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The KINGDOM OF SALOUM ( Serer language : _Saluum_ or _Saalum_) was a Serer /Wolof kingdom in present-day Senegal . Its kings may have been of Mandinka / Kaabu origin. The capital of Saloum was the city of Kahone . It was a sister kingdom of Sine . Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 People and language * 3 Commerce and geography * 4 Notes * 5 References

HISTORY

_ Apartment of the Maad Saloum (king of Saloum) in 1821. Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853)_: an ethnic map of Senegal at the time of French colonialism. The pre-colonial states of Baol, Sine and Saloum are arrayed along the southwest coast, with the inland areas marked "_Peuple Sérère_". Further information: Serer ancient history , Serer history (medieval era to present) , and Timeline of Serer history

Saloum, just like its sister kingdom (the Kingdom of Sine ), is known for its many ancient burial mounds or "tumuli " containing the graves of kings and others. The kingdom has numerous mysterious stone circles whose functions and history were unknown until recently.

Historian Donald R. Wright states that "In the last decade of the fifteenth century, a group of nyancho lineages from Kaabu moved north of the Gambia River and took over an area on the southern edge of the weakening Jolof Empire. From a settlement near the mouth of the Saloum River, these lineages soon mixed with the existing Wolof and Serer population and established the state of Saloum."

According to Abdou Bouri Ba the Kingdom of Saloum was previously known as _Mbey_ (in Serer ) and was renamed Saloum by the Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour in the later part of the 15th century (c. 1494). For several centuries prior to its renaming, its capital was called _Ngap_. According to Serer oral tradition, it was named after Saalum Suwareh, a marabout of Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour (variation: Mbegani Ndour). The tradition went on to say that, Saalum Suwareh agreed to give a _juju _ fetish to Maad Saloum Mbegan Ndour (originally from the Kingdom of Sine ) in order to defeat the Toucouleur conqueror and his Muslim marabouts provided he promised to rename the country after him once he is victorious. Mbegan Ndour agreed. After this oral contract, Mbegan Ndour defeated Ali Elibana and drove his Muslim marabout forces out of Saloum and reign over the country. Like the Kingdom of Sine, the population is overrun and ruled by the Serer people. The two are generally referred to as the Serer Kingdoms. Many parts of present-day Gambia were former colonies of the Kingdom of Saloum. Originally, Saloum extended south to the north banks of the Gambia River . Present-day Gambia was referred to as Lower Saloum. Upper Saloum was where modern day Saloum is in Senegal. Saloum also had control for a time the Kingdom of Baol . The States of Sabakh and Sandial were ruled by the _Fara Sabakh_ and _Fara Sandial_ (respective titles of the chiefs), and were both tributary to the king at Kahone (the Maad Saloum ). Around 1862, Sambou Oumanneh Touray, a deciple of Maba Diakhou Bâ launched a jihad in Sabakh and Sandial. Having defeated the Fara Sabakh and Fara Sandial, he joined the two countries together (hence : _Sabakh-Sandial_) and ruled it. The final Fara Sabakh and Fara Sandial died in that jihad. During the Serer paternal and Guelowar maternal dynasties from the 15th century to 1969, nearly 50 kings have been enthroned . The kings continued to hold their court in Kahone , but the city was eclipsed commercially by neighboring Kaolack .

Portuguese explorers in the 15th century referred to Saloum as the kingdom of _Borçalo_, after 'Bor-ba-Saloum' (Wolof corruption for "King of Saloum" - Maad Saloum ).

Although the Kingdom won some major battles against the French , it was later defeated. However, like the Kingdom of Sine, the royal dynasty survived up to 1969, when the last king of Saloum, Fode N'Gouye Joof had died. His year of death corresponded with the death of Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof , who was king of Sine. These two kings were the last Serer kings and the last kings of the Senegambia . After their deaths, both Kingdoms were incorporated into the new Republic of independent Senegal which gained its independence in 1960. Thus the Kingdom of Sine and the Kingdom of Saloum were the last pre-colonial kingdoms of Senegambia to have survived up to the 20th century.

PEOPLE AND LANGUAGE

Ethnically, Saloum was Serer , but gradually the Wolof immigrants have settled in along with the Fulas, Mandinkas, etc. Unlike the Kingdom of Sine which is ethnically Serer and deeply rooted in "Serer-conservatism ", such as the preservation of Serer religion , culture, traditions, etc., Saloum is more cosmopolitan and multi-religious. This explains why some Serer traditionalists who adhere to the tenets of Serer religion are reluctant to afford it the same religious status afforded to Sine as one of the sacred Serer holy sites , in spite of housing many of the Serer sites (see Serer ancient history ). Although very cosmopolitan, it is also ethnically Serer, the other ethnic groups are migrants. The Serer language and Wolof are both widely spoken in Saloum. The Cangin languages are also spoken.

COMMERCE AND GEOGRAPHY

Saloum includes flat, swampy tideland areas inland from the Saloum River delta . In recent years large areas of mangrove growth have been destroyed. There was a flourishing industry of salt -manufacture at the salt flats along the delta. Its economic base was groundnut trade, exporting large quantities of nuts to Europe.

* Senegal portal * Gambia portal * Serer portal * History portal

NOTES

* ^ Klein, Martin A: " Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914". Edinburgh University Press (1968), p. 7 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Diange, Pathé. "_Les Royaumes Sérères_", _Présence Africaines_, No. 54 (1965). pp. 142–172. * ^ _A_ _B_ Saine, Abdoulaye (2012). _Culture and Customs of Gambia_. Greenwood Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-313-35910-1 . * ^ Becker, Charles. _"Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer"_. Dakar. 1993. CNRS - ORS TO M * ^ Wright, Donald (2010). _The World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of Globalization in Niumi, the Gambia_ (3rd ed.). M.E. Sharpe. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-7656-2484-0 . * ^ Ba, Abdou Bouri, « Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip » (avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin), Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 38, série B, numéro 4, octobre 1976 * ^ Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972), p 707 (p 5) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ba, Abdou Bouri, "Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip. Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin", p 18 * ^ Klein, pp74-5 * ^ Bâ, Abdou Boury, _Essai sur l'histoire du Saloum et du Rip,_, Avant-propos par Charles Becker et Vctor Martin. Publié dans Le Bulletin De L'institut Fondamental D'afrique Noire. Tome 38 , Série B, n° 4, Octobre 1976, P. Volume 38 * ^ Sarr, Alioune , _Histoire du Sine-Saloum._ Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker, BIFAN, Tome 46, Serie B, n° 3-4, 1986–1987) * ^ Teixeira da Mota (1946: Pt. 1, p.58). For detailed 16th-century Portuguese description of the Kingdom of Saloum, see Almada (1594: Ch.2) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Klein, Martin A., _ Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914,_ p. 7. Published by Edingburg University Press (1968). ISBN 0-85224-029-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Becker, Charles: "Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer". Dakar. 1993. CNRS - ORS TO M * ^ Klein, Martin A., _ Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914,_ p 7, Edinburgh University Press (1968), ISBN 0-85224-029-5 * ^ Clark, Andrew F. and Lucie Colvin Phillip (1994). _Historical Dictionary of Senegal: Second Edition_. Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press. p. 232.

REFERENCES

* Almada, André Alvares (1594) _Tratado breve dos Rios de Guiné do Cabo-Verde: desde o Rio do Sanagá até aos baixos de Sant' Anna_ 1841 edition, Porto: Typographia Commercial Portuense. online * Ba, Abdou Bouri. _"Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip"_(avant-propos par Charles Becker and Victor Martin), _Bulletin de l'IFAN_, vol. 38, série B, number 4, October 1976. * Becker, Charles. _Vestiges historiques, trémoins matériels du passé clans les pays sereer_. Dakar. 1993. CNRS - ORS TO M. * Clark, Andrew F. and Lucie Colvin Phillips, _Historical Dictionary of Senegal_, Second Edition Published as No. 65 of African Historical Dictionaries, (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, 1994) p. 246-247 * Diange, Pathé. "_Les Royaumes Sérères"_. _Présence Africaines_. No. 54 (1965). pp. 142–172. * Diouf, Niokhobaye, "Chronique du royaume du Sine", Suivie de notes sur les traditions orales et les sources écrites concernant le royaume du Sine par Charles Becker et Victor Martin. (1972). Bulletin de l'Ifan, Tome 34, Série B, n° 4, (1972), p 707 (p 5) * Klein, Martin A. _ Islam and Imperialism in Senegal Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914_. Edinburgh University Press (1968). * Teixera da Mota, Avelino (1946) "A descoberta da Guiné", _Boletim cultural da Guiné Portuguesa_, P. 1 in Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan), p. 11-68. * Sarr, Alioune . _"Histoire du Sine-Saloum"_, Introduction, bibliographie et Notes par Charles Becker. _BIFAN_. vol. 46, Serie B, number 3-4, 1986–1987. * Gravrand, Henry . _"La civilisation sereer, I. Coosan"_. Dakar, Nouvelles Editions Africaines (1983).

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Sahelian kingdoms

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Serer topics

PEOPLES

SERER PEOPLES

* * Laalaa * Ndut * Niominka * Noon * Palor * Saafi * Seex

RELIGION

KEY TOPICS

* * Ciiɗ * Classical Ndut teachings * Creation myth * Criticism * Festivals * Jaaniiw * Junjung * Lamane * Sadax * Saltigue * Symbolism * Women

SUPREME DEITIES

* * Kokh Kox * Koox * Kopé Tiatie Cac * Roog (main)

OTHER DEITIES

* * Kumba Njaay * Takhar * Tiurakh

Saints and ancestral spirits

* * Ginaaru * Julang Joof * Laga Ndong * Lunguñ Joof * Mindiss * Moussa Sarr * Njemeh (of Languème ) * Njoxona * Ngojil Joof * Ngolum Joof

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SACRED SITES

* * Fatick * Sine River * Sine-Saloum * Somb * Point of Sangomar * Tattaguine * Tukar * Yaboyabo

* History * Philosophy * Science * Law * Geography * Politics

HISTORY

* Cekeen Tumulus * Khasso * Kingdom of Baol * Kingdom of Biffeche * kingdom of Saloum * Kingdom of Sine * Serer ancient history * Serer history (medieval era to present) * States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes * The Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune * The Battle of Logandème * Timeline of Serer history * Western Sahara

Philosophy

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Geography Politics

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DEMOGRAPHICS

BY REGION

* * Gambia * Mauritania * Senegal

LANGUAGE

* * Cangin * Lehar * Ndut * Noon * Palor * Safen * Serer

CULTURE

* Birth * Chere * Death * Inheritance * Marriage * Mbalax * Njuup * Sabar * Tama * Tassu * Njom

ROYALTY

Kings and lamanes

* Lamane Jegan Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof * Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Fa Ndeb Joof * Maad a Sinig Mahecor Joof * Maad a Sinig Maysa Wali Jaxateh Manneh * Maad a Sinig Ama Joof Gnilane Faye Joof * Maad Ndaah Njemeh Joof * Maad Semou Njekeh Joof

Queens and queen mothers

* Lingeer Fatim Beye * Lingeer Ndoye Demba * Serer maternal clans

Dynasties and royal houses

* Faye family * Guelowar * Joof family * Joos Maternal Dynasty * The Royal House of Boureh Gnilane Joof * The Royal House of Jogo Siga Joof * The Royal House of Semou Njekeh Joof

Families and royal titles

* Buumi * Faye family * Joof family * Lamane * Lingeer * Loul * Maad Saloum * Maad a Sinig * Njie family * Sarr family * Sene family * Teigne * Thilas

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