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Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(IAST: sallekhanā), also known as Samlehna, Santhara, Samadhi-marana or Sanyasana-marana;[1] is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism. It is the religious practice of voluntarily fasting to death by gradually reducing the intake of food and liquids.[2] It is viewed in Jainism
Jainism
as the thinning of human passions and the body,[3] and another means of destroying rebirth-influencing karma by withdrawing all physical and mental activities.[2] It is not considered as a suicide by Jain scholars because it is not an act of passion, nor does it deploy poisons or weapons.[2] After the sallekhana vow, the ritual preparation and practice can extend into years.[1] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is a vow available to both for Jain ascetics and householders.[4] Historic evidence such as nishidhi engravings suggest sallekhana was observed by both men and women, including queens, in Jain history.[1] However, in the modern era, death through sallekhana has been a relatively uncommon event.[5] There is debate about the practice from a right to life and a freedom of religion viewpoint. In 2015, the Rajasthan High Court
Rajasthan High Court
banned the practice, considering it suicide. Later that year, the Supreme Court of India stayed the decision of the Rajasthan High Court
Rajasthan High Court
and lifted the ban on Sallekhana.[6]

Contents

1 The vow 2 Conditions and procedure

2.1 Conditions 2.2 Procedure

3 History

3.1 In texts 3.2 Archeology 3.3 In modern times

4 Comparison with suicide and legality 5 Other Indian religions 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 External links

The vow[edit] See also: Ethics of Jainism There are Five Great vows prescribed to followers of Jainism; Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya
Satya
(not lying), Asteya
Asteya
(not stealing), Brahmacharya (chastity), and Aparigraha
Aparigraha
(non-possession).[7] A further seven supplementary vows are also prescribed, which include three Gunavratas (merit vows) and four Shiksha vratas (disciplinary vows). The three Gunavratas are: Digvrata (limited movements, limiting one's area of activity), Bhogopabhogaparimana (limiting use of consumable and non-consumable things), and Anartha-dandaviramana (abstain from purposeless sins). The Shikshavratas include: Samayika
Samayika
(vow to meditate and concentrate for limited periods), Desavrata (limiting movement and space of activity for limited periods), Prosadhopavāsa (fasting for limited periods), and Atithi-samvibhag (offering food to the ascetic).[8][9][10] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is treated as a supplementary to these twelve vows. However, some Jain teachers such as Kundakunda, Devasena, Padmanandin, and Vasunandin have included it under Shikshavratas.[11] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(Sanskrit: Sallikhita) means to properly 'thin out', 'scour out' or 'slender' the passions and the body through gradually abstaining from food and drink.[12][2] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is divided into two components: Kashaya Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(slenderising of passions) or Abhayantra Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(internal slendering) and Kaya Sallekhana (slenderising the body) or Bahya Sallekhana
Sallekhana
(external slendering).[13] It is described as "facing death voluntarily through fasting".[1] According to Jain texts, Sallekhana
Sallekhana
leads to Ahimsa (non-violence or non-injury), as a person observing Sallekhana
Sallekhana
subjugates the passions, which are the root cause of Himsa (injury or violence).[14] Conditions and procedure[edit]

Sallekhana
Sallekhana
as expounded in the Jain text, Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra

Conditions[edit] While Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is prescribed for both householders and ascetics, Jain texts
Jain texts
describe conditions when it is appropriate.[1][15][16] It should not be observed by a householder without guidance of a Jain ascetic.[17] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is always voluntary, undertaken after public declaration, and never assisted with any chemicals or tools. The fasting causes thinning away of body by withdrawing by choice food and water to oneself. As death is imminent, the individual stops all food and water, with full knowledge of colleagues and spiritual counsellor.[18] In some cases, Jains with terminal illness undertake sallekhana, and in these cases they ask for permission from their spiritual counsellor.[19][note 1] For a successful sallekhana, the death must be with "pure means", voluntary, planned, undertaken with calmness, peace and joy where the person accepts to scour out the body and focuses his or her mind on spiritual matters.[4][2] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
differs from other forms of ritual deaths recognized in Jainism
Jainism
as appropriate.[21] The other situations consider ritual death to be better for a mendicant than breaking his or her Five Great vows (Mahavrata).[21] For example, celibacy is one of the Five vows, and ritual death is considered better than being raped or seduced or if the mendicant community would be defamed. A ritual death under these circumstances by consuming poison is believed to be better and allows for an auspicious rebirth.[21] Procedure[edit] The duration of the practice can vary from a few days to years.[1][22] The sixth part of the Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
describes Sallekhana
Sallekhana
and its procedure[23] as follows—

Giving up solid food by degrees, one should take to milk and whey, then giving them up, to hot or spiced water. [Subsequently] giving up hot water also, and observing fasting with full determination, he should give up his body, trying in every possible way to keep in mind the pancha-namaskara mantra. —  Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
(127–128)[23]

Jain texts
Jain texts
mention five transgressions (Atichara) of the vow: the desire to be reborn as a human, the desire to be reborn as a divinity, the desire to continue living, the desire to die quickly, and the desire to live a sensual life in the next life. Other transgressions include: recollection of affection for friends, recollection of the pleasures enjoyed, and longing for the enjoyment of pleasures in the future.[24][25][26] The ancient Svetambara
Svetambara
Jain text Acharanga Sutra, dated to about 3rd or 2nd century BCE, describes three forms of Sallekhana: the Bhaktapratyakhyana, the Ingita-marana, and the Padapopagamana. In Bhaktapratyakhyana, the person who wants to observe the vow selects an isolated place where he lies on a bed made of straw, does not move his limbs, and avoids food and drink until he dies. In Ingita-marana, the person sleeps on bare ground. He can sit, stand, walk, or move, but avoids food until he dies. In Padapopagamana, a person stands "like a tree" without food and drink until he dies.[1] Another variation of Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is Itvara which consists of voluntarily restricting oneself in a limited space and then fasting to death.[21] History[edit]

An inscription (No.130) in memory of Vinayadevasena who observed Sallekhana. 7th century Kannada script. Found at Shravanbelgola, Karnataka, India.

Doddahundi nishidhi inscription
Doddahundi nishidhi inscription
was raised in honor of Western Ganga King Nitimarga I in 869 CE who observed Sallekhana.

The chamber for the ascetics to observe Sallekhana
Sallekhana
at Udayagiri hills, Odisha, India

In texts[edit] The Acharanga Sutra
Acharanga Sutra
(c. 5th century BCE – c. 1st century BCE) describes three forms of the practice. Early Svetambara[note 2] text Shravakaprajnapti notes that the practice is not limited to ascetics. The Bhagavati Sūtra (2.1) also describes Sallekhana
Sallekhana
in great detail, as it was observed by Skanda Katyayana, an ascetic of Mahavira. The 4th century text Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra, and the Svetambara
Svetambara
text Nava-pada-prakarana, also provide detailed descriptions. The Nava-pada-prakarana mentions seventeen methods of "voluntarily chosen death", of which it approves only three as consistent with the teachings of Jainism.[11] The practice is also mentioned in the 2nd century CE Sangam era poem Sirupanchamoolam.[20] The Panchashaka makes only a cursory mention of the practice and it is not described in Dharmabindu – both texts by Haribhadra
Haribhadra
(c. 5th century). In the 9th century text "Ādi purāṇa" by Jinasena
Jinasena
the three forms are described. Yashastilaka by Somadeva (10th century) also describes the practice. Other writers like Vaddaradhane (10th century) and Lalitaghate also describe the Padapopagamana, one of its forms. Hemchandra
Hemchandra
(c. 11th century) describes it in a short passage despite his detailed coverage of the observances of householders (Shravakachara).[1][11][2] According to Tattvartha Sutra, "a householder willingly or voluntary adopts Sallekhana
Sallekhana
when death is very near."[25] According to the medieval era Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya, both the ascetics and the householder should "court voluntarily death at the end of life", thinking that only sallekhana is a pious death.[27] The Silappadikaram (Epic of the Anklet) by the Jain prince-turned-monk, Ilango Adigal, mentions Sallekhana
Sallekhana
by the Jain nun, Kaundi Adigal.[20] Archeology[edit] In South India, especially Karnataka, a memorial stone or footprint is erected to commemorate the death of person who observed Sallekhana. This is known as Nishidhi, Nishidige or Nishadiga. The term is derived from the Sanskrit root Sid or Sad which means "to attain" or "waste away".[1] These Nishidhis detail the names, dates, the duration of the vow, and other austerities performed by the person who observed the vow. The earliest Nishidhis (6th to 8th century) mostly have an inscription on the rock without any symbols. This style continued until the 10th century when footprints were added alongside the inscription. After the 11th century, Nishidhis are inscribed on slabs or pillars with panels and symbols. These slabs or pillars were frequently erected in mandapas (pillared pavilions), near basadi (temples), or sometimes as an inscription on the door frame or pillars of the temple.[1] In Shravanabelgola
Shravanabelgola
in Karnataka, ninety-three Nishidhis are found ranging from circa 6th century to the 19th century. Fifty-four of them belong to the period circa 6th to the 8th century. It is believed that a large number of Nishidhis at Shravanabelgola
Shravanabelgola
follow the earlier tradition. Several inscriptions after 600 CE record that Chandragupta Maurya (c. 300 BCE) and his teacher Bhadrabahu
Bhadrabahu
observed the vow atop Chandragiri Hill
Chandragiri Hill
at Sharavnabelagola. Historians such as R. K. Mookerji consider the accounts unproven, but plausible.[28][29][30][31] An undated inscription in old Kannada script
Kannada script
is found on the Nishidhi from Doddahundi near Tirumakudalu Narasipura
Tirumakudalu Narasipura
in Karnataka. Historians such as J. F. Fleet, I. K. Sarma, and E.P. Rice have dated it to 840 or 869 CE by its textual context.[32] The memorial stone has a unique depiction in frieze of the ritual death (Sallekhana) of King Ereganga Nitimarga I (r. 853–869) of the Western Ganga Dynasty. It was raised by the king's son Satyavakya.[33][34] In Shravanabelgola, the Kuge Brahmadeva pillar has a Nishidhi commemorating Marasimha, another Western Ganga king. An inscription on the pillar in front of Gandhavarna Basadi
Basadi
commemorates Indraraja, the grandson of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
King Krishna III, who died in 982 after observing the vow.[1] The inscriptions in South India
South India
suggest sallekhana was originally an ascetic practice which later extended to Jain householders. Its importance as an ideal death in the spiritual life of householders ceased by about the 12th century. The practice was revived in 1955 by the Digambara
Digambara
monk Acharya Santisagara.[2] In modern times[edit] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is a respected practice in the Jain community.[35] It has not been a "practical or general goal" among Svetambara
Svetambara
Jains for many years. It was revived among Digambara
Digambara
monks.[2] In 1955, Acharya Shantisagar, a Digambara
Digambara
monk took the vow because of his inability to walk without help and his weak eye-sight.[36][37][38] In 1999, Acharya Vidyanand, another Digambara
Digambara
monk, took a twelve-year-long vow.[39] Between 1800 and 1992, at least 37 instances of Sallekhana
Sallekhana
are recorded in Jain literature. There were 260 and 90 recorded Sallekhana deaths among Svetambara
Svetambara
and Digambara
Digambara
Jains respectively between 1993 and 2003. According to Jitendra Shah, the Director of L D Institute of Indology in Ahmedabad, an average of about 240 Jains practice Sallekhana
Sallekhana
each year in India. Most of them are not recorded or noticed.[40] Statistically, Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is undertaken both by men and women of all economic classes and among the educationally forward Jains. It is observed more often by women than men.[41] Comparison with suicide and legality[edit] Jain texts
Jain texts
make a clear distinction between the Sallekhana
Sallekhana
and suicide.[42] Its dualistic theology differentiates between soul and matter. Soul is reborn in the Jain belief based on accumulated karma, how one dies contributes to the karma accumulation, and a pious death reduces the negative karmic attachments.[2][43][44] The preparation for sallekhana must begin early, much before the approach of death, and when death is imminent, the vow of Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is observed by progressively slenderising the body and the passions.[45] The comparison of Sallekhana
Sallekhana
with suicide is debated since the early time of Jainism. The early Buddhist Tamil epic Kundalakesi compared it to suicide. It is refuted in the contemporary Tamil Jain
Tamil Jain
literature such as in Neelakesi.[20] Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is not suicide:[46]

“ It is argued that it is suicide, since there is voluntary severance of life etc. No, it is not suicide, as there is no passion. Without attachment etc, there is no passion in this undertaking. A person who kills himself by means of poison, weapon etc, swayed by attachment, aversion or infatuation, commits suicide. But he who practices holy death is free from desire, anger and delusion. Hence it is not suicide. — S. A. Jain[47] ”

Champat Rai Jain, a Jainist scholar wrote in 1934:

“ Soul is a simple substance and as such immortal. Death
Death
is for compounds whose dissolution is termed disintegration and death when it has reference to a living organism, that is a compound of spirit and matter. By dying in the proper way will is developed, and it is a great asset for the future life of the soul, which, as a simple substance, will survive the bodily dissolution and death. The true idea of Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is only this that when death does appear at last one should know how to die, that is one should die like a man, not like a beast, bellowing and panting and making vain efforts to avoid the unavoidable.[48] ”

Modern era Indian activists have questioned this rationale, calling the voluntary choice of death as an evil similar to sati, and have attempted to legislate and judicially act against this religious custom.[49] Article 21 of the Constitution of India, 1950, guarantees the right to life to all persons within the territory of India and its states. In Gian Kaur vs The State Of Punjab, the state high court ruled, "... 'right to life' is a natural right embodied in Article 21 but suicide is an unnatural termination or extinction of life and, therefore, incompatible and inconsistent with the concept of right to life".[50] Nikhil Soni vs Union of India (2006), a case filed in the Rajasthan High Court, citing the Aruna Ramchandra Shanbaug vs Union Of India case related to euthanasia, and the Gian Kaur case, argued, "No person has a right to take his own life consciously, as the right to life does not include the right to end the life voluntarily." So the petitioner cited Sallekhana
Sallekhana
as a suicide and thus punishable under Section 309 (attempt to commit suicide).[51][52] The case also extended to those who helped facilitate the deaths of individuals observing Sallekhana, finding they were culpable under Section 306 (abetment of suicide) with aiding and abetting an act of suicide. It was also argued that Sallekhana
Sallekhana
"serves as a means of coercing widows and elderly relatives into taking their own lives".[41][53] An attempt to commit suicide was a crime under Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code.[52] In response, the Jain community
Jain community
argued that prohibiting the practice is a violation of their freedom of religion, a fundamental right guaranteed by Article 15 and Article 25 of the Constitution of India.[54][51][41] The book Sallekhana
Sallekhana
Is Not Suicide
Suicide
by former Justice T. K. Tukol
T. K. Tukol
was widely cited in the court[51] which opined that " Sallekhana
Sallekhana
as propounded in the Jaina scriptures is not suicide."[55] The Rajasthan High Court
Rajasthan High Court
stated that "[The Constitution] does not permit nor include under Article 21 the right to take one's own life, nor can it include the right to take life as an essential religious practice under Article 25 of the Constitution". It further added that it is not established that Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is an essential practise of Jainism
Jainism
and therefor not covered by Article 25 (1). So the High Court banned the practice in August 2015 making it punishable under Sections 306 (abetment of suicide) and 309 (attempt to commit suicide).[56] Members of the Jain community
Jain community
held nationwide protest marches against the ban on Sallekhana.[20][57][58][59] Advocate Suhrith Parthasarathy criticised the judgement of the High Court and wrote, " Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is not an exercise in trying to achieve an unnatural death, but is rather a practice intrinsic to a person's ethical choice to live with dignity until death." He also pointed out that the Supreme Court in the Gian Kaur case explicitly recognises the right to live with human dignity within the ambit of right to life. He further cited that the Supreme Court wrote in the said case, "[The right to life] may include the right of a dying man to also die with dignity when his life is ebbing out. But the right to die with dignity at the end of life is not to be confused or equated with the right to die an unnatural death curtailing the natural span of life."[60][50] On 31 August 2015, the Supreme Court admitted the petition by Akhil Bharat Varshiya Digambar Jain Parishad and granted leave. It stayed the decision of the High Court and lifted the ban on the practice.[6][61][62][63] In April 2017, the Indian parliament decriminalised suicide by passing the Mental Healthcare Act, 2017.[64][65] Other Indian religions[edit] There are similar practices in other religions like Prayopavesa
Prayopavesa
in Hinduism,[66] and Sokushinbutsu
Sokushinbutsu
in Buddhism.[67] The ancient and medieval scholars of Indian religions
Indian religions
discussed suicide, and a person's right to voluntarily choose death. Suicide
Suicide
is broadly disapproved and discouraged by Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina texts.[68][69] The Satapatha Brahmana
Satapatha Brahmana
of Hinduism, for example, in section 10.2.6 discusses the nature of cyclic life and rebirth, and concludes that "therefore, one should not depart before one's natural lifespan", states David Brick, an Indologist at the Yale University.[70] However, for those who have renounced the world (sannyasi, sadhu, yati, bhikshu), the Indian texts discuss when ritual choice of death is appropriate and what means of voluntarily ending one's life are appropriate.[71] The Sannyasa
Sannyasa
Upanishads, for example, discuss many methods of religious death, such as slowing then stopping consumption of foods and drinks to death (similar to sallekhana), walking into a river and drowning, entering fire, path of the heroes, and the Great Journey.[72][note 3] Scholars disagree whether "voluntary religious death" discussed in Indian religions
Indian religions
is or is not same as other forms of suicide.[73][74][75] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sallekhana.

Jīva (Jainism) Death
Death
in Jainism Jain philosophy Moksha (Jainism) Catharist endura

Notes[edit]

^ According to Somasundaram, Sallekhana
Sallekhana
is allowed in Jainism
Jainism
when normal religious life is not possible because of old age, extreme calamities, famine, incurable disease or when a person is nearing their death.[20] ^ Svetambara
Svetambara
and Digambara
Digambara
are two major sects of Jainism. See Jain schools and branches. ^ The heroic path is explained as dying in a just battle on the side of dharma (right, good), and equivalent. The Great Journey is walking north without eating till one dies of exhaustion.[73] A similar practise known as Vadakirutthal (literally facing north) was prevalent in Sangam period
Sangam period
in Tamilnadu. It is mentioned in Tamil anthologies such as in Puranaanooru.[20]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sundara, A. "Nishidhi Stones and the ritual of Sallekhana" (PDF). International School for Jain Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Dundas 2002, pp. 179–181. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 115. ^ a b Battin 2015, p. 47. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 181. ^ a b Ghatwai, Milind (2 September 2015), "The Jain religion and the right to die by Santhara", The Indian Express, archived from the original on 22 February 2016  ^ Tukol 1976, p. 4. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 87-91. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 5. ^ Pravin K. Shah, Twelve Vows of Layperson Archived 11 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine., Jainism
Jainism
Literature Center, Harvard University ^ a b c Williams 1991, p. 166. ^ Kakar 2014, p. 174. ^ Settar 1989, p. 113. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. 116. ^ Wiley 2009, p. 181. ^ Tukol 1976, pp. 7–8. ^ Jaini 1998, p. 231. ^ Jaini 2000, p. 16. ^ Battin 2015, p. 46. ^ a b c d e f Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Murthy, AG Tejus; Raghavan, DVijaya (1 October 2016). " Jainism
Jainism
– Its relevance to psychiatric practice; with special reference to the practice of Sallekhana". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 58 (4). doi:10.4103/0019-5545.196702. PMC 5270277 . PMID 28197009. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018.  ^ a b c d Battin 2015, p. 48. ^ Mascarenhas, Anuradha (25 August 2015), "Doc firm on Santhara despite HC ban: I too want a beautiful death", The Indian Express, archived from the original on 4 December 2015  ^ a b Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1917, pp. 58–64. ^ Williams 1991, p. 170. ^ a b Tukol 1976, p. 10. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2011, p. 111. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, pp. 112–115. ^ Mookerji 1988, pp. 39–41. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 19–20. ^ Sebastian, Pradeep (15 September 2010) [1 November 2009], "The nun's tale", The Hindu, archived from the original on 14 January 2016  ^ Mallick, Anuradha; Ganapathy, Priya (29 March 2015), "On a spiritual quest", Deccan Herald, archived from the original on 24 September 2015  ^ Rice 1982, p. 13. ^ Sarma 1992, p. 17. ^ Sarma 1992, p. 204. ^ Kakar 2014, p. 173. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 98. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 100. ^ Tukol 1976, p. 104. ^ Flügel 2006, p. 353. ^ "'Over 200 Jains embrace death every year'", Express India, 30 September 2006, archived from the original on 14 July 2015  ^ a b c Braun 2008, pp. 913–924. ^ Chapple 1993, p. 102. ^ Battin 2015, pp. 46–48. ^ Pechilis & Raj 2013, p. 90. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, pp. 114–115. ^ S.A. Jain 1992, p. 242–243. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, pp. 116–117. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1934, p. 179. ^ Battin 2015, pp. 47–48. ^ a b "Smt. Gian Kaur vs The State Of Punjab on 21 March, 1996". Indian Kanoon. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ a b c "Nikhil Soni vs Union Of India & Ors. on 10 August, 2015". Indian Kanoon. 24 May 2003. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. ^ a b "Religions: Jainism: Fasting". BBC. 10 September 2009. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015.  ^ Kumar, Nandini K. (2006). "Bioethics activities in India". Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 12 (Suppl 1): S56–65. PMID 17037690.  ^ article 15 of India Constitution ^ Tukol 1976, p. Preface. ^ Vashishtha, Swati (10 August 2015), "Rajasthan HC bans starvation ritual 'Santhara', says fasting unto death not essential tenet of Jainism", News 18, archived from the original on 11 October 2016  ^ " Jain community
Jain community
protests ban on religious fast to death", Yahoo News, Indo Asian News Service, 24 August 2015, archived from the original on 16 October 2015  ^ Ghatwai, Milind; Singh, Mahim Pratap (25 August 2015), "Jains protest against Santhara order", The Indian Express, archived from the original on 26 August 2015  ^ "Silent march by Jains against Rajasthan High Court
Rajasthan High Court
order on 'Santhara'", The Economic Times, Press Trust of India, 24 August 2015, archived from the original on 27 August 2015  ^ Parthasarathy, Suhrith (24 August 2015), "The flawed reasoning in the Santhara ban", The Hindu, archived from the original on 14 January 2016  ^ Anand, Utkarsh (1 September 2015), "Supreme Court stays Rajasthan High Court order declaring 'Santhara' illegal", The Indian Express, archived from the original on 5 September 2015  ^ "SC allows Jains to fast unto death", Deccan Herald, Press Trust of India, 31 August 2015, archived from the original on 13 September 2015  ^ Rajagopal, Krishnadas (28 March 2016) [1 September 2015], "Supreme Court lifts stay on Santhara ritual of Jains", The Hindu, archived from the original on 30 November 2016  ^ "Mental health bill decriminalising suicide passed by Parliament". The Indian Express. 27 March 2017. Archived from the original on 27 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  ^ THE MENTAL HEALTHCARE ACT, 2017 (PDF). New Delhi: The Gazette of India. 7 April 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2017.  ^ Timms 2016, p. 167. ^ Hayes 2016, p. 16. ^ Arvind Sharma 1988, p. 102. ^ Olivelle 2011, p. 208 footnote 7. ^ Brick, David (April–June 2010). "The Dharmasastric Debate on Widow Burning". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 130 (2): 203–223. JSTOR 23044515.  ^ Olivelle 2011, pp. 207–229. ^ Olivelle 2011, pp. 208–223. ^ a b Olivelle 1992, pp. 134 footnote 18. ^ Olivelle 1978, pp. 19–44. ^ Sprockhoff, Joachim Friedrich (1979). "Die Alten im alten Indien Ein Versuch nach brahmanischen Quellen". Saeculum (in German). Bohlau Verlag. 30 (4). doi:10.7788/saeculum.1979.30.4.374. 

Sources[edit]

Battin, Margaret Pabst (11 September 2015), The Ethics of Suicide: Historical Sources, ISBN 978-0-19-938582-9  Braun, Whitny (1 December 2008), "Sallekhana: The ethicality and legality of religious suicide by starvation in the Jain religious community", Medicine and law, 27 (4), ISSN 0723-1393, PMID 19202863  Chapple, Christopher (1993), Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, ISBN 0-7914-9877-8  Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), London
London
and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Flügel, Peter, ed. (2006), Studies in Jaina History and Culture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-203-00853-9  Hayes, Patrick J., ed. (2016), Miracles: An Encyclopedia of People, Places, and Supernatural Events from Antiquity to the Present, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-61069-599-2  Jain, Champat Rai (1917), The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, The Central Jaina Publishing House, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Champat Rai (1934), Jainism
Jainism
and World Problems: Essays and Addresses, Jaina Parishad, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Prof. S. A. (1992) [First edition 1960], Reality (English Translation of Srimat Pujyapadacharya's Sarvarthasiddhi) (Second ed.), Jwalamalini Trust  Jain, Vijay K. (2011), Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra (1st ed.), Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1  Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5  Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998) [1979], The Jaina Path of Purification, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1578-5  Jaini, Padmanabh S. (2000), Collected Papers On Jaina Studies (First ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1691-9  Kakar, Sudhir (2014), "A Jain Tradition of Liberating the Soul by Fasting Oneself", Death
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and Dying, Penguin UK, ISBN 978-93-5118-797-4  Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [first published in 1966], Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4th ed.), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0433-3  Olivelle, Patrick (1978), Ritual suicide and the rite of renunciation [Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens und Archiv für Indische Philosophie Wien], 22, archived from the original on 12 May 2017  Olivelle, Patrick (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-536137-7  Olivelle, Patrick (2011), Ascetics and Brahmins: Studies in Ideologies and Institutions, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-0-85728-432-7, In spite of the general rule forbidding suicide, Buddhist literature abounds with instances of religious suicide  Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (2013), South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-44851-2  Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921], A History of Kanarese Literature, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0063-0  Sarma, I.K. (1992), Temples of the Gangas of Karnataka, New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, ISBN 0-19-560686-8  Settar, S (1989), Inviting Death, ISBN 90-04-08790-7  Sharma, Arvind (1988), Sati: Historical and Phenomenological Essays, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
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Publ, ISBN 978-81208-046-47  Timms, Olinda (2016), Biomedical Ethics, Elsevier, ISBN 978-81-312-4416-6  Tukol, Justice T. K. (1976), Sallekhanā is Not Suicide
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(1st ed.), Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute of Indology  Wiley, Kristi L. (2009) [1949], The A to Z of Jainism, 38, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 978-0-8108-6337-8  Williams, Robert (1991), Jaina Yoga: A Survey of the Mediaeval Śrāvakācāras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0775-4 

External links[edit]

Sallekhana
Sallekhana
as a religious right, Whitny Braun, Claremont Graduate University (2014) Sallekhana: fasting to death, Taboo Series, National Geographic Video Fasting To The Death: Is It A Religious Rite Or Suicide?, National Public Radio (2015)

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