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Salvador Roman Hidalgo Laurel[3] (November 18, 1928 – January 27, 2004), also known as Doy Laurel, was a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as Vice-President of the Philippines
Vice-President of the Philippines
from 1986 to 1992 under President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
and briefly served as Prime Minister from 25 February to 25 March 1986, when the position was abolished. He was a major leader of the United Nationalist Democratic Organization (UNIDO), the political party that helped topple the dictatorship of President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
with the 1986 People Power Revolution.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Stay in Japan 1.2 Return to Manila

2 Legal career 3 Political career

3.1 Senator 3.2 Vice-presidency and premiership

4 Post-vice presidency

4.1 Later life and death

5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Early life[edit] Laurel is the fifth son of President José P. Laurel
José P. Laurel
of the Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state of Japan during the Second World War. He was born to a family whose illustrious lineage spans generations of nationalists who distinguished themselves as public servants. His grandfather, Judge Sotero Remoquillo Laurel, was both a delegate to the Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
in 1899 and Secretary of the Interior in the first Philippine revolutionary government under President Emilio Aguinaldo. He first enrolled at Centro Escolar de Señoritas, studying there from 1933 to 1935. Laurel’s father wanted Laurel to experience a public school education and so enrolled him first in the Paco Elementary School (1935–36) and then the Justo Lukban Elementary School (1936–37). He finished elementary schooling at Ateneo de Manila Grade School in 1941. In his first year of high school, Laurel received second honors, with a general average of 93.4. Barely three months later, his studies came to an abrupt halt with the outbreak of the war in the Pacific Theater on 8 December 1941. The school was temporarily closed by the Japanese government as run by American Jesuits, which prompted Laurel to enrol at De La Salle College High School, where he graduated in 1946. Laurel was a member of Upsilon Sigma Phi
Upsilon Sigma Phi
during his university studies.[4] Stay in Japan[edit] Towards the end of the war, the Japanese Supreme Council of War issued an order to have officials of the Philippine government flown to Japan. President Laurel volunteered to go alone to spare his Cabinet members the ordeal of being separated from their families. His wife, Paciencia, and seven of his children went with him. Among the officials who accompanied him were Speaker Benigno Aquino, Sr., Minister of Education Camilo Osias and his wife, and General Mateo Capinpin. On 21 March 1945, the group began a long and perilous overland journey to Tuguegarao, where a Japanese navy plane would fly the group to Japan. The odyssey ended in Nara, where they were confined until 10 November 1945. The long confinement gave the romantic and impressionable 15-year-old Salvador the luxury of time to write poetry and prose and satisfy his insatiable thirst for books. Whenever he was lucky to find an English book, he would read it voraciously and discuss it with his mentor, Camilo Osias. But his most treasured moments in Nara were those spent with his father, enjoying their daily morning walks in the park when José would discuss his views on life. On 12 September 1945, José Laurel was arrested by a group of Americans headed by a Colonel Turner and was taken to Sugamo Prison. The Laurel family was flown to Manila two months later on 10 November 1945. Return to Manila[edit] Christmas
Christmas
1945 was the bleakest one for the Laurel family; their Peñafrancia home was looted and emptied of its furniture, while the former President was placed in solitary confinement in Sugamo Prison in Japan. Salvador wrote the poem To My Beloved Father to lift up his father's spirits and sent it to him as a Christmas
Christmas
present.

To My Beloved Father

Trudge on, noble leader And with thy dauntless Courage Swerve not in thy glorious, tho’ thankless path, And heed not their threats and wrath; Forgive them who are nescient And With their perennial Discontent Thy goals impend; Assuage thy bitter struggle and with thy Sapient calm, O Sage! The glorious and the great Have always been exalted late And in the midst of great work condemned.

At La Salle, he joined a group of young men who planned to go by sea to the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
( Indonesia
Indonesia
since 1949) and join Sukarno
Sukarno
in the struggle for independence from the Dutch Empire, but local authorities stopped them at the pier. He completed his secondary education at La Salle in March 1946. Although all his older brothers were lawyers, he enrolled at the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
as a premedicine student, where he obtained his AA (premdicine) and was admitted to medicine proper, shifting to law two years later. He was admitted to the law school while working to complete his (AA Pre-Law). He received his LLB (Bachelor of Laws), degree in UP in March 1952. He was acclaimed the University Champion Orator after he won the first prize in three consecutive inter-university oratorical contests: the 1949 Inter-University Oratorical contest sponsored by the Civil Liberties Union (CLU); the Student Councils Association of the Philippines (SCAP) and the Inter-University Symposium on the Japanese Peace Treaty in 1951. Without waiting for the results of the bar examination, he left for Connecticut
Connecticut
to study at Yale University, his father’s alma mater where he earned his Master of Laws
Master of Laws
degree (LL.M.) in 1953. He earned the title Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.) at Yale University
Yale University
in 1960. Of his studies and scholastic endeavors at Yale University, Myres S. McDougal, a Sterling Professor
Sterling Professor
of Law, Emeritus of the Yale Law School, wrote:

“ "Salvador H. Laurel was a superb scholar at Yale. Like his father in an earlier day, he came to us in the vital formative years of his intellectual development, and remained to earn his master of laws degree (LLM) and doctorate in juridical science (J.S.D.) with highest standing. I have taught so many brilliant students from other countries at Yale Law School. Doy was one of the very best and has always been one of my favorites. His papers and comments were always informed, perceptive, wise, creative and deeply dedicated to the public and common interest. His deepest loyalty and devotion is to his own country, but he is aware of a larger interdependent world."

Laurel later married Celia Díaz, a society debutante. Legal career[edit] In Manila, Laurel joined his brothers in the Laurel Law Offices in Intramuros. During his early years as a barrister, he became deeply involved with legal aid. He was appalled to discover that 94% of the cases filed by indigents in the fiscal’s office were dismissed for lack of counsel. This led him to found Citizen’s Legal Aid Society of the Philippines (CLASP). He campaigned throughout the country, convincing lawyers to join him in his quest for justice for the poor, and by the end of that first year, 750 lawyers had joined CLASP. In 1976, the International Bar Association honored him with the "Most Outstanding Legal Aid Lawyer
Lawyer
of the World" award in Stockholm. In 1960, Laurel edited the papers of the convention that drafted the 1935 Constitution, compressing 24 tomes of documents into seven compact volumes. It was in fulfilment of a promise he had made to his father, who was originally to collaborate in the project but died prematurely of a cerebral haemorrhage, in 1959. Political career[edit] Senator[edit] It was not until 1967 that Laurel seriously entered politics, when he won a Senate seat in the 6th Congress. The youngest Nacionalista senator, Laurel was named the most outstanding senator from 1968 to 1971. When he won in 1967, Laurel had run ran for the Senate to continue his crusade for justice for the poor. He emerged victorious as the youngest Nacionalista elected senator, and a distinguished public service career, spanning nearly 37 years, began. In his first year as senator, he was Chairman of the Senate Committee on Justice, Committee on Economic Affairs, Committee on Government Reorganization, and Committee on Community Development. He authored five "Justice for the Poor Laws" known as the "Laurel Laws," nine laws on Judicial Reforms (1968–1970); the Government Reorganization Act (1968–1970) and Amendments to the Land Reform Code (1971). He also wrote a book on penal reforms and another on land reform, "This Land Is Mine." He was consistently voted “Most Outstanding Senator of the Year” in 1968, 1969, 1970, and 1971. In 1972, Laurel was the first Philippine government official to visit the People's Republic of China, then under Chairman Mao Zedong. He was met by Premier Zhou Enlai, Vice Premier (later President) Li Xinnian, and other high officials of the Chinese government. Upon his return, he submitted an extensive report to the Senate on his China visit. He strongly advocated for the resumption of friendly ties with the PRC and the adoption of the One-China Policy, which eventually became the official stand of the Philippines. Vice-presidency and premiership[edit]

Presidential styles of Salvador H. Laurel

Reference style His Excellency The Honourable [5]

Spoken style Your Excellency

Alternative style Mr. Vice President

For a month following the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
in late February 1986, Laurel became the only person in Philippine history to hold the posts of Vice-President, Prime Minister, and Foreign Minister concurrently. The office of Prime Minister was abolished in late March 1986, and Laurel was succeeded as Secretary of Foreign Affairs by Raul Manglapus in 1987. He ran for president in the 1992 elections as the head of the Nacionalista Party. However, he failed to gain Aquino's support and so lost to her favoured successor, Fidel V. Ramos. Post-vice presidency[edit] In 1996, he was appointed by President Ramos as the chairman of the Philippine National Centennial Commission in the run-up to the Philippine Centennial
Philippine Centennial
of the country's independence on 12 June 1898. Through his unwavering leadership, he revived Filipino nationalism by promoting Filipino heritage and culture with heavy advertising. He was supposed to resign after the Centennial celebrations, but President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
extended his term and abolished the Commission only in 1999. A few months after, Laurel was charged with graft before the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
(political antigraft court) for misappropriating funds for constructing of the controversial, ₱1.165-billion Centennial Expo in Clark Freeport Zone
Clark Freeport Zone
in Angeles City, Pampanga. Laurel vehemently denied the allegation and chose to stand as his own defense counsel. Later life and death[edit]

Laurel's cremains are interred at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

He returned to private life and spent most of his retirement in the United States. He contracted lymphoma and died of the same ailment on 27 January 2004, in Atherton, California. His remains were cremated days afterward, with his ashes interred at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. On 29 January, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
issued Presidential Proclamation № 544, declaring several days of official mourning for Laurel. Notes[edit]

^ Assumed vice presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election. ^ Original term was until December 30, 1973. This was cut short pursuant to the Declaration of Martial Law by President Ferdinand Marcos on September 23, 1972. ^ Jose P. Laurel Memorial Foundation ^ "Remembering Salvador 'Doy' Laurel". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2017-09-02.  ^ A subsidiary honorific as the Vice-Presidency ranks higher than the premiership, which was eventually abolished.

References[edit]

Zaide, Sonia M. (1999). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All Nations Publishing. 

External links[edit]

Official website of former Vice President Laurel Office of the Vice President of the Philippines

Political offices

Vacant Office abolished; due to martial law Title last held by Fernando Lopez[1] Vice President of the Philippines 1986–1992 Succeeded by Joseph Estrada

Preceded by Cesar Virata Prime Minister of the Philippines 1986 Position abolished

Preceded by Pacifico Castro Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1986–1987 Succeeded by Manuel Yan

v t e

Martial law in the Philippines
Martial law in the Philippines
and People Power Revolution

Batas militar sa Pilipinas

Background

1965 Presidential elections Conjugal dictatorship Philippines– United States
United States
relations US imperialism Cold War Vietnam War First Quarter Storm Communist insurgency Sabah claim Jabidah massacre Islamic insurgency 1969 elections Agrarian reform Coco Levy Fund scam

Events

Proclamation No. 1081 Human rights violations Plaza Miranda bombing 1973 Constitution 1978 elections Interim Batasang Pambansa Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Snap elections

People

Regime

Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Fabian Ver Danding Cojuangco Cesar Virata Arturo Tolentino

Opposition

Ninoy Aquino Corazon Aquino Salvador Laurel Juan Ponce Enrile Fidel V. Ramos Gringo Honasan Jaime Cardinal Sin Claudio Teehankee Jovito Salonga Jose Diokno Diosdado Macapagal

Communists

Jose Maria Sison Bernabe Buscayno

Locations

Landmarks

Epifanio de los Santos Avenue Ortigas Center Camp Aguinaldo Camp Crame Club Filipino Malacañang Palace Hawaii

Areas

Makati Mandaluyong Pasig San Juan Quezon City

Aftermath

Events

Nepotism Operation Big Bird Mendiola massacre 1987 elections Coup d'état Japanese Official Development Assistance scandal Death of Ferdinand Marcos

Institutions

Aquino Presidency Presidential Commission on Good Government 1987 Constitution Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Philippine National Police Ramos Presidency

Literature

Bagong Pagsilang Bayan Ko Dekada '70

film

v t e

Vice Presidents of the Philippines (list)

Commonwealth

Sergio Osmeña Elpidio Quirino

Third Republic

Elpidio Quirino Fernando Lopez Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal Emmanuel Pelaez Fernando Lopez

Fourth Republic

Salvador Laurel

Fifth Republic

Salvador Laurel Joseph Estrada Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Teofisto Guingona Jr. Noli de Castro Jejomar Binay Leni Robredo

v t e

  Prime Ministers of the Philippines

Apolinario Mabini Pedro A. Paterno Jorge B. Vargas Ferdinand E. Marcos Cesar E. A. Virata Salvador H. Laurel

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1992

Presidential candidates

Winner

Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
(Lakas)

Other candidates

Miriam Defensor Santiago

PRP

Eduardo Cojuangco Jr. (NPC) Ramon Mitra Jr.

LDP

Imelda Marcos
Imelda Marcos
(KBL) Jovito Salonga
Jovito Salonga
(Liberal) Salvador Laurel

Nacionalista

Vice presidential candidates

Winner

Joseph Estrada

NPC

Other candidates

Marcelo Fernan

LDP

Emilio Mario Osmeña (Lakas) Ramon Magsaysay Jr.

PRP

Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
(PDP–Laban) Vicente Magsaysay

KBL

Eva Estrada-Kalaw
Eva Estrada-Kalaw
(Nacionalista)

v t e

Candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 1986

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan

President:

Ferdinand Marcos

Vice President:

Arturo Tolentino

UNIDO-PDP-LABAN

President:

Corazon Aquino

Vice President:

Salvador Laurel

Other third party candidates

President:

Reuben Canoy Narciso Padilla

Vice President:

Eva Estrada-Kalaw Roger Arienda

v t e

    Gawad Mabini recipients    

Grand Cross (Dakilang Kamanong)

Marilyn J. Alarilla Melchor P. Aquino Rodolfo A. Arizala Erlinda Basilio Hortencio Brillantes Leonides Caday Roy Cimatu Manuel Collantes Esteban Cornejos Claro S. Cristobal Luis T. Cruz Laura Q. Del Rosario Ruben Espedilla Modesto Farolan Delfin Garcia Evan Garcia León María Guerrero III Rafael Ileto Eleanor L. Jaucian Linglingay F. Lacanlale Salvador Laurel Jaime Victor B. Ledda Dennis Lepatan Ma. Teresa Lepatan Domingo T. Lucenario Felipe Mabilangan, Jr. Diosdado Macapagal Federico Macaranas Romeo Manalo Imelda Marcos Ma. Cleofe R. Natividad Rora Navarro-Tolentino Fortunato D. Oblena Cristina G. Ortega Tomas Padilla Luz Palacios Marciano A. Paynor, Jr. Samuel Ramel Narciso R. Ramos Leticia Ramos-Shahani Narciso Reyes Carlos P. Romulo Ma. Angelina M. Sta. Catalina Mamintal Tamano Arturo Tolentino Leandro Verceles Renato L. Villapando Manuel Yan

Commander (Dakilang Kasugo)

Maria Elena Algabre-Misrahi Jason Jovencio Anasarias Ricardo Andaya Maria Andrelita Austria Raymond Balatbat Lorena Joy Banagodos Jocelyn Batoon-Garcia Henry S. Bensurto Fernando V. Beup, Jr. Robert Borje Aian Caringal Orontes Castro Elmer G. Cato Claro Cristobal Minda Calaguian Cruz Donna Celeste Teresita Daza Teresesa Dizon de Vega Mariano Dumi Andre Peter C. Estanislao Bahnarim Abu Guinomla Honesto Lactao Brian Dexter Lao Sylvia Marasigan Flerida Ann Camille P. Mayo Catherine P. Maceda Edwin Mendoza Marlowe A. Miranda Cristina Ortega Mary Ann Padua Marciano A. Paynor, Jr. Grace R. Princesa Roussel R. Reyes Leah Victoria Rodriguez Melita Sta. Maria Jerril Santos Carlos Sorreta Ezzedin Tago Benito Valeriano Renato Villapando

Member (Kasugo)

Junaid Ali Jasmin P. Aragon Cotawato M. Arimao Edwin Juan A. Batallones Romulo Buhat Rosendo Crucillo Petronilo de la Cruz Amerrah P. Dianalan-Tahir Philip M. Figueroa Aide Fune Ramon Gaspar Ronald M. Joves Joel Nunag Yolanda S. Ofiana Arturo V. Romua Leon Rodion Roxas Ebrahim T. Zailon

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 75312042 LCCN: n85331773 SNAC: w6qm25r7

^ Assumed vice presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 sn

.