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Year of the Six Emperors (238)

Gordian Revolt (238) Aquileia (238) Reign of Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus (238) Invasion of the Carpi (238–239)

Reign of Gordian III (238–244)

Sabinianus Revolt (240) Resaena (243) Misiche (244)

Reign of Philip the Arab (244–249)

Invasion of the Carpi (245–247) Secular Games of 248 (248) Usurpation of Sponsianus (240s) Usurpation of Pacatianus (248) Usurpation of Jotapianus (249) Usurpation of Silbannacus (249 or 253) Decius' Rebellion (249)

Reign of Decius
Decius
and Herennius Etruscus (249–251)

Plague of Cyprian (250–270) Decian persecution (250–251) Gothic invasion of Cniva (250–251) Carpi invasion of Dacia (250) Beroe (250) Philippopolis (250) Usurpation of Titus
Titus
Julius Priscus (251) Abritus (251)

Reign of Trebonianus Gallus (251–253)

Death of Hostilian (251) Mariades' Revolt (252) Nisibis (252) Gothic invasion (252–253) Barbalissos (253) Interamna Nahars (c 253) Death of Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
and Volusianus (253)

Reign of Aemilianus (253)

Antioch (253) Assassination of Aemilianus (253)

Reign of Valerian & Gallienus (253–260)

Dura-Europos (256) Gothic invasion (256–257) Invasion of Shapur (258) Invasion of Alamannai (258–260 approx) Mediolanum (259) Scythian invasion (259–260) Edessa (260)

Reign of Gallienus (260–268)

Caesarea (260) Usurpation of Ingenuus (260) Usurpation of Regalianus (260) Usurpation of Macrianus Major (c. 259–261)

Reign of Postumus (260–269) (Gallic Empire)

Death of Saloninus (260) Roxolani
Roxolani
Invasion of Pannonia (260) Postumus' Campaign against the Franks (262) Postumus' Campaign against the Alamanni (263) Usurpation of Laelianus (269) Reign of Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Marius (269)

Reign of Victorinus (269–271)

Augustodunum Haeduorum Usurpation of Quietus (261) Usurpation of Balista (261) Usurpation of Valens
Valens
Thessalonicus (261) Usurpation of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (261) Usurpation of Macrianus Minor (261) Usurpation of Mussius Aemilianus (261–262) Campaigns of Odaenathus (260–267) Pannonian Rebellion (261) Revolt of Aemilianus (262) Ctesiphon (263) Scythian Invasion (265–266) Assassination of Odaenathus (267) Usurpation of Maeonius (266–267) Scythian Invasion (267–269) Heruli Raids (267) Usurpation of Manius Acilius Aureolus (268) Mainz Zenobia
Zenobia
Invasion of Egypt (269) Reign of Claudius II (268–270) Naissus (268/269) Lake Benacus (268 or 269) Capture of Athens (269) Palmyrene Empire (270–273) Zenobia
Zenobia
Campaign Against Probus (270) Vandal Invasion (270)

Reign of Aurelian (270–275)

Usurpation of Victorinus
Victorinus
Junior (271) Junthungi Invasion (271) Domitianus II (271) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
& Tetricus II (271–274) Rebellion of Felicissimus (270s) Placentia (271) Fano (271) Pavia (271) Tyana (272) Battle of Antioch (272) Immae (272) Emesa (272) Razing of Palmyra (273) Usurpation of Faustinus (c. 273) Châlons (274)

Publius Licinius
Licinius
Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus (c. 242 – 260) was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
in 260.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign 3 Death 4 Notes

Early life[edit] Saloninus was born around the year 242. His father was the later emperor Gallienus, his mother Cornelia Salonina, a Greek[2][3] from Bithynia. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father (just like his older brother Valerian II, who had died around 258) and sent to Gaul to make sure his father's authority was respected there. (The title Caesar in Imperial nomenclature indicated that the holder was the Crown Prince and first in line of succession after the Augustus, the title reserved for the ruling Emperor). Like Valerian II, who was made the ward of Ingenuus, governor of the Illyrian provinces, Saloninus was put under the protection of the praetorian prefect Silvanus (otherwise named as Albanus)[4] As Caesar in Gaul Saloninus had his main seat in Cologne. Reign[edit] Bray [5] conjectures that Saloninus's appointment as Caesar, like that of his elder brother, Valerian II, in Illyria, was made at the instigation of Valerian I who was, simultaneously, the senior Emperor (Augustus) and grandfather of the two young Caesars and, as head of the Licinius
Licinius
clan, exercised also the patria potestas[1] over all members of the Imperial family, including his son Gallienus, his co-Emperor (and co-Augustus). Bray suggests that Valerian's motive in making these appointments was securing the succession and establishing a lasting imperial dynasty. We do not know how Valerian envisaged his grandson interacting with the existing governors and military commanders of the Gallic provinces. There is no reason to suppose that he ever thought the thing through as systematically as Diocletian
Diocletian
when he established the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
some thirty years later. However, Silvanus must have been a seasoned soldier and administrator, and he does seem to have harboured the notion that, as guardian of Saloninus, he should exercise real authority in Gaul. This was demonstrated by the circumstances in which he fell out with the usurper Postumus. In 260 (probably in July) Silvanus (no doubt in Saloninus's name) ordered Postumus
Postumus
to hand over some booty that Postumus's troops had seized from a German warband which had been on its way home from a successful raid into Gaul. However, Postumus's men took violent exception to this attempt to enforce the rights of the representative of a distant emperor who was manifestly failing in his duty to protect the Gallic provinces. Asserting what was probably the prevailing custom of the frontier,[clarification needed] they turned on Saloninus and Silvanus, who had to then flee to Cologne
Cologne
with some loyal troops. It was probably at this time that Postumus
Postumus
was acclaimed emperor by his army. Riding the tiger of military discontent which he could barely control, Postumus
Postumus
then besieged Saloninus and Silvanus in Cologne. Death[edit] Gallienus, who was fully engaged elsewhere – probably campaigning on the middle Danube – could do nothing to save his son. (By this time Saloninus's grandfather, the senior Emperor Valerian was probably already a captive of the Persian King Shapur I). Saloninus's troops, in their desperation, finally proclaimed him emperor, perhaps hoping that this would induce Postumus's army to desert him and join them in a bid for Empire – i.e. against Valerian and Gallienus. If this was indeed their hope, they were to be disappointed in the event for Postumus's army pressed on with the siege and, about one month later, the citizens of Colonia Agrippina
Colonia Agrippina
handed Saloninus and his guardian over to their enemy. Postumus
Postumus
was then unable to prevent his army from murdering them. (Despite his public protestations of regret, it seems in fact unlikely that Postumus
Postumus
made a serious effort to resist this course of events). Whether or not Gallienus
Gallienus
ever concurred with Valerian's dynastic experiment is not known. Certainly the murder of Saloninus, so soon after the suspicious death of Valerian II, seems to have cured Gallienus
Gallienus
of any ambition in this regard. (We may assume that Valerian's mother, Salonina, would have been most unhappy: the death of her elder son, Valerian II, in Illyria under the tutelage of Ingenuus
Ingenuus
must have seemed to her to have confirmed her worst fears of this sort of arrangement). It had certainly proved to be folly to set up inexperienced boys as hostages to fortune and hope that their relationship to the imperial family would quell provincial resentment at the perceived inability of the central government to secure the frontiers from barbarian attack. Throughout the period of his sole reign, Gallienus
Gallienus
made no effort to elevate his third son, Egnatius Marinianus, to the purple or associate him in any way with his government of the Empire – although he did allow him to be elected to the largely ceremonial office of Consul in 268. Notes[edit]

^ His full title after he proclaimed himself Emperor was IMPERATOR CAESAR CORNELIVS LICINIVS SALONINVS VALERIANVS PIVS FELIX INVICTVS AVGVSTVS, which means "Military commander Caesar Cornelius Licinius Saloninius Valerianus, Pious, Lucky, Undefeated, Augustus". ^ Lissner, Ivar (1958). The Caesars: might and madness. Putnam. p. 291. OCLC 403811. Gallienus' wife was a remarkably sensitive and cultured Greek woman named Cornelia Salonina
Cornelia Salonina
who came from Bithynia  ^ Bengtson, Hermann – Bloedow, Edmund Frederick (1988). History of Greece: from the beginnings to the Byzantine era. University of Ottawa Press. p. 344. ISBN 0-7766-0210-1. The Empress Salonina, a Greek from Bithynia, took an avid part in the philhellenic efforts of the emperor. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ For a discussion of whether Silvanus was in fact Praetorian Prefect see the relevant article. ^ Bray, John (1997). Gallienus: A study in reformist and sexual politics. Adelaide: Wakefield Press. 

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Regnal titles

Preceded by Gallienus Roman Emperor 260 Served alongside: Gallienus Succeeded by Gallienus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining ind

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