwin (1944) Stuart Mudd (1945) James Craigie (1946) Thomas Francis Jr.
Thomas Francis Jr.
(1947) Harold Joel Conn (1948) William McDowell Hammon (1949) Barnett Cohen (1950)

1951–1975

Walter James Nungester (1951) René Dubos
René Dubos
(1952) Gail Monroe Dack (1953) Cornelis Bernard van Niel (1954) Halvor Orin Halvorson (1955) Charles Arthur Stuart (1956) Perry William Wilson (1957) Harry Eagle (1958) Philip Rarick Edwards (1959) Charles Albert Evans (1960) Herald Rea Cox
Herald Rea Cox
(1961) John Edward Blair (1962) Robert Lyman Starkey (1963) John Roger Porter (1964) Orville Wyss (1965) Riley Dee Housewright (1966) William Bowen Sarles (1967) Salvador Edward Luria (1968) Dennis Wallace Watson (1969) Edwin Michael Foster (1970) Robert Edward Hungate (1971) Morris Frank Shaffer (1972) Robert George Everett Murray (1973) Linzy Leon Campbell (1974) Philipp Gerhardt (1975)

1976–2000

Helen Riaboff Whiteley (1976) Harlyn Odell Halvorson (1977) Aaron Frederick Rasmussen Jr. (1978) Edwin Herman Lennette (1979) Willis A. Wood (1980) Albert Balows (1981) Frederick C. Neidhardt (1982) John Charles Sherris (1983) Robert Pierce Williams (1984) Rita Rossi Colwell
Rita Rossi Colwell
(1985) Moselio Schaechter (1986) Jean Brenchley (1987) Barbara Hotham Iglewski (1988) Alice Shih-Hou Huang (1989) Walter Dowdle (1990) Joan Wennstrom Bennett (1991) Richard Lane Crowell (1992) John Ingraham (1993) Gail Cassell (1994) David Schlessinger (1995) Carol A. Nacy (1996) Kenneth I. Berns (1997) Stanley Falkow (1998) Stuart Levy (1999) Julian Davies (2000)

2001–present

Martha Howe (2001) Abigail A. Salyers (2002) Ronald Atlas (2003) Thomas E. Shenk (2004) James Tiedje (2005) Stanley Robert Maloy (2006) Diane E. Griffin (2007) Clifford Wayne Houston (2008) Alison D. O'Brien (2009) Roberto Kolter (2010) Bonnie Bassler (2011) David C. Hooper (2012) Jeffery F. Miller (2013) Jo Handelsman (Jan-Feb 2014) Jeffery F. Miller (Mar-Dec 2014) Timothy Donohue (2015) Lynn W. Enquist (2016) Susan E. Sharp (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 103217685 LCCN: n50039316 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 5526 GND: 120741083 SUDOC: 031594638 BNF: cb12277909h (data) NDL: 00448223 NKC: nlk20000083

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