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Salta
Salta
(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsalta]) is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán and Catamarca. It also surrounds Jujuy. To the north it borders Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay
Paraguay
and to the west lies Chile.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Economy 4 Tourism 5 Demographics 6 Politics 7 Political division 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Before the Spanish conquest, numerous native peoples (now called Diaguitas and Calchaquíes) lived in the valleys of what is now Salta Province; they formed many different tribes, the Quilmes and Humahuacas among them, which all shared the Cacán language. The Atacamas lived in the Puna, and the Wichís (Matacos), in the Chaco region. The first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535; he was followed by Diego de Rojas. Hernando de Lerma
Hernando de Lerma
founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa; the name of the city was soon changed to "San Felipe de Salta". By 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants.

Colonial Cabildo in the city of Salta.

An intendency of " Salta
Salta
del Tucumán" was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Salta
Salta
and Tarija (Tarija was added to the intendency later, in 1807). In 1783, in recognition of the growing importance of the city, the capital of the intendency of Salta
Salta
del Tucumán was moved from San Miguel de Tucumán
San Miguel de Tucumán
to Salta. The battle of Salta
Salta
in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, but occasional attacks were mounted from the Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of Peru
as late as 1826. Gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta
Salta
in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta, Jujuy, and parts of southern Bolivia
Bolivia
and northern Chile. Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, Bolivia
Bolivia
annexed Tarija in 1826. In 1834, Jujuy withdrew from Salta
Salta
and became a separate province. The borders of Salta
Salta
were further reduced in 1900, with the loss of Yacuiba
Yacuiba
to Bolivia. The National Government of Los Andes, constituted from the province in 1902 with a capital at San Antonio de los Cobres, was returned to Salta
Salta
Province in 1943 as the Department of Los Andes. Antonio Alice's painting, La muerte de Güemes, which received a Gold Medal at the Centenary Exposition, is on display at the offices of the Salta
Salta
Provincial Government.[3] Geography[edit] See also: Climate of Argentina
Argentina
and Climatic regions of Argentina

La Caldera
La Caldera
Valley, Salta.

The total land area of the province is 155,488 km2 (60,034 sq mi), making it the sixth largest province by area in Argentina.[4]:14-15 The main rivers of the province are the Pilcomayo, Bermejo, and the Juramento, which later becomes the Salado River.[4]:15 Salta
Salta
Province is located at a geologically active region, and suffers from occasional earthquakes. There have been four earthquakes of note in the province:

In 1692, registering 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale, and at IX (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, In 1844, registering 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale, and VII (Very strong) Mercalli intensity, In 1948, registering 7.0 on the Moment magnitude scale (MMS), and IX (Violent) Mercalli intensity, and In 2010, registering 6.1 or 6.3 (MMS), and VI (Strong) Mercalli intensity.

The 1692 earthquake was the inspiration for Salta's annual citywide festival, held on 16 September, in honor of El Señor y la Virgen del Milagro.[5] Climate[edit] The province is located in the tropical zone and has a warm climate in general, though it has marked variation in climate types owing to the variation in altitudes.[6] The orientation of the Andes
Andes
influences the distribution of precipitation within the province.[6] The easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season.[6][7] The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 20 °C (68.0 °F) and 500 millimetres (19.7 in).[6][7] Temperatures can reach up to 47 °C (116.6 °F) during summers, while they can fall down to −5 °C (23.0 °F) during winters.[6][7] The first slopes of the Andes
Andes
force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking very high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain.[8] The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm (39 to 59 in) of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm (98 in) of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation.[8][9] Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer, with winters being dry.[10] The high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity.[6][10] At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous and pine trees.[10] Between the high altitudes to the west and the low plains to the east lie the valleys.[7] The climate of these valleys is temperate, allowing for human settlement and agricultural activities.[7] Mean annual precipitation is around 1,000 mm (39 in), most of it during summer.[7] Mean temperatures exceed 20 °C (68.0 °F) during the summer, while during winter, they are below 14 °C (57.2 °F).[7] Further west, the Altiplano
Altiplano
is a plateau at 3,000 m to 4,000 m above sea level. The climate is arid and cold: high temperatures vary little (since the warmer season is cloudy, and the coolest is sunny), ranging from 14 °C to 21 °C (57F to 70F); night temperatures go from 6 °C (43F) in midsummer, to -8 °C (18F) in midwinter, and extremes under -15 °C (5F) might be recorded. All rain falls exclusively in the summer, with values between 200 mm and 400 mm in total. Several salt flats exist in this area. At the highest altitudes found in the western parts of the province, the climate is arid and cold, with large diurnal ranges (temperature range between day and night).[6] Economy[edit] Salta's economy is relatively underdeveloped, yet diverse. Its economy in 2006 was estimated at US$5.141 billion or, US$4,764 per capita, 45% below the national average.[11] In 2012, its economy was estimated at $30.613 billon Pesos (about US$6.743 billion) or, 23,971 pesos (about US$5,280) per capita.[12][13] Agriculture and its derived industries are still an important activity in the province, adding over 10% to output. Tobacco, sugar cane and viticulture are the most important and produce most of the exports from the area. Other crops mostly for local consumption are maize, beans, citrus, bananas, and tomatoes. The sugar cane is processed in plants in Salta
Salta
before it is sent to the rest of Argentina
Argentina
and other countries. The plant in San Martín de Tabacal is the most important of them. The famous wines of the Valles Calchaquíes
Valles Calchaquíes
region near Cafayate
Cafayate
are produced in numerous vineyards of diverse sizes (mainly Torrontés, Malbec
Malbec
and Cabernet Sauvignon). Gas and petroleum from the Tartagal, Aguas Blancas, Madrejones and Campo Durán centres is transported to Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
and Rosario
Rosario
by pipes. Campo Durán also has an oil refinery located in the province. In all, manufacturing plays a significant role in Salta, adding 20% to the economy. Mining includes uranium at Iruya, La Poma and San Carlos. American breeds of cattle are raised only on the humid subtropical east, along with some sheep and goats. Tourism[edit] The Salta
Salta
Province is home to a number of natural, social and historic attractions. The city of Salta
Salta
"La Linda" ("The beautiful") is both an important tourist destination, and the centre point for visiting the rest of the province. The city holds different attractions; among them are its colonial houses and cathedral, and the Museo de Arqueología de Alta Montaña de Salta
Salta
that holds the three frozen Inca mummies found at the 6,700 meters of the Llullaillaco
Llullaillaco
volcano. Also from Salta, the Tren a las Nubes
Tren a las Nubes
crosses canyons and cliffs before arriving to the 3,775 metres (12,500 feet) of San Antonio de los Cobres. The red-rock formations of the Valles Calchaquíes
Valles Calchaquíes
and the wine-town of Cafayate
Cafayate
are the second most visited place in the province. Many visit the Cachi mountains and the villages (such as Payogasta) around it. There are three national parks in Salta: El Rey National Park
El Rey National Park
in the Yungas
Yungas
jungle, Baritú National Park
Baritú National Park
and Los Cardones National Park.

The Train to the Clouds one of the highest railways in the world, taking its way across the high peaks of the Cordillera de los Andes, surrounded by striking sceneries.[14]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1869 88,933 —    

1895 118,015 +32.7%

1914 142,156 +20.5%

1947 230,445 +62.1%

1960 412,854 +79.2%

1970 509,803 +23.5%

1980 662,870 +30.0%

1991 866,153 +30.7%

2001 1,079,051 +24.6%

2010 1,214,441 +12.5%

Source: [15]

According to the results from the 2010 census [INDEC], the province has a population of 1,214,441.[15] It constitutes 3.0% of the total population in Argentina.[16]:63 This represented a 12.5% increase in the population compared to 2001 census [INDEC] which had 1,079,051 inhabitants.[17] 6.5% of the population or 79,204 persons declared themselves as having Indigenous background,[18]:69 making it one of the provinces that has a high percentage of indigenous people, being ranked 5th behind Chubut, Neuquén, Jujuy and Río Negro.[16]:278 The most populous indigenous groups in the province are the Wichí, which make up 24.9% of the total indigenous population followed by the Kolla (21.6%), and the Guaraní (13.7%).[18]:69 As well, 4,189 persons declared themselves to be Afro-Argentine.[19] Politics[edit] The province is governed as representative and republican form of government.[4]:14 Political division[edit]

Valles Calchaquíes
Valles Calchaquíes
near Cafayate.

View of the Lerma Valley and the city of Salta.

The province is divided in 23 departments (Spanish: departamentos), containing 59 municipalities (Spanish: municipios).[20] The capital of the province is the city of Salta, which is where the provincial government is located at.[20]

Map Departament Area[4]:31-33 Population (2010 Census)[21] Towns and municipalities (in bold: department capital)[4]:31-33

Anta 21,945 km2 (8,473 sq mi) 57,411 Apolinario Saravia El Quebrachal General Pizarro Joaquín Víctor González Las Lajitas

Cachi 2,925 km2 (1,129 sq mi) 7,315 Cachi Payogasta

Cafayate 1,570 km2 (610 sq mi) 14,850 Cafayate

Capital 1,722 km2 (665 sq mi) 536,113 Salta Villa San Lorenzo

de Cerrillos 640 km2 (250 sq mi) 35,789 Cerrillos La Merced

Chicoana 910 km2 (350 sq mi) 20,710 Chicoana El Carril

General Güemes 2,365 km2 (913 sq mi) 47,226 Campo Santo El Bordo General Güemes

General San Martín 16,257 km2 (6,277 sq mi) 156,910 Aguaray Embarcación General Ballivián General Mosconi Salvador Mazza Tartagal

Guachipas 2,785 km2 (1,075 sq mi) 3,187 Guachipas

Iruya 3,515 km2 (1,357 sq mi) 5,987 Iruya Isla de Cañas

La Caldera 867 km2 (335 sq mi) 7,763 La Caldera Vaqueros

La Candelaria 1,525 km2 (589 sq mi) 5,704 El Jardín El Tala La Candelaria

La Poma 4,447 km2 (1,717 sq mi) 1,738 La Poma

La Viña 2,152 km2 (831 sq mi) 7,435 Coronel Moldes La Viña

Los Andes 25,951 km2 (10,020 sq mi) 6,050 San Antonio de los Cobres Tolar Grande

Metán 5,235 km2 (2,021 sq mi) 40,351 El Galpón San José de Metán Río Pîedras

Molinos 3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi) 5,652 Molinos Seclantás

Orán 11,892 km2 (4,592 sq mi) 138,838 Colonia Santa Rosa Hipólito Yrigoyen Pichanal San Ramón de la Nueva Orán Urundel

Rivadavia 25,951 km2 (10,020 sq mi) 30,357 Rivadavia Banda Norte Rivadavia Banda Sur Santa Victoria Este

Rosario
Rosario
de la Frontera 5,402 km2 (2,086 sq mi) 28,993 El Potrero Rosario
Rosario
de la Frontera

Rosario
Rosario
de Lerma 5,110 km2 (1,970 sq mi) 38,702 Campo Quijano Rosario
Rosario
de Lerma

San Carlos 5,125 km2 (1,979 sq mi) 7,016 Angastaco Animaná San Carlos

Santa Victoria 3,912 km2 (1,510 sq mi) 10,344 Los Toldos Nazareno Santa Victoria Oeste

See also[edit]

1948 Salta
Salta
earthquake

References[edit]

^ "Censo 2010 Argentina
Argentina
resultados provisionales: mapas". 200.51.91.231. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ "Información para el desarrollo sostenible: Argentina
Argentina
y la Agenda 2030" (PDF) (in Spanish). United Nations Development Programme. p. 155. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ Parker, William Belmont (1920). Argentines of today. Volume 5 of Hispanic Notes and Monographs. 2 (Digitized May 22, 2008 ed.). New York: The Hispanic Society of America. pp. 637–640.  ^ a b c d e "Anuario Estadístico Año 2015–Avance 2016" (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Estadísticas de Salta. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.  ^ "La Fiesta del Fe - Salta´s Massive Pilgrimmage". 19 September 2001. Retrieved 2016-01-11.  ^ a b c d e f g "Clima de la Provincia de Salta" (in Spanish). Portal Informativo de Salta. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g "Información del Clima" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Cultura y Turismo de la Provincia de Salta. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ a b Bobba, María (2011). "Causas de Las Sequías de la Región del NOA (Argentina)". Retrieved 26 July 2015.  ^ Ahumada, Ana (2002). "Periglacial phenomena in the high mountains of northwestern Argentina" (PDF). South African Journal of Science. 98: 166–170. Retrieved 26 July 2015.  ^ a b c "The Vegetation of Northwestern Argentina". The University of Western Ontario. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ "El déficit consolidado de las provincias rondará los $11.500 millones este año" (in Spanish). Instituto Argentino para el Desarrollo de las Economías Regionales. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ "Producto Bruto Geográfico–Provincia de Salta" (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Estadísticas de la Provincia de Salta. Retrieved 10 July 2015.  ^ The average exchange for 1 US dollar was 4.54 Argentine pesos in 2012 according to the World Bank ^ "Train to the clouds - ARGENTINEAN NORTH". Trenalasnubes.com.ar. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ a b "Evolución de la población en los Censos Nacionales de 1869, 1895, 1914, 1947, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001 y 2010. Provincia de Salta, según departamento" (in Spanish). Dirección General de Estadísticas de la Provincia de Salta. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ a b "Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010: Resultados definitivos: Serie B No 2: Tomo 1" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ "Población censada en 2001 y 2010 y variación intercensal absoluta y relativa 2001-2010. Provincia de Salta, según departamento" (in Spanish). Dirección General de Estadísticas de la Provincia de Salta. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ a b "Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010: Pueblos Originarios: Región Noroeste Argentino: Serie D No 1" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. Retrieved 16 December 2015.  ^ "Cuadro P42-P. Provincia de Salta. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ a b "Salta–División Política" (in Spanish). Portal
Portal
Informativo de Salta. Archived from the original on 5 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.  ^ "Cuadrp P1-P. Provincia de Salta. Población total y variación intercensal absoluta y relativa por departamento. Años 2001-2010" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC. Retrieved 5 February 2018. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Salta
Salta
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about Salta
Salta
Province.

(in Spanish) Salta
Salta
Province official website (in Spanish) Salta
Salta
Province official portal (in Spanish) Tourist Secretary (in Spanish) Salta.com (in Spanish) Nuevo Diario de Salta (in Spanish) Universidad Nacional de Salta (in Spanish) Welcome Salta

v t e

Departments of Salta
Salta
Province

Anta Cachi Cafayate Capital Cerrillos Chicoana General Güemes General San Martín Guachipas Iruya La Poma La Caldera La Candelaria La Viña Los Andes Metán Molinos Orán Rivadavia Rosario
Rosario
de la Frontera Rosario
Rosario
de Lerma San Carlos Santa Victoria

v t e

Provinces of Argentina

Provinces

Buenos Aires Catamarca Chaco Chubut Córdoba Corrientes Entre Ríos Formosa Jujuy La Pampa La Rioja Mendoza Misiones Neuquén Río Negro Salta San Juan San Luis Santa Cruz Santa Fe Santiago del Estero Tierra del Fuego Tucumán

Autonomous city

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
City

Coordinates: 24°47′S 65°25′W / 24.783°S 65.417°W

.